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Interpersonal Communication

by: Miss Sister Wiza

Interpersonal Communication COMM 2107

Miss Sister Wiza
GPA 3.76

Staci Kuntzman

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About this Document

Staci Kuntzman
Class Notes
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This 78 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Sister Wiza on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 2107 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Staci Kuntzman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/228960/comm-2107-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Communication Studies at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Emotional Intelligence The ability to recognize feelings to judge which feelings are appropriate in which situations and to communicate those feelings effectively Emotional Intelligence Qualities Being aware of your feelings Dealing with emotions without being overcome by them Meaning you are so mad it causes you to punch that person Not letting setbacks and disappointments derail you Channeling your feelings to assist you in achieving your goals Being able to understand how others feel without their spelling it out part of what it means to be emotionally intelligence Have you ever known someone who you knew there was something emotionally wrong with them just by looking at them How can you tell that someone is feeling emotionally wrong Body Language Social withdrawal Facial expression eye contact smiling or not smiling Emotional Intelligence Qualities Cont Listening to your feelings and those of others so you can learn from them Having a strong yet realistic sense of optimism Example expect the best plan for worse Our experience and interpretation of internal sensations as they are shaped by physiology perceptions language and social experiences All feelings that may happen internal Anger Happiness Scared Etc Physiological Influences of Emotions Organismic view of emotions when external stimuli cause physiological changes in us Perceptual Influences on Emotions Appraisal theory subjective perceptions shape what external phenomena mean to us Iontwin mmn quot a gut u quot Perceptual Influences on Emotions Continued Cognitive labeling view of emotions our labels for our physiological responses influence how we interpret those responses quot Social Influences on Emotions Interactive view of emotions social rules and understandings shape what people feel and how they do or don t express their feelings I Framing rules It is more of a society base feel WI A friend of yours got the job you wanted I Feeling rules What you have a right to feel it can be related to framing but it could differ Example You are suppose to be happy for them but you are unhappy Emotion work huh quot1 Fit Emulimal Wquot Emulsion Reasons We May Not Express Emotions Social expectations Boys don t cry been socialize to be strong Professorthat goes off in our society that is unprofessional Vulnerability Sometimes you can trust too much and cause you to tell them something personal about yourself Protecting others Protecting theirfeelings Example telling others white lies Social and professional roles Not going to see our Chancellor cry at the podium of our graduation Ineffective Emotional Expression Speaking in generalities Not owning feelings Counterfeit emotional language Guidelines for Communicating Emotions Effectively Identify your emotions Choose how to express emotions Own your feelings feeling guilty not blaming others for why you feel the way you feel Monitor your selftalk talking to yourself Adopt a rationalemotive approach to feelings Respond sensitively when others communicate emotions RationalEmotive Approach to Feelings Step 4 Use sglltalk to dispute fallacies Step 393 Tune into your selltalk notice irratinnal beliafs and fallacies Step 2 Identify cnmmnali es in events and experiences 11 which you respond emn anally Stop Monitor emotional reactions Common Fallacies About Emotions Fallacy Typlcal E ects Urrodldlmlly low sailconcam 51139quot Cl39rml dlsn sflc an with self l Julnuw and envy of Dinar 3m anal9y tor constructive work Can main other Mind Can lm If 1mm runny Unradl lc mndlrds an the quotIf up lur flilm Dwrgonorallzlllon Domain on lure I typical a Hquot 1 Gmo llnlnadotplnlu In some doman to tall u Taklng mspnndblllty q Thlnklng you In naponllblo for othm39 foallngs for Ghana l Chill for how nunI fool DIPI39WI B ulhm of Hung mmlblllty far quothas q Bullwlng Millre Is notth you can do to l china how you feel 1 Roslyn an duprnaslnn whit mud human InIhlllty to do 111th boaus of whit mlyl39rl hIPp l39l Four of l h uphle nmm negative finkIn and annulus of mun The World of Words The Symbolic Nature of Language Symbols are arbitrary Symbols are ambiguous Symbols are abstract Qualities of Symbols Nibttrminess Humanity magnum Principles of Verbal Communication Language and culture reflect each other The meanings of language are subjective Language use is rule guided Communication rules Regulative rules Constitutive rules Punctuation shapes meaning Symbolic Abilities Language defines Language evaluates Language organizes perceptions Language allows hypothetical thought Language allows selfreflection it39bnl llg li IIIEE Language Defines Language shapes perceptions Language can totalize Language affects relationships Language Evaluates Language reflects and shapes perceptions I Language can be loaded Language can degrade others Language Organizes Perceptions Language allows abstract thought Language can stereotype Language Allows Hypothetical Thought 0 We can think beyond immediate concrete 1 s ua ons We live in three dimensions of time We can foster personal growth Language Allows SelfReflection Selfreflection allows us to monitor communication Selfreflection allows us to manage our image Speech Communities A speech community exists when people share norms about how to use talk and what purposes it serves Gender speech communities Socialization into gender speech communities Gendered communication in practice Misunderstandings between gender speech communities Guidelines for Improving Verbal Communication Engage in dual perspective Own your feelings and thoughts Respect what others say about their feelings and thoughts Strive for accuracy and clarity Be aware of levels of abstraction Quality language Nonverbal Communication All aspects of communication other than words t i v T Similarities Between Verbal amp Nonverbal Nonverbal communication is symbolic Nonverbal communication is ruleguided Nonverbal communication may be intentional or unintentional Nonverbal communication reflects culture Example eye contact has meaning in western culture Differences Between Verbal amp Nonverbal Nonverbal communication tends to be perceived as more believable Nonverbal communication is multi channeled Nonverbal communication is continuous Principles of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication may supplement or replace verbal communication I m happy to see you with a smile at the same time nods head says yes Nonverbal communication may regulate interaction Checking watch backing away to control interaction 0 Nonverbal communication often establishes relationshiplevel meanings Responsiveness Liking Power Principles of Nonverbal Continued Nonverbal communication re ects and expresses cultural values Types of Nonverbal Communication 39 Kinesics movement how you work 39 Haptics touch women initiate touch more then men Physical appearance Artifacts Environmental factors Types of Nonverbal Continued Proxemics and personal space what is your comfort level for closeness Chronemics Paralanguage Silence Guidelines for Improving Nonverbal Communication Monitor your nonverbal communication Interpret others nonverbal communication tentatively Personal qualifications Contextual qualifications The Listening Process Complex Process Involving More than Ears Hearing is Physiological Listening is Psychological and Cognitive 1 L Steps in the Listening ProcessI Being mindful Askquestions Reframe fromjudgment 4 Paying attention and being engage with being nonverbal Having good eye contact Any sort of facial contact Nodding your head up and down Physically receiving messages Selecting and organizing information Interpreting communication Responding Remembering Obstacles to Mindful Listening 39 39 II I 39 ll External obstacles Implles you can t control It Message overload Message complexity information is too complex Example maybe read your chapters before you come to class Noise Distraction Thinking about something else other then the subject being taught Math professor saying rench instead of range Chertou saying butter instead of brother Obstacles to Mindful Listening Continued Internal obstacles implies we can control it I Preoccupation Distraction about doing something else You are day dreaming about other things I Preiudgment Hear a teacher being a mean person you should just not judge a professor before you take Listening and listening well Example Husband deals with wife that nag39s I Reacting to emotionally loaded language Someone going to tell you something that you don t want to hear but they have to tell you anyways Language that is used to evoke an emotional response Example Pride Freedom Mother Terrorism Insecure You should help me vs Would you help me I Lack of effort if you are tired I Failure to adapt listening styles Men generally listen to solve problems Who is talking to me and how should I listen Forms of Nonlistening Pseudolistening Pretending to listen We appear to be attentive but really our minds are else where Selective listening You only hear what you want to hear lnsensitive to others feelings and to our connections with them Don t make an effort to understand how others feel about what they say A person shifts topic backto himself or herselfexample May Chertou sister th Monopolizing Your only listening to divert the conversation back to you Defensive listening You just know this person is going to offend you Ambushing Listen intently to gather ammunition and attack speaker Literal listening You hear the words but really don t process to e words Adapting Listening to Communication Goals Listeninq for pleasure motivated by the desire to enjoy rather than to gain information Examgle Listening to music for pleasure Listeninq for information focuses on gaining and evaluating ideas facts reasons and so forth Be mindful quot397 39 quot Control obstacles Ask questions Use aids to recall Organizeinformation Adapting Listening to Communication Goals Continued Listening to support others focuses more on the relationship level of meaning than on the content level of meaning Example listening to a friend s worries or helping out a co worker sort through hisher personal problems I Be mindful Be careful of expressing judgment I Understand the other person s perspective Paraphrase h a Use minimal encouragement g Ask questions Express support Guidelines for Effective Listening Be mindful Adapt listening appropriately Stop what you are doing and listen Especially if you are a parent A First Look at nterpersonal Communication The Interpersonal Imperative Physical needs Safety needs 0 Belonging needs Selfesteem needs Selfactualization needs Participating Effectively In A Diverse Society 39 The likelihood of meeting our needs depends on our ability to participate effectively in a very diverse social world We need to understand and learn from others who differ from us Models of Interpersonal Communication Linear models Interactive models Transactional models Linear Models A oneway process in which one person acts on another Inform an 39 scum annular Massage Declination Message i Message Hueamquot Interactive Models A process in which listeners give feedback Communicators create Emit and interpret messages within personal fields of expenence 39 Field of 39 Experience Transactional Models Emphasizes the dynamism of interpersonal communication and the multiple roles people assume during the process Includes the feature of time TIme1 Social Systems Defining Interpersonal Communication The best way to define interpersonal communication is by focusing on what happens between people not where they are or how many are present A distinct type of interaction between people A Communication Continuum t communication IYou communication IThou communication Im pigmung Interperaonal It Thou Features of Interpersonal Communication Selective Systemic Unique Processual Transactional Individual Personal knowledge Meaning created Principles of Interpersonal Communication We cannot not communicate Interpersonal communication is irreversible Interpersonal communication involves ethical choices People construct meanings in interpersonal communication Metacommunication affects meaning Interpersonal communication develops and sustains relationships Principles of Interpersonal Communication Continued Interpersonal communication is not a panacea 39 Interpersonal communication effectiveness can be learned Guidelines for Interpersonal Communication Competence Develop a range of skills Adapt communication appropriately Engage in dual perspective Monitor your communication Commit to effective and ethical communication Communication and Personal Identity The Self A multidimensional process of internalizing and acting from social perspectives Arises in communication with others Perspective of particular others Perspective of the generalized other Particular Others Particular people who are significant to us Direct definition Reflected appraisal Identity scripts Attachment styles rut Flannel nl nnli i Appmda 1 n Attachment Styles Patterns of caregiving that teach us who we and others are and how to approach relationships Secure PM Fearful Dismissive Anxiousambivalent Negative Positive Views of Others The Generalized Other Reflect the views generally held by others in society Race Gender Sexual orientation Socioeconomic class How Are Perspectives of the Generalized Other Revealed To Us We learn them as we interact with others who have internalized cultural values and pass them on to us We learn them through media and institutions that reflect cultural values The institutions that organize our society communicate them by the values they uphold Other Perspectives of Self The self is multidimensional The self is a process Social perspectives are subject to change Socially constructed views Variable social views Guidelines for Improving SelfConcept Make a firm commitment to personal growth Gain and use knowledge to support personal growth You need to understand how your selfconcept is formed You need information about yourself Set goals that are realistic and fair Seek contexts that support personal change SelfDisclosure Revealing information about ourselves that others are unlikely to discover on their own Table 41 BE NE FITS Benefits and Risks of SelfDisclosing Communication RISKS May in ores se tru st May increase closeness May enhance selfesteem May increase security May enhance selfg rtwth Others may reject us Others may think less of us Others may violate our confidences Johari Window Open area Blind area Hidden area Unknown area Known tn Self Unknown to Self Hntmn to Others Ll n lmown to Others Perception and I Communication The Process of Human Perception The active process of creating meaning by selecting organizing and interpreting people objects events situations and other phenomena We select to attend to certain stimuli based on a number of factors The qualities of the phenomena Self indication Our motives and needs Culture Organization Constructivism we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata Prototype Personal construct Stereotype Script Interpretation The subjective process of explaining our perceptions in ways that make sense to us Attributions Locus Stability m 39 23mm quot Stab i Responsibility 1 Attribution Theory Internal Causality External Causality 4 Principles Used To Determine Causalit Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness Controllability Interpretation Continued Attributional Errors Selfserving bias Fundamental attribution error Influences On Perception Physiology Age Culture Social location Roles Cognitive abilities Cognitive complexity Person centeredness Self Implicit Personality Theory A collection of unspoken and sometimes unconscious assumptions about how various qualities fit together in human personalities Guidelines for Improving Perception And Communication Recognize that all perceptions are partial and subjective Avoid mind reading Check perceptions with others Distinguish between facts and inferences Guard against the selfserving bias Guard against the fundamental attribution error Monitor labels The Ladder of Abstraction Possession Living thing A very abstract way 01 describing the particular cat Sadie At this level of abstraction we ve left out almost all references to the features of the specific cat Living thing I an even more abstract term than anima39 This label calls attention to what Sadie has in common with all living phenomena but fails to speciw how she ditfers from 695 people trees or flowers At this level of abstraction the label is even more general The word animal recognizes what Sadie has in wmrmn with allother animals but fails to note what I distinctive about her or even her speties This amies label atmtracts what it common to all mam J of the species kn as cats Thus it is a more abstract or less specific designation oi Sadie The name we give to the particular cat The name captures only some of the qualities that we perceive in her and obmuree other features of her that we could notice The cat Sadie as we perceive her Out of the totality that she is we abstract only certain features that we identify as Sadie The chemical biological and physical creature that is Sadie has specific qualities and makeup that cannot be fully39 appreciated by the human eye


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