Instr Dvlpmnt Part I
Instr Dvlpmnt Part I EIST 6130
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaliyah Jacobs on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EIST 6130 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Charles Hartshorne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/228932/eist-6130-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Educational Instructional Tech at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Design and Usability Instructional Development The Design of Everyday Things Dnnnld A Norman Is good design worth it Florida Election Ballot 2000 Three Mile Island 1979 mounemeeunammma Yaullv pVEssuve veleasevalve Walevs1eamwasescapm lheveacluv wmlemcummg Walevwas new veduced Mslsvew haw Everday things Norman s principles of design mamm I Mappings l Affordances l Feedback Visibility l W aHo Ho ana Howie aoli s oua Be visiny obvious Buttons 39wmm ontrols what what is Wis who for Mappings Hqu a guud oummuaf mudef 215 mferfrum mappmgs I Use physrcaf arrafogres and cuffuraf sfarrdards m u r g knubs the s andavd rs mm ngmm mcvease e m decvease l but when usmg ham swmches standavdsave u 5 down or Emam downun I Use afready Es Labhshed unventmns How do you open the fridge Affordances I VrSdaf due rrr knobs afford tufmng evefs afford movmg unons afford pusmng em I cmmraf and earned affordances a summer affords scfong o mm H I WeH desrgned objects have good dues I Peony desrgned objects have no or fafse dues Car door handles How do we zoom here Good or bad affordance How do we zoom here Constraints I Physical Constraints constrain possible act tit a large key into a s I Semantic Constraint constrain osslble actions usingtne meaningfulness ofthe situation disable editing controlsfor a readoan file I Cultural Cons rain s nstrain possible actions using cultural standards red means error s op etc I Logical Constraint l constrain actions based on logical order ofthetasMnghtrall ticket machinewlll not accept money until afare is selected chlldadultsenlor zones etc ions using physical lirnitations cannot rnall lock Consistency I Design interfaces to have similar operations and use similar elements for similar tasks I For example I r k an operation ctrlC ctrlS ctrlO I Main bene t is consistent interfaces are easier to learn and use I Multiplelevels Internal Consistency I On the same screen I Buttons fonts etc I From screen to screen I Ul controls layout font family I Vocabulary I Why I More rapidaccurate pattern induction I More con dent interaction behavior External consistency I Re ers to conststency across dtfferent systerns or between reat worto and a systern I Mac apos vvmoous Apps vwvvv I Nhy I Enaotes transfer of tearmng from one system 0 another I ytsuat Metaphors Trash can et FrontPage vs Word Feedback I SHOW the outcome of an I vahd conyey h I perststent users wt forget I For error feedbac I postttve tone I suggest correcttve actton I use approprtate yocaoutary Error message Message From the Host 0 e 7 Error Processing Your Request Please Try Again Later ulx lzu a Bzz na asa Call Customer 5 i i 77mm Activity In groups of 34 Provide and discuss a technological example of each of Norman s principles 2 Examine the items on the following slides and determine which of Norman s principles are violated be able to discuss and what design recommendations you have for the i em Whlch Slde What s in Lhe bottle mum Canned Tuna T toothpaste What controls what Change the station Doors without windows These are twoWay doors Yikes Path of least resistance Where does the mousekeyboard Instructional Development I Week 2 University of North Carolina at Charlotte Richard Hartshome PhD Fall 2007 Needs Analysis Needs Analysis Needs analysis is the process by which a system s needs and goals are identi ed and priorities among them are decided A need is any significant discrepancy between a desired outcome and an observed outcome Models vs Techniques Needs analysis should be the first step in an stematic approach to the development of instructional materials for a course or training program Burton amp Merrill 1977 Process 1 Identify problems 7 Data collection 2 Validate problems 7 Are problems real or symptoms 7 Data uppo Formulate needs 7 From problems Formulate goals 7 rom needs statements Reconcile new and current goals 7 Oloprogram vs new rogram Validate reconciled goals 7 Experts endorse llst Prioritize goals 7 ranking slashes Example 1 Manyteacners m NC are not remammgm tne proressron ror more than 3 years Techniques Delphi Critical Incident Fault Tree Delphi Technique Description Submit sequential set of questions one at a time to a series of experts unknown to each Data from a each question is analyzed to determine the next question The idea is that each round brings us closer to consensus QQPWNA Steps Determine the initial question to be answered Identify appropriate from them to a 39ci experts and get agreement at Sent the initial question to the experts and s receive their response Analyze the responses and incorporate those data into the ne stion After receiving responses analyze them and use the data 0 form the next question Repeat until you are satisfied with the ranking of goals Resources Elruvvri E Cochran C SrDalkey N i969 The Delphi Method if Structure of expeumenis The Rand CEIFpEIraLlEln RMEBS LF R Delbetq A H et al 1 BBB Group Techniques fol Program Mammy A Guide 0 Nominal Group and Delphi Proeesses Middleton Wl Green Eriar Press Kaufman F1 Pf 3 HEW l implementation and evaluatlun JournalistinstructionsDevelopment 44 17725 Lmstone H A StTuruff M Eds 1975 The Delphi Method Tecnniques and Appncalron Reading MA AddisorHVesley llEigenR Lamp5ehaoaekerw H 1974 Deipmleemooe How Weidoes it work sti ing edoearrona goals Paper presented atAERA Chicagu Pp a 12 Critical Incident Technique Description Collection of examples of behavior that are either very effective or very ineffective Behaviors are categorized and summarized and then related to specific aspects of the system in question Behaviors are then restated as needsgoals for the system Steps State the aim to be accomplished by CIT Select a sample of respondents who are in a position to observe relevant aspects of the system NT Determine data collecting instruments Formulate instructions for respondents Collect the instruments Cl s Sort into common theme categories Restate behaviors as needsgoals 74005 Resources Flanagan J c 1954 The Critical incrdentTecrrmque Psychulogical Buileirnji 3277358 Leles s 1968 Using the cmrcei incident Technique to Develop a Theory of Educational Professionalism An Exploratory Study JuumalDfTeacherEducaimn 19 59769 Siam M 1983 The Crilical lncideanechnique A descriplmn Ufth Melhud Paper presented an e Annual Meeting orme Soul em Speech Communicanon Association Lincoln NE April 779 Fault Tree Analysis Description Designed to identify undesired events that may negatively affect the operation of a system Proposed changes to preventthese events are the system s needs Similar to CIT but in FTA there can be many negative events FTA Benefits Examining failures is more thorough than examining successes Easier to gain a consensus about failures as opposed to successes FTA Steps Denne the rnlsslorv orthe system Analyze the rntsslonofme em ldelmfy events oetnmental to the system c mpletearault hazard anal srs e ankun Eslred t mdetarmlne CUE ra thefaultuee cu t p Valldale therault tr 7 Are Events szldable7 Categonze strategrc or crmcal paths In the faulttree Rate the extent or the occurrence ror each Ierrnmal undesirable eyen Categonze the degree or recuncatron posslble ror each termrnat evem Translate terrnmal or bottom events Into need statements Prlonuze need statements Report Fault Tree Analysis Deductive Analysis rtncr breakdown unncccssary fu C External Event unly effects rt cumblned nth UE other Undeveloped Event occurs lnrrequermy J Resources F Ssell J J ampBermellsy R 1974 FaultTree u B Powers G Analysls A State or the An Drscussron lEEE Transactrons on RenewMy R723 Apnl 5755 Wllkln B R amp Ste herrS K G 1968 Paul Tree Analysis A Research TUE for EducatJUNaPlannmg Techmca Repurf ND 1 Alameda County PACE Center Hayward CA ERlC no ED 029 379 October Week 13 instru ctionai Deveioprnent i UNC at Cnariotte Last Meeting I Project Management Design and Usability This Meeting I Finding and Allocating Resources I u gets Budgets Purpose I Financial statement of the objectives Useful for understanding What financial resources you will be allocating Useful for determining all costs associated with a project I Time is money 4 types of budgets I No budget budget I Objectfunction budget I Performance budget I Planning programming budgeting evaluating system PPBS No budget budget I Contingency account 0 Monies for unforeseen needs Revolving account 0 School club accounts I Not typically used by most quot r ObjectFunction Budget I Expenditures are categorized 0 Salaries travel equipment supplies etc I Easy to manage Does not address effectiveness of expenditures at addressing project objectives I Used by most large organizations Performance Budget I Clusters monies into general categories I Categories are put into matrix to see more speci c information tasks addressed by ies I More specific than others ties to tasks but does not tieto project obje i s I U e stinstructional developers initially nal budgets conformed to clients specs PPBS I Relates expenditures to specific objectives I Mostly used by governmental agencies Budgetary Issues Direct vs Indirect Content acquisition 0 of hours to gather content 0 Examples Development of standards 0 of hours to develop a standards document Scripting Budgetary issues cont Screens Media development Record keeping Data collection Software testing Project management Clerical Budgetary issues cont Packaging ManualsInstructions Travel Subject Matter Resources ID resources Delivery system resources Upkeepmaintenance Others Budget Development I Should be an ongoing process I Project manager s responsibility Budget Development Process I Determine resource needs brainstorm I Write trial budget Funding Sources I External Community of Science Federal Government National Science Foundation Annual Register of Grant Support National Data Book of Foundations Directory of Computer and HighTechnology rants Handicapped Funding Directory I Internal 000000 0 Funding Issues I Approaching Funding Sources I Prioritizing Funding Sources I Matching Proposal with Source I Talk to people Additional Resources I hiln39lVWiAi 39 39 39 adshtm 0 Evaluation forms 0 Budget Template 0 Storyboard forms 0 Learner analysis forms Overview of Instructional Development Instructional Development 39 h Ic ar artshorne University of North Carolina at Charlotte Instructional Development or Instructional Design We use the term instructional design to refer to the entire process of design development implementation and revision of instruction The term instructional development is a related term and if it were not so awkward we might refer to the process as instructional design an development Some aspects particularly production would seem to fit more easily under a term like developmentthan designquot Smith PL amp Ragan TJ 1993 Instructional design New York Macmillan Instructional Project Development and Management Model Gentry Summm Comm mluw lnl Conventquot Development Components Needs Analysis Adoption Design Production Prototyping Installation Operation Evaluation Needs Analysis Why Prioritizing Adoption Innovation accepted by those making decisions providing resources etc Design Instructional design process analyze learners develop goals objectives choose learning tasks Production Constructing artifacts Prototyp i n g Assembling pilot testing nalizing Installation Establishing conditions necessary for initial operation Operation Maintaining application after initial installatio Evaluation Is it effective How do you know Support Components Communication Information Handling BudgetJResource Allocation Personnel Facilities Management Communication Distributing information among those involved in the D process Information Handling Addressing information in necessary ways Resource acquisition and allocation Needs budget acquiringdistributing resources Personnel Needs etc Facilities Management Project Components Project Components Proposal 50 Needs Analysis 10 Personnel Analysis 1 0 Production Work Plan 10 Project Prototype 40 Project Budget 10 Implementation Plan 10 Evaluation Plan 10 Proposal Introduction Overview Deliverable De nition Design and Development Standard Statement that project budget and work plan are forthcoming Personnel Analysis Description of project staffing needsquot and description of roles and responsibilities Which team member will fulfill each role Production Work Plan Program Evaluation and Review Technique PERT Will be used for other areas also Other information relevant to the Project Work Plan Budget Determine resources needed Potential sources of resources Prioritize funding Etc Examples in book and on CD Implementation Plan See handout Evaluation Plan See handout Next week D Models amp Needs Analysis 11122007 Week 13 instructional Development l UNC at Charlotte Last Meeting I Project Management I Communication This Meeting I Information Handling I Finding and Allocating Resources I Budgets 11122007 Budgets Purpose Financial statement of the objectives Useful for understanding what financial resources you will be allocating Useful for determining all costs associated with a project Time is money 4 types of budgets No budget budget Objectfunction budget Performance budget Planning programming budgeting evaluating system PPBS No budget budget Contingency account 0 Monies for unforeseen needs I Revolving account 0 School club accounts I Not typically used by most developers 11122007 ObjectFunction Budget I Expenditures are categorized 0 Salaries travel equipment supplies etc I Easy to manage I Does not address effectiveness of expenditures at addressing project objectives I Used by most large organizations Performance Budget I Clusters monies into general categories I Categories are put into matrix to see more specific information tasks addressed by monies I More specific than others ties to tasks but does not tie to project objectives Used by most instructional developers initially final budgets conformed to clients cs PPBS I Relates expenditures to specific es objectiv I Mostly used by governmental agencies Budgetary Issues l Direct vs Indirect Content acquisition 0 of hours to gather content 0 Examples I Development of standards 0 of hours to develop a standards document Scripting 11122007 Budgetary issues cont Screens Media development Record keeping Data collection Software testing Project management Clerical Budgetary issues cont Packaging ManualsInstructions Travel Subject Matter Resources ID resources Delivery system resources Upkeepmaintenance Others 11122007 Budget Development Should be an ongoing process Project manager s responsibility Budget Development Process Determine resource needs brainstorm Write tra budget Funding Sources I External u Community of Science n Federal Government National Science Foundation Annual Register of Grant Support National Data Book of Foundations Directory of Computer and HighTechnology o o 0 Handicapped Funding Directory l Internal 11122007 Funding Issues I Approaching Funding Sources Prioritizing Funding Sources Matching Proposal with Source I Talk to people Additional Resources httpwww alessiandtrollipcomdownlo ads htm 0 Evaluation forms 0 BudgetTemplate o Storyboard forms 0 Learner analysis forms
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