Week 9 Notes - HIST 1302
Week 9 Notes - HIST 1302 Hist 1302
Popular in History of U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Haynes on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Ransom P. Cross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
HIST 1302 History of the US Since 1865 Week 9 I What Caused the Great Depression 1929 A Increase in stock market speculators 1 Why a Due to the fact that America was on a wage system the public began to have spending money and take an interest in buying stock 2 Marginal buying was common within the stock market B Rise of broker firms 1 These firms served as the middle man between Americans and the stock market a These companies would buy stocks for people who could not afford them and allow these people to pay installments on the stock b They took the stock as collateral 2 Stock prices went out of control due to this and stock market speculators C Federal Reserve Bank mistakes 1 The Federal Reserve tried to stop the economy from deteriorating by enacting tight money policies 1930 193 1 which kept people from taking out loans 2 These policies only caused the economy to deteriorate faster and made it harder for the economy to recover D The Tariff of 1930 1 This act raised tariffs of more than 20000 goods a Due to the outrageous tariffs other countries in the world refused to buy or sell goods to the US 2 This tariff was extremely poorly conceived however one must consider the fact that the politicians of this time frame did not know what to do to get the economy out of its depressive state 3 Hawley Smoot Tariff 1930 a This tariff was based on protectionism b Other countries struck back against the high tariff c This act seriously reduced international trade 1 One must realize that during this time frame the US was a world power therefore its economy was intertwined with the rest of the world a US economy hurt The rest of the world s economies hurt E Poor distribution of wealth and resources 1 This uneven wealth distribution was caused by Republican policies that taxed the poor more than the rich a Why 1 The rich provided jobs and capital for election campaigns 2 This in turn caused the consumption of goods to be significantly decreased and stunted consumer driven growth 11 Herbert Hoover s Fall from Grace A Creation of the Bonus Army 1932 1 Americans were drafted into the US army and they were promised a large bonus after their service a Many soldiers invested in things such as houses which relied heavily on that bonus 2 Several World War I veterans required and requested their promised bonuses early in order to pay off their debt a When they did not receive their bonuses thousands of individuals picketed and camped out in Washington DC b Instead of following through on his promise Hoover approved the use of force to disperse the crowd 1 Thousands of people were injured or killed in the process 3 This event of brutality angered many Americans and as such guaranteed that Hoover would not be re elected into office in the election of 1932 III Democratic President Theodore Roosevelt A Franklin Delano Roosevelt FDR 1 Before becoming president FDR was governor of New York 1929 1933 2 Created the Welfare State B Eleanor Roosevelt 1 FDR s wife 2 Eleanor was a college graduate that played an integral part in the social sphere of society during Roosevelt s presidency C During the 1920s the Democratic Party was divided on how to deal with the depression 1 Farmers ranchers and rural communities believed the government should regulate the economy as well as people s lives a In order to avoid price fixing 2 Urban people wanted the government to stay out of their lives D FDR was a proponent of a new reform movement known as liberalism 1 This reform focused on government regulation of capitalism a This went completely against the Republican Party s ideals I They believed in Adam Smith s interpretation of government intervention in the economy in The Wealth of Nations 2 The reform however agreed that the government should not tell people how to live their lives IV The 1St New Deal 1933 1935 This governmental action saved the trustworthy banks and let the others collapse Started several organizations 1 Federal Emergency Relief Administration FERA a This governmental program released loans to the states for relief programs to get them out of the depression b This program is still at work today Civilian Conservation Corps CCC 1933 1942 a This program was created to find or create jobs for unemployed unmarried men from relief families Civil Works Administration CWA a This program created jobs of manual labor just to get America back to work Repairing the Economy 1 Agriculture a The Agricultural Adjustment Administration AAA 1 The US government paid farmers not to produce 2 This lead to farmers not overproducing which in turn kept the prices of agricultural goods the way they were price fixing a Please note that tenant farmers and sharecroppers were left out of this governmental action 3 Ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court 1935 due to price fixing b Social Conservation Services SCS 1 This program worked to help farmers overcome the drought and erosion of the Mid West Dust Bowl Industry a National Recovery Administration NRA 1 This program limited industrial production 2 In addition this program enforced certain regulations on industry a Building and safety codes wages work hours etc 3 Ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court 1935 b Public Works Administration PWA 1 This program worked to put people to work through development a Especially in Washington California and Arizona 2 They built bridges dams roads and more V Political Unrest and Mobilization 1934 1935 A There were many individuals dubbed populists who criticized the new deal 1 Huey Long a He wanted the government to take a Robin Hood approach to the economy 1 spread the wealth among all our people 2 a chicken in every pot Father Charles Coughlin and the National Union for Social Justice Francis Townsend a He believed the elderly should be supported by the government through taxes on the rich B The New Deal s affects on labor 1 National Labor Relations Act NLRA a This organization helped protect the rights of workers from being exploited by their employers b The employers refusal to follow the codes and regulations set by the government led to strikes and violence C The Mid Term Elections of 1934 1 The Democrats won landslide victories over Republicans due to the fact that the public blamed them for the start of the Great Depression 2 This in turn caused many radicals to be elected to Congressional positions D Political movements and radical 3rd parties 1 The parties included a Minnesota Farmer Labor MFL Party b End Poverty In California EPIC Party 1 This party wanted to implement socialist ideals to society c Communist Party in America 1 Growth in the communist party increased due to the Great Depression 2 Communists used this to put down capitalism and further promote their ideas 2nd New Deal 1935 1937 A This program was created due to the fact that the 1st New Deal had worked so well that they needed to create a modified 2rld New Deal in order to accommodate the change in times B This program included 1 Social Security Act a This act provided for the elderly through taxes 2 National Labor Relations Act a This act helped to improve the relations between the managers and their employees 3 Rural Electrification Administration 4 Works Progress Administration a This administration helped unemployed married men find work FDR won the election for his second term of office by a landslide 1 During his campaign FDR was a proponent of anti corporate ideas a FDR said he was a proponent of anti corporate ideas because that was what the public wanted to hear and therefore what would win him the election 2 FDR began to give the Democratic Party a reputation as the party of reform and the common American FDR election campaign versus his actions 1 FDR wasn t as radical as his campaign made people believe a This is due to the fact that both Republicans and Democrats receive a considerable amount of support AKA funds from powerful capitalists 1 Therefore if they want to continue receiving funds they better do what the capitalists want The advisors of FDR 1 FDR s advisors all shared 3 qualities a Idealism b Dedication c Confidence 2 Unlike former presidents not all of FDR s advisors were men of privilege 3 In addition not all his advisors were men women typically worked behind the scenes as it were a Frances Perkins 1 US Secretary of Labor 1933 1947 2 1St women in a presidential cabinet 4 Unfortunately women s rights were not the focus of this time frame due to the fact that the government was still trying to get the economy back on track and everything back to some semblance of normal F FDR s administration did support organized labor 1 Founded the Congress of Indentured Organization C10 2 Laborers Non Partisan League LNPL a Both these organizations gave workers a voice in Congress VII Minorities and the New Deal A Eastern and Southern European Ethnicities 1 Due to their sheer size they had a tremendous voice that the Democratic Party listened to 2 Due to their political power they received aid within the New Deal that were aimed towards their ethnic enclaves B African Americans 1 They still faced mass discrimination a Marian Anderson was a famous African American singer who sold out opera houses b Yet because she was African American she was not allowed to perform at a White House event 2 The New Deal just further ingrained the discrimination against African Americans a Their main focus was money not race C Mexican Americans 1 From the Hoover administration onwards the public called to deport illegal immigrants 2 The New Deal did not touch on this facet however thousands were deported anyway a Illegal immigrant parents would be deported along with their citizen children 1 Logic let customs sort them out D Native Americans 1 John Callier at the Bureau of Indiana Affairs a His goal in that position was to improve the Native Americans situation and preserve their culture 2 Indian Reorganization Act 1934 a This ensured Native Americans certain rights under the law 1 This act gave the Native Americans back some of their land 2 In addition this act abolished the allotment of land practice 3 Finally it redistributed the land to the tribe 3 Overall the New Deal did not focus on the needs of the Native Americans VIII The New Deal Abroad A The US after trying out nationalism maintained their isolationist ideas 1 They did however foster diplomatic relations with Russia 2 In addition they created the good neighbor policy with Latin America 3 They also accepted trade agreements from other countries 4 The goal behind all these things was to boost the economy using international trade a Unfortunately the US s high tariffs caused trade to become much more difficult IX The Stalemate 1937 1940 10 The New Deal began losing momentum between 1937 and 1938 1 This was caused by the fact that it was working and the economy was almost back on track Court Packing Fiasco and Cronyism Recession 1937 1938 1 The improvements within the economy caused the government to become complacent which lead to the recession 2 This caused the economy to go back to depression conditions 3 This in turn caused Democrats to have difficulties winning the next election a The public did not trust either party with their lives 4 World War II brought the economy out of the recession 1939 11