Lecture 9 Genus Homo
Lecture 9 Genus Homo Anthropology 1000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Bird on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher Berk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Lecture 9 Genus Homo Hominin Evolutionary Trends N 39 FP P FPquot Body Size Locomotion 0 IE Movement towards bipedalism Cranial Capacity Tool Use Den on Cranial Morphology Diet Genus Homo VVVVVV Homo habilis 1914 million years ago Homo erectus 19 million years ago300000 BP Archaic H sapiens 30000028000 Neandertals 13000028000 Homo sapiens 195000present Questions to answer NOTE Also Denisovans and Homo oresiensis Tool Technologies gt gt gt gt Toolmaking traditions followed Lower Paleolithic were more de ned They were used by H erectus Middle Paleolithic and were even more re ned They were used by Homo sapiens and Neandertals Upper Paleolithic were the most re ned They wereare used by Homo sapiens sapiens Homo habilis gt gt gt Homo habilis appears about 2417 million years ago They coexisted with A boisei a hyperrobust Australopithecine for about a million years Their brains were around 700800 cc and they had long arms and small bodies They used mostly Oldowan tools Homo erectus gt Only 200000 years later H habilis had evolved into or potentially coexisted alongside H erectus gt They lived from 19 million years ago to 300000 BP gt They had modern bodies and limbs but their brains were larger spanning between 900 and 1250 cc 0 The brain size changed quickly in a short amount of time gt Why the rapid pace of evolution Is this an example of punctuated equilibrium 0 belief in predetermined evolution Change occurs after stasis IE The rapid change in brain size after a short period of time Homo erectus and Stone Tools gt Had larger brains and better toolsAcheulian tools gt This led to an increasing reliance on hunting 0 Their diets were high in fat and protein gt Less robust cranial morphology and dentition gt Head and body still very robust gt Smaller molars and jaws with a larger brow ridge gt related to massive neck muscles Group Selection gt It is with H eretus that culture inclusive tness and group selection became major factors in a species success joining natural selection based on individual differential success gt This can be understood as a shift from Darwinian to increasingly Lamarckian selection Culture as a learned and shared phenomena became something of an acquired characteristic passed down directly and indirectly to one s offspring 0 IE Expansion of hunting Evolutionary Trends gt The growing brains were accompanied by related anatomical changes 0 Birth canals as brains got larger the birth canal got larger to t the large heads but it can only spread so much to maintain bipedalism Constraint on brain size gt Overcome by the head not being fully formed meaning the skulls are elastic This leads to infant dependency because their bodies are still developing o This is called at birth brains are big and empty and ready to learn Social Organization Diet and Fire VVVV Terra Amata campsite in France is 400000 years old There were major dietary changes Fire became a tool used to accommodate those dietary changes The ability to make and control re enabled humans to do a number of things o It allowed them to cook vegetables and meat o It allowed them to feed younger and older members softer food o It eliminated certain parasites from their diet Homo erectus and Leaving Africa gt gt gt gt Using re as a tool also enabled them to spread into temperate climates and ultimately leave Africa By 900000 BP they were in Southern Europe They had reached Java in southeast Asia by 700000 BP potentially earlier perhaps as much as 16 million years ago By 500000 BP they were in China After 300000 BP H erectus had evolved into Archaic H sapiens 30000035000 years ago and Neandertals 13000035000 years agoL Homo neandertalensis gt VVV VVVV The Neandertals Homo neandertalensis lived in Europe where it was and is signi cantly colder than Africa They had a long torso with short limb con guration Their faces were pulled forward with long broad noses They had heavy brow ridges slanting foreheads massive faces and large jaws More cranial capacity than modern humans1430 cc Tools Mousterian improved on the Acheulian variety They began to wear clothing and their diets changed again Did Neandertals evolve into Homo sapiens sapiens or did they die out Were they outcompeted and went extinct o Neandertal DNA when compared to modern human DNA is different at 27 locations The same section of modern human DNA gathered from populations around the world has only 58 differences 0 DNA suggests that Neandertal ancestors split from Archaics about 600000 years agotheir ast common ancestor recently revised to 300000 years ago Neandertals were gone by 35000 years ago Denisovans gt Found in southern Siberia gt They split from ancestral Neandertals around 400000 years ago gt They were the rst species to have wisdom teeth and nger fragments gt Their teeth were unlike either Neandertal or AMH teeth Homo oresiensis gt They were found on Flores near Indonesia gt They lived from 95000 to 12000 BP gt They were humanlike but with very small brains gt Could they possibly be a pygmy H erectus Scientists agree that 1 about 6 million years ago our hominin ancestors originated in Africa and as apelike creatures they became bipedal 2 by 26 million years ago while still in Africa hominins were making crude or Oldowan stone tools 3 by 17 million years ago hominins had spread from Africa to Asia and eventually to Europe 4 Sometime around 200000 years ago anatomically modern humans evolved from ancestors who had remained in Africa Like Homo erectus before them they spread out of Africa Behavioral Modernity gt There is debates over when AMH s achieved behavioral modernity o relying on symbolic thought elaborating cultural creativity and as a result becoming fully human in behavior as well as in anatomy Cave of Forgotten Dreams gt Chauvet Cave France gt It is up to 32000 years old