Inst Des & Tech w
Inst Des & Tech w ELED 3110
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stanford Hettinger on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ELED 3110 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Andrew Polly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/228939/eled-3110-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Education and Teacher Studies at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
ELED 3110 Instructional Design 1 DIRECT INSTRUCTION Direct instruction is an instructional method rooted in behavioral theory that is about 40 years old It is not a lecture approach to instruction but it is the strategy of choice when the learning objective requires that the learners have direct practice in what must be done or said or written Cazden 1992 as cited in Magliorao Lockee amp Burton 2005 p 45 Direct instruction can be used with content that is best presented in small steps so that one step can be mastered before moving on to the next Direct instruction is often summarized as I do it We do it You do it that is the teacher demonstrates the skill the teacher and students do the skill together and the students do the skill by themselves Another phrase used to describe direct instruction is modelleadtest It means the teacher shows and tells the teacher leads the students in practicing and the students are evaluated Both phrases imply that the teacher is carefully guiding the learning of the students This is precisely the intent of direct instruction Direct instruction is explicit instruction Price amp Nelson 2003 p 84 The goal of direct instruction is to maximize student time on task and the student rate of success which in turn are associated with student achievement Thus the behaviors incorporated into direct instruction are designed to create a structured academically oriented learning environment in which students are actively engaged during instruction and are experiencing a high rate of success 80 percent mastery or better in the tasks they are given Joyce amp Well 1996 p 344 KEY COMPONENTS Teacher direction is a key component of direct instruction as is modeling reinforcement feedback teaching information in small steps and an academic focus Joyce amp Well 1996 The teacher is in charge of designing and directing the learning activities keeping students on task during the lesson providing feedback to students and otherwise ensuring that students will meet the lesson objective The teacher places a high priority on the assignment and completion of academic tasks Use of nonacademic materials is deemphasized or even discouraged Joyce amp Weil p 344 A positive social climate in the classroom is also important THE DIRECT INSTRUCTION MODEL 1 Focusreview prepares the learner for the lesson lets the students know what is expected gives the students a goal to shoot for establishes a purpose for the lesson focuses attention on the lesson arouses interest and motivation helps students nd personal relevance in the lesson helps students begin to pull up knowledge and strategies that will help them achieve the objectives A introductory activities that elicit students relevant existing knowledge reviewing previous work using advance organizers analogies or comparisons B discussing the lesson objective in terms of learner outcomes or performances in studentfriendly terms C providing clear explicit directions about the work to be done Leigh Ausband EdD 2006 ELED 3110 Instructional Design 2 II D i D i D i D telling the students about the materials they will use and the activities they will be engaged in during the lesson E providing an overview of the lesson Presentation of information The teacher presents the information students need to know in order to meet the lesson objective This doesn t mean the teacher always lectures The teacher activey engages students in learning activities designed to help them learn the content or skills called for in the lesson objective However the teacher remains in control of the learning A presenting new material in small steps so that one step can be mastered at a time scaffolding B providing many varied examples and nonexamples of the new skills or concepts C modeling or giving narrated demonstrations of the learning task show a product or model a process D providing explanations descriptions and definitions E avoiding digressions staying on topic F reexplaining difficult points G clearly identifying attributes of concepts providing a sequence of steps in skill learning H providing visual representations along with verbal representations I diversity and active participation strategies J checks for understanding discussion a ensuring all students get a chance to respond b asking questions within students reach a high percentage of the time 7590 c providing feedback on student responses correcting errors maintain brisk pace reteaching as needed providing practice opportunities corrective feedback provide hints or clues for incorrect answers probe for clarification and improved answers K Supervised Practice learning opportunities designed to promote student independence and responsibility with prompt corrective feedback provided after each practice session A Goal is mastery B Teacher leads prompts and gives corrective feedback immediately C 3 levels of practice designed to provide appropriate support until student independence is achieved 1 whole group teacher guided structured a ensures that few errors are produced in the initial learning stages when memory is most vulnerable to remembering incorrect practice and when errors reinforce incorrect information b Let s do a problem together c What s the first decision I must make everyone 2 smallgroup or partner students practice in small groups or with a partner while teacher monitors and provides corrective feedback and reinforces correct practice Leigh Ausband EdD 2006 ELED 3110 Instructional Design 3 a Partner 1 will circle the errors and Partner 2 will correct the errors and then you will switch roles for the second sentence b Work the first three problems and then in your small groups check and discuss your answers If you have different answers try to decide which one is correct and why 3 independent or individual when students are able to practice on their own with accuracy or minimal error a homework assignment b classwork assignment D length of practice and feedback 1 Short intense and highly motivated practice periods produce more learning than fewer but longer practice periods 2 Provide immediate corrective feedback so incorrect procedures and information will not be learned and so performance anxiety will be reduced E Practice activities must be aligned with or be congruent with the presentation of information and the objectives of the lesson IV Closure A Review what was learned in the lesson B Provide opportunities for students to draw conclusions C Provide opportunities for students to show and discuss their work D Preview future learning E Refer back to the lesson opening V Evaluation A Determine if students have met the lesson objectives or not B Make decisions about how to teach the lesson the next time scaffolding instructional support provided to students as they learn new skills content and dispositions Information is broken down into manageable smaller chunks of recognizable knowledge skills are broken down into subskills to ensure a sequential stepbystep acquisition of the target objective aided by teacher guidance questions hints and so forth Vygotsky 1978 as cited in Magliaro Lockee amp Burton 2005 p 51 Note Information for The Direct Instruction Model section came from Joyce B amp Weil M 1996 Magliaro S G Lockee B B amp Burton J K 2005 and Price K amp Nelson K 2003 References Joyce B amp Weil M 1996 Models ofteaching 5th ed Boston Allyn and Bacon Magliaro S G Lockee B B amp Burton J K 2005 Direct instruction revisited A Leigh Ausband EdD 2006 ELED 31 l 0 Instructional Design key model for instructional technology Educational Technology Research and Development534 41 55 Price K amp Nelson K 2003 Daily planning for today s classroom 2quotd ed Belmont CA WadsworthThompson Learning Something to trim about Reaft e foffowing essonpfmt Compt39ete t e activities S own in refin t e essonpfmt Anthill Number Round Off North Carolina Curriculum Alignment Mathematics 2004 curriculum Grade 3 0 Goal 1 Number and Operations The learner Will model identify and compute With Whole numbers through 9999 0 Objective 101 Develop number sense for Whole numbers through 9999 Connect model number word and number using a variety of representations Build understanding of place value ones through thousands Compare and order Learning outcomes The learner Will estimate by rounding off numbers to the nearest 10 or 100 by visually placing the number on an anthill Write the objective in behavioral terms Objective Rationale Write a rationale for the objective Materialsresources blackboard or White marker board chart paper colored markers practice worksheet or teachermade worksheet see round off attachment attached quotanthillquot diagram see anthill attachment Vocabulary and Key Terms What vocabulary and key terms would you identify as important for this lesson Leigh Ausband Ed D 2006 ELED 31 1 0 Instructional Design 5 Content Analysis What type of content analysis is needed for this lesson Label the lesson opening the lesson body and the lesson closing Label the parts of a direct instruction lesson FocusReview Presentation of Information Supervised Practice Closure and Evaluation Also label checks for understanding CFU and active participation strategies AP Prerequisites The learners will be able to count by tens to 100 and by hundreds to 1000 They should be familiar with number lines and be able to locate numbers on them Activities Tell the class they will learn to round off numbers to the nearest 10 Explain that rounding off numbers will help them in many ways Give an example of how rounding numbers is used quotin the real worldquot I tell a story about a small boy who found himself in an embarrassing situation when he tried to buy snacks at a neighborhood store and discovered that he didn t have enough money to pay for the items he wanted I explain how he could have prevented his problem if he had known how to round off numbers and add them in his head Review counting by tens to 100 Display the anthill that you have drawn on the chalkboard or on chart paper Refer to the attached anthill diagram Explain that you will show them how to round off any twodigit number by rst putting it on the anthill Choose a twodigit number as an example and put it on the appropriate place on the ant hill Write the multiples often that the number is between at the base of the ant hill one on either side Explain that if the number fell off the ant hill it would fall down to the bottom of the hill on the side it was nearest Example the number 33 would fall down on the side of 30 because it was closest The multiple often it falls near is the ten that number rounds to Practice many more examples of rounding twodigit numbers in this manner When students seem to understand the concept ask if there is a rule that they can make up about rounding numbers by looking at the digit in the ones place They should be able to tell you that when the digit in the ones place is four or smaller the number rounds to the smaller ten If the digit in the ones place is ve or greater it rounds to the larger ten Distribute the worksheet for additional practice that students will complete independently see attached Leave the anthill displayed for students to reference A few students may need additional help until they have quotcaught onquot Then have students draw an anthill in their math journals and explain how it is used to round off numbers Have several students share what they have written in their journals and demonstrate what they have written using the anthill diagram N E 4 V39 0 The same procedure can be used to round off threedigit numbers to the nearest hundred Use the digit in the tens place to determine which side of the anthill the number falls to Assessment The teacher will assess students39 learning by questioning and observation during the lesson The independent practice provided by the attached worksheet can also indicate skill mastery Comments Leigh Ausband EdD 2006 ELED 3110 Instructional Design It is sometimes helpful to allow students to work together in small groups to complete this lesson They have an amazing ability to teach each other Adapted from httpwww learnnc m2 lessonsmindquot quot39 39 ts7242002123 How would you rate the alignment between the objective the learning activities and the assessment in this lesson Give it a rating from 1 poor to 5 excellent and explain why you gave it that rating Comment on the extent to which this lesson addresses the diverse needs of learners Comment on the fact that technology was not used in this lesson Would the use of technology have been appropriate If so how could it have been used What suggestions for improvement could you make for this lesson Rounding0 nthill Eveu nuimH 39 Antn ill Name Directions Imkul lhu uulul e nuddccl39dc which Iwumlxilis buwmi Write 111 smalls inn and en and u iargrr en ml the right Circle the um i minds ulT In Luck 394 ilk mmplc h g0 22 l4 s l 7 5 l5 3 no 5 49 mane 39 quotquotquotquot quotquot quotquot lamm a in 7 85 a 3 quot la a r x 19 u wt 20 m 7 21 1il is 12 23 2 4 w 31 lt4 10 49 24 42 1 34 3x 39 13 51 as 99 I slt 27 n Leigh Ausband EdD 2006