BISC Week of 10/19
BISC Week of 10/19 BISC 1005
Popular in The Biology of Nutrition and Health
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
What is unique about you 0 Body physics 0 Genetics 0 Environment 0 Stress o How you think about and treat your body Cell Membrane Outline of transport 0 Passive transport Diffusion Facilitated Osmosis 0 Active transport Facilitated F Fats are they are unique hydrophilic Gate and Gatekeeper o All cells have a cell membrane 0 Separates cell from environment 0 Serves as a selectively permeable barrier o Biologically important molecules transported across membrane 0 We need different substances at different concentrations outside and inside cells Fluid mosaic model cell membrane 0 Mobility of components of the membrane 0 Components 0 Bilayer of phospholipids 0 Cholesterol 0 Proteins move substances in and out of cell Some don t need energy to function Some need assistance ATP to carry substances across membrane 0 Glycolipids and glycoproteins Most sugars we use for energy stored in form of glycogen and burned in form of glucose Sugary lipids and proteins that allow cells to stick together Reminder of terms Digestive tube digestive cells l bloodstream l storageuse Solution solute substance that can be dissolved hydrophobic and aren t dissolving in water on their own solvent liquid that does the dissolving waterbased liquid is water Diffusion 0 Movement from area of higher concentration to lower concentration 0 Rate of diffusion depends on a lot of things but most importantly 0 Heat 0 Concentrations Can occur within one area or across a membrane between two areas 0 e Packet of drink mix going into water diffuses until equally distributed in water reaches equilibrium 0 What can diffuse across the membrane 0 Any small substance Gasses 0 C02 0 02 Hydrophobic substances 0 Once they are in digestive cells they must be packaged for delivery 0 Must be wrapped in proteins which happens by small intestines and liver 0 Any small fat 0 Any small gas 0 Water Osmosis Special case of diffusion for water 0 Moves from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration 0 If there is a higher level of solute concentration on one side then there will be a net movement of solvent to that side 0 Does not involve the movement of solutes An isotonic solution has an equal concentration of solute on either side 0 A hypotonic solution has a lower solute concentration 0 A hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration e Say you eat something consistently that is 50 salt and 50 water 0 ln digestive cells usually you have about 75 water so 25 solute o This will cause you to lose water from digestive cells and you move a very high concentration of salt into bloodstream Will balance by use water from body cells 0 Hypertension o In a hypertonic solution cells lose water 0 In a hypotonic solution cells gain water and can burst ln plant cells they like to have the maximum amount of water possible Facilitated Passive Transport 0 Most hydrophilic substances cannot cross the cell membrane without help Facilitated diffusion using two types of membrane transport proteins 0 Channel proteins Move substances down a concentration gradient based on a molecule39s size and charge and without an energy input 0 Carrier proteins Passive carrier proteins 0 Assist in diffusion Important passive carrier of glucose is GLUT o Aswe movefromAljBleljD o Glucose moves from high concentration jlowjlowjlowj storage or use 0 Bloodstream requires glucose to be at a certain level 0 In the small and large intestine is where we get the majority of storage of glucose Liver is where there is storage glucose is made into glycogen Use is constant but based upon activity 0 They only let in one or two substances if it is two they must be identical Concentration gradient 0 Differential concentrations within or between compartments of a substance Facilitated diffusion needs assistance proteins 0 Heart ces consistently have the most activity 0 Amino acids are the only ones which are absorbed in any sort of large amounts in the stomach and large intestine therefore are an exception to the rule Passive transport 0 Downhill in energy 0 Movement from concentration to Pushing bal downhill no effort no help needed 0 Can be simple diffusion or facilitated diffusion Active transport always facilitated and always requires energy Requires added energy 0 Movement from to concentration 0 Energy derived from ATP 0 Produces a concentration gradient 0 o O Anytime the word facilitated exists l needs help from proteins e Pushing ball uphill Requires assistance and energy 0 Active carrier proteins transport Speci c molecules across the cell membrane based on the shape of the molecule Use energy in the process Moves substances from low concentration to high Happens a lot in kidneys o protection for potential baby germ and is a tough coat ber 0 Endosperm food our that has protein and starch which is gluten o Germ offspring Membrane involved transport 0 Exocytosis Secreting material out of cell Get arge things out via transport vesicles LDL and HDL are large complex secreted by small intestine and liver and are released to bloodstream o Endocytosis Opposite action Bringing material into cell Pinocytosis 0 quotCell drinkingquot 0 Gathering water outside cell and bringing it inside Occurs when concentrations are high Phagocytosis Cells can absorb another cell and digest it eat other cells Receptormediated endocytosis Speci c receptors allow them to dock and then are brought inside by a vesicle and materials are used Requires a protein for docking and internalization 0 Why high cholesterol occurs Nutrients gases 0 Fat soluble vitamins Water soluble vitamins Minerals 0 Amino acids Fats Monosaccharides Cholesterol 0 H20 From digestive tube 0 Where are they absorbed o How do they move into the digestive cells 0 Anything unique about their transport once inside Where are they How do they Anything unique absorbed move into the once inside digestive cellshow are they absorbed Minerals Small and large Facilitated Active transport and intestine diffusion and kidneys active transport Water soluble Mainly small Facilitated Kidneys Actively vitamins intestine but also diffusion transport back into large intestine bloodstream Monosaccharides Small intestine Facilitated Kidneys reabsorb large intestine diffusion any sugars active transport Amino acids Small intestine Facilitated Kidneys active large intestine diffusion transport of amino stomach acids back into bloodstream if necessary Fats Small intestine Diffusion Must be packaged mainly but a little bit LDL and HDL in large intestine involves exocytosis to put into bloodstream and then receptor mediated endocytosis H20 Everywhere Diffusion Active transport osmosis and pinocytosis facilitated diffusion in large intestine you have active transport Gases Not absorbed by Simple diffusion Like LDL and HDL digestive track but bylungs must be packaged