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HstCmp 269 A - Week 4 Notes

by: Taylor Twadelle

HstCmp 269 A - Week 4 Notes HSTCMP 269 A

Marketplace > University of Washington > History > HSTCMP 269 A > HstCmp 269 A Week 4 Notes
Taylor Twadelle
GPA 3.75
The Holocaust: History and Memory
Christopher Browning

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About this Document

Weekly notes for HstCmp 269 A's week 4 lectures, Tuesday 10/20 and Thursday 10/22.
The Holocaust: History and Memory
Christopher Browning
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Twadelle on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTCMP 269 A at University of Washington taught by Christopher Browning in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust: History and Memory in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Week 4 Tuesday 1020 amp Thursday 1022 HSTCMP 269 A Tuesday 102015 Hitler typically backed down from concerted opposition 0 Result lots of issues in Nazi Germany did not get dealt with o Sought not to alienate important groups Ex handicapped gypsies Jews no defenders no strong interest groups not part of coalition coalition could focus on harming them quotNegative Selectionquot Martin Broszat selection of certain issues pertaining to minority groups wo any leverage in the political system 0 Left other issues that would have been at expense of large constituencies left aside quotCumulative Radicalizationquot Hans Mommsen in Hitler39s feudal kingdom all are vying for Hitler39s favor anticipating his strategiesneeds without his micromanagement of every aspect of each policy 0 All competition was in direction of quotwhat further can we do to harm Jews in Germanyquot Always becoming more extreme Cumulatively policy radicalized quotWorking toward the Fiihrerquot Ian Kershaw acting without waiting to be told what to do 0 Hitler rewards initiative those who gure out what Hitler wants and do it wo orders are rewarded Contradicts postwar alibi quotI had ordersquot Acting on quotwhat is expectedquot is not unique to Nazi Germany government but explains dynamism of Nazi regime 0 Domestic policy Hitler is somewhat of an absentee landlord much of what was done in Nazi Germany was done without going quotupstairsquot o Racial policy Hitler is not a micromanager or an absentee landlord sets up general priorities prophetic statements leaves it up to everyone else to carry out day to day actions to move forward in that direction lnternationalism amp Functionalismstructuralism Tim Mason British historian o lntentionalists things happened as they did bc Hitler intended it Derived intention from ideology amp developed policies that are logically derived from that ideology Assumption that where things ended up was what Hitler had wanted grand design existed and every step was towards ultimate goal Initially the predominant explanation for events in Nazi Germany o Functionalists how things happened were not towards the ful llment of a grand design Hitler did not give explicit orders but often sanctioned things after the fact Regime reacted to events that evolved adjusted to unforeseen circumstances 0 Does not exonerate Hitler but instead implicates rest of German population as well Regime knows that they want to solve the quotJewish questionquot but don39t know how until they actually get there 0 quotTwisted Road to Auschwitzquot Karl Schleunes relies on functionalist explanation for how regime arrived at death camps Hitler comes to power in 1933 as head of a coalition cabinet 0 For Hitler initially more important enemies are those who could harm Nazis socialists communists labor unions etc rst Nazi violence is more aimed at rivaling political parties than Jews 0 Attacks on Jewish businesses department stores Jews in legal system judges lawyers not ordered by regime but carried out by those oyatoit quotGerman justice for the German peoplequot However Germans are also employed in departments stores Hitler cannot put Germans out ofjobs Hitler calls off attacks on dept stores and even gives them loans to bail them out Restrained by responsibility to German voters vs unemployment 0 Negative selection violence funneled against Jews elsewhere Late March Hitler declares boycott ofJewish businesses organized by Julius Streicher publisher of antiSemitic propaganda 0 Results in successes and failures Some people purposely shop at Jewish stores to demonstrate nonconformity OtherJewish businesses shut down for the day Some are prevented from shopping by SA 0 Only lasted one day more symbolic than effective Hitler declares quotvictoryquot But realizes that organizing action from below is messy ultimately realizes that legislation is more effective than activism Exempts public from moral implication 0 Turns to alternative legislation now has power to issue laws by decree under Enabling Act Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service Purges those disloyal to regime and of nonAryan descent Enhances employment opportunities of Aryans Hindenburg asks for exemptions veterans employed before 1914 thought to be minor exemptions but in fact massive Temporary quotstay of executionquot as Hindenburg dies in 1934 Arvan paragraph enacts more legal restrictions againstJews 0 Reserves membership property rights etc for those exclusively of quotAryanquot descent Applied to legal medical professions Banned Jews from cultural life 0 Hitler declares quotend of revolutionquot in 1933 but Aryan paragraph has not yet been applied to Jews in business Key priority is rearmament which requires a growing economy thus Hitler decides removing Jews from economy is not productive at this time quotBlood purgequot in June 1934 silences radicals creates lull misleading sense that the worst is now over 0 Many Jews decide it will pass and they39ll wait it out others trickle back Streicher is able to stir up the public again towards antiSemitism 0 Demand appears that sexual relations between Jews and Germans end Rassenschande racial de lementshame 0 Public pressure to sever all social relations Hjalmar Schacht Hitler39s minister of nance 0 Summer of 1935 tells Hitler to keep Jewish policy out of the economy in pursuit of economic recovery lowering unemployment 0 September 1935 annual Niirnberg rally Hitler decides to issue legislation at the rally in order to satisfy party radicals Niirnberg Nuremberg Laws 0 prohibition of marriages between Germans and Jews 0 sexual relations outside of marriage between Germans and Jews prohibited policed by local informants o Aryan women under 45 cannot be hired as domestics in Jewish households Issue how to draw up implementation guidelines amp legally de ne Jews as Jews Race is a social construct but Nazis try to come up with scienti c basis regardless Nazi bureaucrats go back to religion if grandparents39 births are registered in a synagogue they are Jews if in a church they are quotAryanquot o AJew has three or more Jewish grandparents de ned above German is someone w no Jewish grandparents o Mischlinge one Jewish grandparent not involved in the Jewish community not married to a Jew quotlessquot Jewish 0 Mischlingel two Jewish grandparents involved in the Jewish community or married to a Jew quotmorequot Jewish Those of quotstrikingly Jewish appearancequot can be categorized arbitrarily o 1933 is the civic death of German Jews but 1935 is the social death of German Jews Legislation allows Hitler to not alienate any of his support hide warning signals from Jews make discrimination acceptable to German public 1936 relative quiet illusion again that the worst has past 0 Year of the German Olympics showcase of the new Germany prove that terrible things reported to have happened are all wrong Hitler wants no embarrassing antiSemitic incidents from party radicals 0 Visitors nd relatively quiet peaceful country with low unemployment calm order New players Heinrich Himmler head of SS and Hermann Goring founder of the Gestapo Minister of the Interior of Prussia head of the Four Year Plan 0 Himmler of cial founder of concentration camp system taken over German police Brings together party radicals as well as highly educated members to be his advisors Asks quotWhere is this all going What does it mean to solve the Jewish questionquot Within group begin drafting solutions to quotJewish questionquot ultimate goal is that Germany should be free ofJews judenfreijudenrein To achieve this accelerate immigration Replace voluntary immigration w coerced immigration Economists continue to say that Jews cannot be allowed to take their property w them if they immigrate but makes it more dif cult forJews to leave Haavara Aoreement undercut boycott by cutting a deal w Zionists in Palestine 0 German Jews could deposit their property in a locked account in Germany leave for Palestine and once they reached Palestine they could reclaim a fraction of their property in the locked account As long as the rest of the property in the account was used by Zionist agency to buy and export German goods Four Year Plan needed to scale back strain on the economy Goring coordinates all aspects of German government amp is in charge of economy 0 Aryanization transfers Jewish property businesses to German ownership Previously voluntary since 1933 but now coerced Jews get a fraction of the value of their property Thursday 102215 German annexation of Austria in 1938 quotAnschlussquot o In the Versailles Treaty Austria not allowed selfdetermination o Invasion not resisted as a foreign invasion but largely welcome Austria had strong Nazi contingent o For Himmler relaxed restrictions on Jewish emigration procedures in Austria 0 Adolf Eichmann SS of cer appointed in charge ofJewish emigration by Reinhard Heydrich other SS of cer amp major organizer of Holocaust achieved greater rate ofJewish emigration in Austria than in Germany Taking all Jewish property expelling Jews via emigration now commonplace 0 Increasing incidence of street violence by party radicals againstJews Evian Conference meeting in Switzerland to alleviate Jewish refugee crisis 0 Germany invited to come but declines o No countries offerJews refuge 0 Polish Jew refugee crisis Polish Jews39 passports expiring and will be stuck unable to emigrate Germany sends them by train to border where tent cities are set up in quotno man39s landquot Herschel Grvnszban undocumented refugee snuck over the border to Paris 0 Put on trial in Germany for shooting Nazi of cer trial cancelled over accusation of of cer as homosexual o loseph Goebbels gives speech at celebration of Beer Hall Putsch advocating nationwide pogrom as a result of above trial Burning of synagogues sacking of stores Kristallnacht Himmler amp Goring rivals of Goebbels order arrest 30000 Jewish men most of whom are held until their families promise that they will emigrate upon release Roosevelt recalls American ambassador Goring appointed in charge of coordinating Jewish policy summons Gestapo and rants against Goebbels for destroying Jewish property he had planned to seize 0 insurance companies blame Jews for what happened and demand repayment Goring uses opportunity to accelerate expropriation of what Jewish property was not destroyed SchachtRublee talks between German nance minister and a representative of Evian conference Sets stage for lanuarv 30 1939 Reichstao Speech 6th anniversary of Nazi seizure of power 0 On Jewish question disparages Western powers for criticizing Nazi treatment ofJews but not taking them in as refugees mocking of Western powers lssues threat another world war would not mean the destruction of Germany but the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe 0 Audience Hitler39s party constituents 0 Up until now Nazi policy has been a Jewfree Germany statement signals thinking not only in terms of Germany now but all of Europe Requires larger scale amp new framework Europeanwide problem 0 Followers now must interpret what next steps should be Hitler amp followers later often refers back to January 30 speech in vague elastic ways to support Nazi policy 0 Sign of Hitler39s infallibility amp Hitler39s support for whatever policy 0 Hitler now thinking in European framework rather than just German 0 For most Germans Kristallnacht was a shock and not celebrated Faced w con ict loyalty to Nazi regime vs notions of law order sanctity of property 0 Most of the German population at this point was giving Nazis implicit support as long as what they did was carried out in an orderly manner not gratuitous violence ie Kristallnacht However they have also internalized Nazi racism 0 Up until 193839 cycle of violencelulls that persuaded many Jews into thinking they could stay in Germany After Kristallnacht Jews no longer under this illusion All are trying to get out but waiting lists for emigration are now toolong Process of moving into Judenhauses once businesses homes property is con scated o By September 1939 about half of German Jews have left predominantly younger amp male Emigration from Germany now extremely dif cult but not impossible tremendous red tape amp long wait lists Still legal until October 1941 Exam Tuesday 1027 Bluebook Two parts 0 10 point objective section 10 questions 10 Taken from list of terms from lectures underlined Term will be described write term next to 110 0 90 essay two questions choose 1 75 minutes to write Broad questions to synthesize main ideas of course 0 Make outline of answer before writing 0 Opening paragraph evidence conclusion 0 Drawing from both readings amp lectures Studying think of broad themes of course and how essay questions could be posed around them Context of terms What is the basis of quotlegalquot empirebuilding Difference between Soviet Empire successfully quotannexedquot minority states and German Nazi attempt at empire building


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