Exam 2: Week 2
Exam 2: Week 2 Poli Sci 103
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Poli Sci 103 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Jon Pevehouse in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Relations in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations October 20 2015 Agenda Finish territorial con icts Economic con icts 0 Economic and territory 0 Interdependence Summarize material con icts Ideological con icts o Nationalist con icts 0 Civil wars Territorial Con icts Secessionism 0 Efforts to withdraw from an existing state usually by an ethnic group Lots of examples 0 Chechnya o Eritrea successfully broke away 0 Kosovo fought war became independent with help of international community 0 Kurds still fighting for Kurtistan doesn t exist 0 Bosnia five year three sided civil war between Bosnia Croatia and Serbs I VanceOwen Peace Plan split into counties Didn t work at all sides started fighting again I NATO and US get involved 1994 Economic Con icts Often over territory that is important for trade routes or resource production Ex Spratly Islands 0 Territorial waters if you have an island and it s your territory you get the 200 miles around it and you get to fish and drill for oil and do whatever you want with it o SLOCs Sea Lanes of Communication sea highways o Spratly Island are right in the middle of a SLOC if you own the islands you have control over all of the boats that go through can shut them down prevent them from going through Ex IranIraq War Shatt alArab 0 Iraq only has one way to access the Golf this is worrisome for them because others Iran could easily cut off that access 0 Iraq invades Iran to expand their territory to have more access to the golf b c they need it to ship out their oil Material Con icts Territory economic con icts what do we know 0 Trade correlates with less con ict 0 Democracy correlates with less con ict democratic peace 0 International organizations have little in uence 0 Power imbalance correlates with con ict contiguity factor is huge I Stronger states always fight weaker states never well except World Wars strong states fight strong states You don t fight people you may lose 0 Contiguity factor is huge Ideological Con icts Best thought of as revolving around identity 0 May involve material goods land but salient issue is often identity religion ethnicity etc 0 Recall our discussion of nationalism I Idea that the nation and state should be congruent o Nationalism is a continuum I Some versions are very benign Olympics Everyone is very proud to be where they are from I Others not so much Hitler we are proud of our country and you need to go bc you re messing it up Nationalism and War Con icts over nations ethnic or religious groups come in many forms Iustifications for nationalism can lead to violence 0 Ex French revolution Desire to achieve or control nationstate can promote violence 0 Ex Civil Wars Famous Civil Con ict 0 Fall of the Ottomans I Britain promised three different groups the same land if the Ottoman Empire falls and it did I French take Syria and divide it up I Syria now divided into many different ethnic groups all fighting against each other one group took over all of the government and each creating different rebel groups many combined into ISIS I This also leads to chaos in Iraq their neighbor Lessons From SyriaIraqISIL Civil wars frequently spill over borders 0 Either rebels or refugees or weapons that spill over Civil wars often spark neighborstate con icts Civil wars can diffuse quickly 0 Ideaspeopleweapons 0 They can spread across borders very quickly Civil wars usually lure 3rd parties into fight Usually lead to regional economic difficulties o ie educational problems throughout the war people aren t getting education and those educated are the ones eeing and they aren t going to come back immediately after the war ends if not ever Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations October 22 2015 Lecture Agenda Economic interdependence 0 Dependence and oil Ideological Con icts o Nationalist con icts 0 Civil wars Economic Interdependence Economic Con icts Frederic Bastiat when goods do not cross borders armies willquot Interdependence and con ict 0 Recall Kant three factors I Commerce 0 There used to be even more trade than there is now during WWI so this doesn t support the more trade less fightingquot 0 Two explanations I Sociological if you interact with someone a lot you re less likely to go to war with them I Domesticpolitical lobbying explanation firms trade not states If political dispute comes up firms start lobbying their states b c they don t want to go to war b c it s very bad for them Trade Networks Trade and Con ict Two types of interdependence 0 Sensitivity if tomorrow all trade with country disappeared for some reason you d suffer a little bit but you could replace that I Find another place to get same thing Better for certain goods such as textiles o Vulnerability deeper have to pay a really significant cost if you lose trade with that state I This dependence is least likely to lead to peace b c you re nervous about your dependence on them and on edge I Some vulnerability is a good thing too much is bad Nature of interdependence important for whether con ict rises or falls Lots of statistical evidence that trade peace 0 Problem could put car before horse I Take business out of a country before a war happens Trade dependence some states rely more on exports than other usually smaller states that specialize in one or a small amount of exports 0 Oil is something many states are extremely reliant on On Whom Are We Dependent for oil Canada Saudi Arabia Mexico Venezuela Iraq cut ties and now use Russia instead Becoming less dependent o Consuming less less reliant on it and are now a major producer Who Produces the Most Oil globally US This is a new phenomena how long will it last 0 Saudi Arabia is trying to kick US back off the market through OPEC I Do this by lowering oil prices so US doesn t make money off of it this hurts Saudi Arabia as well but they can afford it Then Saudi Arabia Russia China Canada Ideological Con icts Nationalism and War Why does some nationalism become violent What are conditions under which nationalism will boil into internal and or external con icts Why do we care Nationalism and Civil War When will bad nationalism emerge and lead to civil war 0 Democratization I Opening competitionhistory of elections I Becoming a democracy can be very dangerous and often bad things happen I People are going to make political parties around religion and ethnicity this quickly leads to con ict 0 Biased political institutions I Ex Lebanon had one religion as president another as secretary another as vice president etc Religion in presidential seat refused to give up spot 0 Weak administrative institutions I Postcolonial societies are weak in this regard 0 Past atrocities I Is there fodder for outgroup designation what s the history between the peoples Was there genocide in their history 0 Societal factors eg mythmaking I Societies make myths about how great they are compared to everyone else Soviets claim they made the plane typewriter etc
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