Psychology Lecture Notes 10/20 and 10/22
Psychology Lecture Notes 10/20 and 10/22 PSYCH 1100
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by KR on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1100 at Ohio State University taught by Tara Benninger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
KR 10252015 PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE NOTES 10202015 I Newborn life A day in life 1 birth to 28 days 2 sleep 1618 hrsday a REM sleep important for brain development 3 spend 23 hrs a day crying B re exes pg 409 l Bobinski stroking baby s foot causes toe to spread out 2 rooting C senses can tell the difference I smell taste hearing beginning in 7th month of pregnancy vision prefer faces habituation response to something goes down 11 lnfancy amp Childhood A physical development 1 nervous system development 2 rapid gray matter growth neuronal cell bodies early followed by synaptic pruning systematic deletion of synapses in brain a importance of enriched environment i eXposure to new things brain forms more strong connections 3 growth in white matter myelination helps connection go faster begins 6 months after conception a age 613 spurt in myelination in language and spatial relations regions of the brain 4 motor development a genetic basis for early motor mvmts i twins reach motor milestones crawl walk at nearly same time b 2 ways that motor control progresses i headtotoe ii from mindlines outward B cognitive development 1 Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development a believed cognition develops through regular stages i example of discontinuity stepwise approach b cognition matures as child increasingly uses concepts and schemes ways of categorizing things to organize thinking i scheme of dog short hair cute face ii assimilation incorporate new learning into an eXisting schema w out revising the schema iii accommodation incorporate new learning into an eXisting schema that requires schema revision long hair doesn t look like previous dogs gt broaden schema new file folder or change criteria for file folder c stages i sensorimotor stage birth age 2 present time no pastfuture limited but rapidly developing vocab and language object permanence ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present will look for ball even if it s out of sight before developing think ball disappeared gone KR 10252015 forever ii preoperational stage 26 yrs stage of language acquisition immature illogical reasoning children at this stage fail conservation tasks and display egocentric thinking conservation understanding that changing an object s formappearance does not change its quantity can t tell if you change appearance there is no moreless egocentrism limitation on ability to understand pov of other ppl can t understand What one person sees may be different from What another sees iii concrete operational stage 612 yrs ability to solve conservation tasks logical but not abstract reasoning inability to distinguish fantasy from reality iv formal operational stage f1nally ability to handle abstract concepts scientif1c mindset improved problem solving less trialanderror more systematic planning and consideration of alternative responses prior to taking action d Limitations amp Criticisms i out of date in context of recent research some adults never achieve abstract reasoning ii no evidence for etiology of stepbystep progressions miore uid iii can be argued that Piaget underestimated abilities of children and overestimated abilities of adolescents iv very little room for individual differences from familial community cultural in uences universal development approach 2 Lev Vygotsky s Approach a emphasizes impact of cultures on development teaches children What and how to think i example of ecological approach b language drives social interactions and leads to learning opportunities c children are miniature scientist d zones of proximal development e ideal ways to teach kids new skills KR 10252015 High Level of Challenge Lnw Low Lwe ul umpe ee High f information processing i extension of Piaget s Theory ii processing speed increases over course of development iii sustained attention 1 yrs old iv memory abilities 2 yrs old autobiographical memories 35 yrs old V neurological changes allow to form more long term memories g naive theories i gives more credit to children than Piaget did ii children understand a great deal about world even without eXperience 212montholds and the Impossible Situation showed different videos to children looked at things that were impossible longer than possible 3 theory of mind TOM a de nition the understanding that others have thoughts that are different from one s own b develops around 34 yrs old c preTOM behaviors joint attention take your attention follow where you are pointing distinguishing livingnonliving things playing w dolls how ppl would act intentionalunintentional behaviors i ex false belief task Sally and Ally C socioemotional development 1 temperament a child s patterns of mood activity and emotional responsiveness b Rothbart s Temperament Categories thomas amp chess i surgeryextroversion negative affect ex fear Jl shy anger CffOI t ll control ability to pay attention inhibit behavior c temperament predictive of adult personality and psychopathology i fear Jl shy gt depression anXiety d genetic basis but interacts w environment i gene by environment interaction e parenting styleenvironment in uences temperament 2 attachment a emotional bond linking infant to parent or caregiver b importance of timing on mobility on attachment c primate attachment KR 10252015 1 Harry Harlow 1905 1981 a research W hess monkeys b important of comfort and attachment c more time W comfort security source than food d Ainsworths styles of attachment 1 Parenting Styles 1 Mary Ainsworth amp The Strange Situation a assess quality of child s attachment to caregiver b interested in reunion after mother leaves baby W stranger or W no one and comes back i A avoidant ok W stranger no signs of distress When mother leaves shows little interest When mother returns mother and stranger able to comfort child eqully ii B secure distressed When mother leaves ok W stranger When mother is present comforted When mother returns iii C anxiousviolent intense distress When mother leaves avoid stagner fear resists When mother returns PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE NOTES 10222015 A Authoritarian low amts of parental support high amts of discipline 1 strict rules less understanding 2 dictator B Authoritative high amts or regulation high warm supportiveness l exible supportive positive warm sets rules curfevv consequences C Uninvolved low amts of parental support low amt of discipline 1 absent parent gt highest amt of behavioral problems in child D lndulgent permissive low discipline high supportiveness l hippie adult is Wild child let child make choices gt increase anti social behaviors in child E lntemalizing symptoms anxiety depression worry l uninvolved highest amt of symptoms Punishment Rigid E Hi In mm m enabling IKSE39MSS 2 Indul ent h Obedience V r HEXIbIE g aumcrallc Status Hamsquot guidelines 1339 wa 3 authoritarian g I V 39 39 l i 39 l F 3911 13 l 4authontauve 2 lll llal l quotI Il39ll lWB rm the D 1 rest I VQ EH assertive r 1139 ll Adolescence artificial arbitrary period of development beginning 055 is 51m g Se39f39mgmatm Low responsiveness warmth supportiveness Hi at puberty e 1 A When does it end hard to tell distance uninterested giggle m 1 39 I 31 NV 1 starts earlier ends later increase in years of t E adolescence tr 1 1 l r 39 Nondirect ve a decrease in avg age of puberty neglcmm lg passwe Dyepimoww amt b more educationtraining needed to quot 339 Mr unwed mLes indulgent assume an adult role in modern society KR 10252015 B physical development 1 onset of puberty 2 secondary sex characteristics a male facial hair voice changes maturity of genitalia b female breasts maturity of genitalia and uterus c slowing of skeletal growth increased sex drive 3 development of gender identity sexual orientation amp sexrole behaviors a sexorientation stable pattern of attraction to people of certain sex independent of gender identity sexrole behavior and sexual experiences b gender identity person s sense of being malefemale 4 brain development a second critical period of brain growt b gray matter growth peaks l 112 yrs old i gray matter thinning in corte c myelination white matter maturation continues into young adulthood i dangers of damage from drugs d structural differences bn teen and adult brains interpretations of emotions i no differences in amygdala emotional judgement ii adult frontal lobes more active than teens lot of teens egocentric bias immunity invincibility e matured emotional processing immature frontal lobes risky behaviors C cognitive amp moral development 1 cognitive a working memory and reaction time improves b improved problem solving c rely less on heuristic and personal experiences and more on logical statistical reasoning 2 moral a Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Development i prevocational uses probability of rewards and punishments to guide behavior not ok he s going to get in trouble ii conventional maintains reputation and follows the law regardless of situation iii postconventional follows selfchosen ethical principles in this situation it s ok because iv conventional stage attained by most adolescents v criticism not representative of universal stage of development specif1cally characteristic of males in European US responses consistent w culturally emphasized factors D socioemotional development 1 Erikson s Psychosocial Stages a identity a consistent unified sense of self b stage challenge description i birth to 18 month trust vs mistrust children view world as a safe dependable place ii 18 months to 3 yrs autonomy versus shame and doubt children begin to explore iii 3 to 6 yrs initiative versus guilt children begin to act on the world iv 612 yrs industry versus inferiority children develop selfconfidence KR 10252015 V adolescence identity versus role confusion teens begin to question self who self is 2 ethnic identity a identifying w ethnic group appear to boost selfesteem b environmental in uences i family attitudes ii exposure to ethnically similar peers c increasing multiethnic population 3 family amp peer in uences a increase time spent w peers b decreased time spent with family c research demonstrates importance of healthy family and peer in uences Ill Adulthood A young adulthood challenge intimacy vs isolation forming clear identities form stable intimate relationships while others experience feelings of loneliness and isolation 1 physical health a loss of muscle mass 25 yrs old 2 cognition a postforrnal thought the right answer often it depends 3 social aspects a want intimacy close relationships B midlife challenge generativity versus stagnation midlife adults find value in their lives even if they have not met all their earlier goals experience generativity they are likely to put back energy into family work community 1 around 40 yrs old 2 physical changes a gray hair near menopause 3 cognitive a increased sense of mortality 4 social changes a less focused about kids more about community C late adulthood challenge integrity vs despair toward end of life adults who feel that they have lived fully experience sense of integrity and calm 1 current life expectancy 787 yrs a physical health decrease in brain weight sensory changes b cognition mild cognitive changes more stable crystallized intelligence i crystallized intelligence more factual skills longterm memories ii uid intelligence thinking about alternatives declines after young adulthood iii social emotional aspects signif1cantbenef1ts of social connections grief bereavement coping w death decreased rates of depression related to goal changes focus on what s important to than drive to achieve STRESS amp HEALTH Ch 16 the healthy mind 619652 I What is stress KR 10252015 A stress unpleasant emotional state that results from the perception of danger l stressor stimulus that serves as source of stress a can be positive or negative 2 stress response a general adaptation syndrome 3 stage model for organisms response to stressors i alarm reaction 1st stage of GAS initiated When stressor is first perceived and identi ed essentially same as fightor ight sympathetic adrenaline increased heartbeat ii resistance 2nd stage of GAS continuing to experience ongoing stress requiring us to adapt and cope judgment can suffer bc of continuous stress iii eXhaustion 3rd and last stage of GAS characterized by depletion of physical and psychological resources can contribute to disease illness or death 3 sources of stress a cognitive appraisal models help us predict Which stimulus or event is likely to be stressor for person i ex largescale disasters life events daily hassles social relationships 4 stress and amygdala a visual corteX thalamus amygdala gt increased heart rateblood pressure increased muscular tension and reaction i thalamus perceives something as dangerous and sends to amygdala b Sympathetic AdrenalMedullary System and the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal AXis i SAM sympathetic adrenalmedullary system that responds to perceived stressors by initiating release of epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine into bloodstream from adrenal glands above kidney produce immediate shortlived f1ghtorf1ght responses to stress HR respiration c HPA responses to perceived stressors by initiating the release of cortisol into bloodstream more long term i can continue longer than SAM ii longterm effects of high levels of cortisol neuronal death reduced hippocampal volume memory problems abnormal sleep patterns depression feedback loop involving hippocampus nothing is telling hippocampus to stop disruption of this feedback loop gt depression
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