Management Information Systems
Management Information Systems INFO 3130
Popular in Course
Popular in Management Information Systems
This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valentina Pollich Jr. on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INFO 3130 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by SungJune Park in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/228944/info-3130-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Management Information Systems at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
Reviews for Management Information Systems
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/25/15
BChapter 13 Security and Ethical Challenges Learning Objectives Identify several ethical issues in how the use of information technologies in business affects Employment Individuality Working conditions Privacy Crime Health Solutions to societal problems Learning Objectives Identify several types of security management strategies and defenses and explain how they can be used to ensure the security of business applications of information technology Propose several ways that business managers and professionals can help to lessen the harmful effects and increase the beneficial effects ofthe use of information technology IT Security Ethics and Society Health Crime Individuaiity Working Conditions IT Security Ethics and Society 0 Information technology has both beneficial and detrimental effects on society and people Manage work activities to minimize the detrimental effects of information technology Optimize the beneficial effects Business Ethics Ethics questions that managers confront as part oftheir daily business decision making include Equity Rights Honesty Exercise of corporate power Categories of Ethical Business Issues 1 lanes Ia mi 0 mumquot lecr 39chI 39 39DuLanuss EInpineron icrs Cmupumh mm mm Innlurual pmi nu39 ng ccurilyofCumpzmy Dislm u m lam nsmmcrl rivaq39 urination ColputhCnnlrihnlions PmpLnyRiglus Employccl39rivuq39 Innppmprinwui s Simnlis R in Nnncnmpcdm Sumalll mum AdmmingCnmcm Agrcelnullb unimu mi GuvtmlnullCnanm Iss1 Downwin prwnnum man Inndeh PoluimlAchmCumminm Sharehnlnlurlnmnsis Mm mmlmmdum bvkplmsafuy Employment wquot Quaunm bir usinms Wh39 mowing Pmuiminl gquot Cunn as Corporate Social Responsibility Theones Stockholder Theory Managers are agents of the stockholders Their only ethical responsibility is to increase the profits of the business without violating the law or engaging in fraudulent practices Social Contract Theory Companies have ethical responsibilities to all members of society who allow corporations to exist Corporate Social Responsibility Theones Stakeholder Theory Managers have an ethical responsibility to manage a firm for the benefit of all its stakeholders Stakeholders are all individuals and groups that have a stake in or claim on a company Principles of Technology Ethics Proportionality The good achieved by the technology must outweigh the harm or risk there must be no alternative that achieves the same or comparable benefits with less harm or risk 0 Informed Consent Those affected by the technology should understand and accept the risks Principles of Technology Ethics Justice The benefits and burdens of the technology should be distributed fairly Those who benefit should bear their fair share of the risks and those who do not benefit should not suffer a significant increase in risk Minimized Risk Even ifjudged acceptable by the other three guidelines the technology must be implemented so as to avoid all unnecessary risk Responsible Professional Guidelines A responsible professional Acts with integrity Increases personal competence Sets high standards of personal performance Accepts responsibility for hisher work Advances the health privacy and general welfare of the public Computer Crime Computer crime includes Unauthorized use access modification or destruction of hardware software data or network resources The unauthorized release of information The unauthorized copying of software Denying an end user access to hisher own hardware software data or network resources Using or conspiring to use computer or network resources illegally to obtain information or tangible property Cybercrime Protection Measures Amivims 96 Securin is abom 6 to 8 of Ihe IT budgel in deva oped countries Virtual private networks 86 I 63 currenlly have or plan lo 95 39 an pusilinn 39mmsmquot teem systems 55 chiel infom39mtion security o icer have a Chis privacy o icer Content lerIngmcmlonng77 n 3mm 6 mend to a m w Hacking Hacking is The obsessive use of computers The unauthorized access and use of networked computer systems Electronic Breaking and Entering Hacking into a computer system and reading files but neither stealing nor damaging anything Cracker A malicious or criminal hacker who maintains knowledge of the vulnerabilities found for private advantage Common Hacking Tactics 0 Denial of Service Hammering a website s equipment with too many requests for information Clogging the system slowing performance or crashing the site Scans Widespread probes of the Internet to determine types of computers services and connections Looking for weaknesses Common Hacking Tactics Sniffer Programs that search individual packets of data as they pass through the Internet Capturing passwords or entire contents Spoo ng Faking an email address or Web page to trick users into passing along critical information like passwords or credit card numbers Common Hacking Tactics Trojan Horse A program that unknown to the user contains instructions that exploit a known vulnerability in some software Back Doors A hidden point of entry to be used in case the original entry point is detected or blocked Malicious Applets Tiny Java programs that misuse your computer s resources modify files on the hard disk send fake email or steal passwords Common Hacking Tactics War Dialing Programs that automatically dial thousands of telephone numbers in search of a way in through a modem connection 0 Logic Bombs An instruction in a computer program that triggers a malicious act Buffer Overflow Crashing or gaining control of a computer by sending too much data to buffer memory Common Hacking Tactics Password Crackers Software that can guess passwords Social Engineering Gaining access to computer systems by talking unsuspecting company employees out of valuable information such as passwords Dumpster Diving Sifting through a company s garbage to find information to help break into their computers Cyber Theft Many computer crimes involve the theft of money The majority are quotinside jobs that involve unauthorized network entry and alternation of computer databases to cover the tracks of the employees involved Many attacks occur through the Internet Most companies don t reveal that they have been targets or victims of cybercrime Unauthorized Use at Work Unauthorized use of computer systems and networks is time and resource theft Doing private consulting Doing personal finances Playing video games Unauthorized use of the Internet or company networks Sniffers Used to monitor network traffic or capacity Find evidence of improper use Internet Abuses in the Workplace General email abuses Unauthorized usage and access Copyright infringementplagiarism Newsgroup postings Transmission of confidential data Pornography Hacking Nonworkrelated downloadupload Leisure use of the Internet Use of external ISPs Moonlighting Software Piracy Software Piracy Unauthorized copying of computer programs Licensing Purchasing software is really a payment for a license for fair use Site license allows a certain number of coies Theft of Intellectual Property Intellectual Property Copyrighted material Includes such things as music videos images articles books and software Copyright Infringement is Illegal Peertopeer networking techniques have made it easy to trade pirated intellectual property Publishers Offer Inexpensive Online Music Illegal downloading of music and video is down and continues to drop Viruses and Worms A virus is a program that cannot work without being inserted into another program Aworm can run unaided These programs copy annoying or destructive routines into networked computers Copy routines spread the virus Commonly transmitted through The Internet and online services Email and file attachments Disks from contaminated computers Shareware The Cost of Viruses Trojans Worms Cost of the top five virus families Nearly 115 million computers in 200 countries were infected in 2004 Up to 11 million computers are believed to be permanently infected In 2004 total economic damage from virus proliferation was 166 to 202 billion Average damage per computer is between 277 and 366 Adware and Spyware Adwa re Software that purports to serve a useful purpose and often does Allows advertisers to display popup and banner ads without the consent of the computer users Spyware Adware that uses an Internet connection in the background without the user s permission or knowledge Captures information about the user and sends it over the Internet Spyware Problems Spyware can steal private information and also Add advertising links to Web pages Redirect affiliate payments Change a users home page and search settings Make a modem randomly call premiumrate phone numbers Leave security holes that let Trojans in Degrade system performance Removal programs are often not completely successful in eliminating spyware Privacy Issues 0 The power of information technology to store and retrieve information can have a negative effect on every individual s right to privacy Personal information is collected with every visit to a Web site Confidential information stored by credit bureaus credit card companies and the government has been stolen or misused Optin Versus Optout Opt In You explicitly consent to allow data to be compiled aboutyou This is the default in Europe Opt Out Data can be compiled about you unless you specifically request it not be This is the default in the US Privacy Issues Violation of Privacy Accessing individuals private email conversations and computer records Collecting and sharing information about individuals gained from their visits to Internet websites Computer Monitoring Always knowing where a person is Mobile and paging services are becoming more closely associated with people than with places Privacy Issues Computer Matching Using customer information gained from many sources to market additional business services Unauthorized Access of Personal Files Collecting telephone numbers email addresses credit card numbers and other information to build customer profiles Protecting Your Privacy on the Internet 0 There are multiple ways to protect your privacy Encrypt email Send newsgroup postings through anonymous remailers Ask your ISP not to sell your name and information to mailing list providers and other marketers Don t reveal personal data and interests on online service and website user profiles Privacy Laws 0 Electronic Communications Privacy Act and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Prohibit intercepting data communications messages stealing or destroying data or trespassing in federal related computer systems US Computer Matching and Privacy Act Regulates the matching of data held in federal agency files to verify eligibility for federal programs Privacy Laws Other laws impacting privacy and how much a company spends on compliance Sarbanes Oxley Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA Gramm Leach Bliley USA Patriot Act California Security Breach Law Securities and Exchange Commission rule 17a4 Computer Libel and Censorship The opposite side of the privacy debate Freedom of information speech and press Biggest battlegrounds Bulletin boards Email boxes Online files of Internet and public networks Weapons used in this battle Spamming Flame mail Libel laws Censorship Computer Libel and Censorship Spamming Indiscriminate sending of unsolicited email messages to many Internet users Flaming Sending extremely critical derogatory and often vulgar email messages or newsgroup posting to other users on the Internet or online services Especially prevalent on special interest newsgroups Cyberlaw Laws intended to regulate activities over the Internet or via electronic communication devices Encompasses a wide variety of legal and political issues Includes intellectual property privacy freedom of expression and jurisdiction Cyberlaw The intersection of technology and the law is controversial Some feel the Internet should not be regulated Encryption and cryptography make traditional form of regulation difficult The Internet treats censorship as damage and simply routes around it Cyberlaw only began to emerge in 1996 Debate continues regarding the applicability of legal principles derived from issues that had nothing to do with cyberspace Other Challenges Employment IT creates new jobs and increases productivity It can also cause significant reductions in job opportunities as well as requiring newjob skills Computer Monitoring Using computers to monitor the productivity and behavior of employees as they work Criticized as unethical because it monitors individuals not just work and is done constantly Criticized as invasion of privacy because many employees do not know they are being monitored Other Challenges 0 Working Conditions IT has eliminated monotonous or obnoxious tasks However some skilled craftsperson jobs have been replaced byjobs requiring routine repetitive tasks or standby roles Individuality Dehumanizes and depersonalizes activities because computers eliminate human relationships Inflexible systems Health Issues Cumulative Trauma Disorders CTDs Disorders suffered by people who sit at a PC or terminal and do fast paced repetitive keystroke jobs Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Painful crippling ailment of the hand and wrist Typically requires surgery to cure Ergonomics Designing healthy work environments Safe comfortable and pleasant for people to work in Increases employee morale and productivity Also called human factors engineering Ergonomics Factors BinmschanicaT Eiomschanical Physical Sn wavs Design Change Tralmn terns Breaks hm Work Management Systems Societal Solutions 0 Using information technologies to solve human and social problems Medical diagnosis Computer assisted instruction Governmental program planning Environmental quality control Law enforcement Job placement Societal Solutions 0 The detrimental effects of information technology Often caused by individuals or organizations not accepting ethical responsibility for their actions Security Management of IT 0 The Internet was developed for inter operability not impenetrability Business managers and professionals alike are responsible for the security quality and performance of business information systems Hardware software networks and data resources must be protected by a variety of security measures Security Management 39 The goal of security management is the accuracy integrity and safety of all information system processes and resources Internetworked Security Defenses Encryption Data is transmitted in scrambled form It is unscrambled by computer systems for authorized users only The most widely used method uses a pair of public and private keys unique to each individual Pu blicPrivate Kev EnchDtion mmaarmu my 3 Thaencrvplnn We m m mamsnm 0 Wm H Wm kmd ul mamn m aulhn massage van n means quotImam w an mm M mossagn wnlenlsam nmussmae mm you WWW Wm a maymm m Pavswns quotum nuevnme Q wm Mama am We scumquot M um mnpmmmm mm mm My my ma maplem s We mm mm m M mmmwm Weemwm mmmm may Internetworked Security Defenses Firewalls A gatekeeper system that protects a company s intranets and other computer networks from intrusion Provides a filter and safe transfer point for access tofrom the Internet and other networks Important for individuals who connect to the Internet with DSL or cable modems Can deter hacking but cannot prevent it Internet and Intranet Firewalls I Enlmnat luewau keeps out lmaumanlkd Internet users 3 awards and hruwsar Sammy emmm comor access lo 559cm Immuel resources 4 lmmnul server lemmas plovkle up 5 i r 5 mm mmmcs sum1n Emmy Rm name 0mm D Mid creating Seunw I dls 0 Dark arm mums hm muanex sewer a l r v r r r y Roam Denial of Service Attacks 0 Denial of service attacks depend on three layers of networked computer systems The victim s website The victim s Internet service provider Zombie or slave computers that have been commandeered by the cybercriminals Defending Against Denial of Service 0 At Zombie Machines Set and enforce security policies Scan for vulnerabilities At the ISP Monitor and block traffic spikes 0 At the Victim s Website Create backup servers and network connections Internetworked Security Defenses Email Monitoring Use of content monitoring software that scans for troublesome words that might compromise corporate security 0 Virus Defenses Centralize the updating and distribution of antivirus software Use a security suite that integrates virus protection with firewalls Web security and content blocking features Other Security Measures Security Codes Multilevel password system Encrypted passwords Smart cards with microprocessors Backup Files Duplicate files of data or programs Security Monitors Monitor the use of computers and networks Protects them from unauthorized use fraud and destruction Other Security Measures 0 Biometrics Computer devices measure physical traits that make each individual unique Voice recognition fingerprints retina scan Computer Failure Controls Prevents computer failures or minimizes its effects Preventive maintenance Arrange backups with a disaster recovery organization Other Security Measures In the event of a system failure faulttolerant systems have redundant processors peripherals and software that provide Failover capability shifts to back up components Failsafe capability the system continues to operate at the same level Failsoft capability the system continues to operate at a reduced but acceptable level Other Security Measures A disaster recovery plan contains formalized procedures to follow in the event of a disaster Which employees will participate What their duties will be What hardware software and facilities will be used Priority of applications that will be processed Use of alternative facilities Offsite storage of databases Information System Controls Methods and devices that attempt to ensure the accuracy validity and propriety of information system activities quot1 Solmm Controls Hutchmm Comm Wailans i Wis Auditing IT Security 0 IT Security Audits Performed by internal or external auditors Review and evaluation of security measures and management policies Goal is to ensure that that proper and adequate measures and policies are in place Protecting Yourself from Cybercrime Security Management an Internet Users n 1 r u r and update it often to keep destructive programs off your mmpuler L I r um Web browser man scftwm39e and od39ner programs 7 Send credit card numbers only to secure r J I L L 0 1m P 39Eh 5 amp Use a security progmm that gives you Use a lmrdtwguess password dm ml aver cookies that send inqu cannins a mix of numbers and maan back to websites MW 4 L z 4 I 1 hm lt1 quot J websites and applications to keep hackers guz ssing and upgmdcs tomcat m the Net 10 Don t open email nmchmenls unless L v y u M massage Case 4 Failures in Data Security Management Security Breach Headlines Identity thieves stole information on 145000 people from ChoicePoint Bank of America lost backup tapes that held data on over 1 million credit card holders DSW had its stores credit card data breached over 1 million had been accessed 457 million customer records were compromised due to TJX security breach Corporate America is finally owning up to a longheld secret It can t safeguard its most valuable data Case Study Questions 0 Why have there been so many recent incidents of data security breaches and loss of customer data by reputable companies What security safeguards must companies have to deter electronic break ins into their computer networks business applications and data resources like the incident at Lowe s Case Study Questions What security safeguards would have deterred the loss of customer data at TCI Bank of America ChoicePoint