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Intro to Comm Theory

by: Janiya Walsh DVM

Intro to Comm Theory COMM 2100

Janiya Walsh DVM
GPA 3.57

Jillian Tullis

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Jillian Tullis
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiya Walsh DVM on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 2100 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Jillian Tullis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/228962/comm-2100-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Communication Studies at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Ch6 The Conversation Managing Uncertainty and Anxiety work of Charles Berger William Gudykunst and colleagues theory deals with the ways we gather information about other people why we do so and what results we obtain when we do the focus is on the ways individuals monitor their social environments and come to know more about themselves and others through interaction 1 Uncertainty Reduction Theory URT Charles Berger addresses the basic process of how we gain knowledge about other people people have a strong desire to REDUCE uncertaintysimply to know more people want to predict behavior so they are motivated to seek information about others in order to better predict how they will behave 0 Strategies for managing uncertainty Passive Strategies observational observe the person Active Str ategies require the observer to work to get information in some way asking other people Interactive Strategies rely directly on communication with the other person talkstart conversation with that particular person Accommodation and Adaptation you observe interaction closely you notice that speakers adjust their behavior to one another one speaker will talk fast and use hand gestures and you notice that the other speaker will do the same thing or do the opposite and exaggerate the differences 1 N V Communication Accommodation Theory most in uential and formulated by Howard Giles and colleagues explains how and why we adjust our communication behaviors to the actions of others 0 Convergence coming together speakers mimic each other 0 Divergence moving apart speakers exaggerate their differences Expectancy Violation Theory Developed by Judee Burgoon and colleagues explored the ways in which people react when their expectations are violated we have expectations about the behavior of another person based on social norms as well as on our previous experience with the other person and the situation in which the behavior occurs common assumption is that when expectations are met other person s behavior is positivebut if they are violated then it is seen as negative side notewe can handle more from attractive people Coordinated Management of Meaning CMM developed by W Barnett Pearce Vernon Cronen and their colleagues comprehensive approach to social interaction that addresses the ways in which complex meanings and actions are coordinated in communication addresses all contexts of communication from microinteraction to cultural and societal processes When you encounter any communication situation you do 2 things 1 assign meaning to the situation and to the behaviors and messages of others you walk into a room and you see people with drinks and music is playingyou conclude that they are having a party 2 decide how to respond or act within the situation you decide to stay and party as well or you can just leave 1 V N V Unwanted Repetitive Patterns URP 2 communicators may be coordinating very well without being happy about it communicators start to have coordinated sets of unfortunate actions that they cannot think of how the pattern of interaction might be changed domestic violence Stories Live vs Stories Told stories help a communicator make sense of a situation 2 communicators share a story of what is happening whether they are happy or notthey have a kind of shared coherence or mutual understanding which leads to a high level of coordination Stories Lived life experiences Stories Told process provides that data or materials from which our meanings and actions emerge Ch 7 The Relationship Relational Patterns of Interaction work of Gregory Bateson Paul Watzlawickand their colleagues Paolo Alto Group defining their relationship by the ways in which they interact you are always creating a set of expectations for your own and the other person s behaviorsometimes you reinforce old expectations and other times you engage in new patterns of interaction 1 The Axiom You Cannot Not Communicate when you are in the presence of other people you always are expressing something about your relationship with the other person whether you are conscious of it or not both parties want to control the situation Know the difference between Symmetrical relationships when 2 people keep responding to one another in the same way Complementary relationships communicators respond in opposing ways one party is controlling while the other party is submissive N V Relational Schemas in the Family work of Ascan Koerner and Mary Anne Fitzpatrick consist of yourknowledge about yourself others and relationships along with knowledge about how to interact in relationships this knowledge provides an image of relationships based on your own experience and guides your behavior within relationships Schemaorganized set of memories you use whenever you interact with other people 1 Know what a family schema includes 3 lwhat you know about relationships in general 2 what you know about family relationships as a type 3 what you know about your relationship with other members of your own family 2 Know the family types that schema create lConsenual high in conversation and conformity 2 Pluralistic high in conversation but low in conformity 3Protective low in conversation and high in conformity 4Laissexfaire low conversation and conformity Know the major problem of Social Penetration Theory SPT used to identify the process of increasing disclosure and intimacy within a relationship work of Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor Understand the relationships between Bakthin s Theory of Dialogics society is built through everyday actions of all kinds Baxter s Theory of Relationshipsexplores complex ways in which persons inrelationship use communication to manage the naturally opposing forces that impinge on their relationship at any given moment 1 Define Heteroglossia many voices all of which contribute to the constant change and ux of the world Utterance a unit of exchange spoken or written between 2 people refers to language spoken in context it contains a theme Baxter s Theory of Relationships explores complex ways in which personsinrelationship use communication to manage the naturally opposing forces that impinge on their relationship at any given moment 1 Understand why Baxter says her theory is dialogical and dialectic Baxter uses Baktin s dialogics to better understand the ux and ow of relationships Baxter refers to her theory as dialogical because relationships are defined through dialogue among many voices but at the same time Baxter characterizes her theory as dialectical meaning that relationships are a place where contradictions are managed 2 Contradictions Carl Rogers 10 qualities of helping relationships 1 Communication is perceived by one another as trustworthy or consistently dependable 2 They express themselves unambiguously 3 They possess positive attitudes of warmth and caring for the other 4 A partner in a helping relationship keeps a separate identity 5 A partner permits the other to do the same 6 The helping relationship is marked by empathy in which each attempts to understand by the other person 7 The helper accepts the various facets of the other s experience as communicated by the other person 8 The partners respond with sufficient sensitivity to create a safe environment for personal change 9 Communicators are able to free themselves from the threat of evaluation from the other 10 Each communicator recognizes that the other is changing and is exible enough to permit the other to change Ch 8 The Group Interaction Process Analysis work of Robert Bales aiming to explain the types of messages that people exchange in groups the ways in which these messages shape the roles and personalities of group members and thus the ways messages affect the overall character of the group 1 Dramatizing telling stories which means relieving tension by telling stories and sharing experiences that may not always relate directly to the task of the group 2 Tasks amp Behaviors socioemotiorial behavior seeming friendly showing tension and V dramatizing task behavior represented by suggestions opinions and information task leader facilitates and coordinates that taskrelated comments and directs energy toward getting the job done socioemotiorial leader who works for improved relations in the group concentrating on interactions in the positive and negative sectors Understand the focus types of groups of Bona Fide Group Theory work of Linda Putnam and Cynthia Stohl naturally occurring group lPermeable boundaries de ned as in the group or out of the group sometimes vague always uid and frequently changing 2interdeperiderit with the environment Functional Theory view the process as an instrument by which groups make decisions emphasizing the connection between the quality of communication and the quality of the group s output communication does a number of things to determine group outcome it s a means of sharing information is the way group members explore and identify errors in thinking and is a tool of persuasion 1 Sources that contribute to the decision making errors works of Randy Hirokawa and his colleagues limproper assessment 2inappropriate goals and objectives 3improper assessment of positive and negative qualities 4inadequate information base 5 faulty reasoning Groupthink work of Irving Janis and colleagues is a direct result of cohesiveness in groups emerged from detailed examination of the effectiveness of group decision making 1 Cohesiveness is the degree of mutual interest among group members is a result of the degree th which all members perceive that their goals can be met within the group 2 Symptoms 1illusion of invulnerability which creates an undue air of optimism 2the group creates collective efforts to rationalize the course of action they choose 3the group maintains an unquestioned belief in its inherent morality seeing itself as being well motivated and working for the best outcome 4outgroup leaders are stereotyped as evil weak or stupid 5direct pressure is exerted on members not to express counter opinions 6self censorship of disagreement 7there is a shared illusion of unanimity within the group 8groupthink involves the emergence of self appointed minalguarals to protect the group and its leader from adverse opinions and unwanted information Outcomes lthe group limits its discussion to only a few alternatives without considering a full range of creative possibilities The solution may seem obvious and simple to the group and there is little exploration of other ideas 2the position initially favored by most members is never restudied to seek out lessobvious pitfalls In other words the group is not very critical in examining the ramifications of the preferred solution 3the group fails to reexamine those alternatives originally disfavored by the majority Minority opinions are quickly dismissed and ignored not only by the majority but also by those who originally favored them 4expert opinion is not sought The group is satis ed with itself and its ability to make decisions and may feel threatened by outsiders Sthe group is highly selective in gathering and attending to available information The members tend to concentrate only on the information that supports the favored plan 6the group is so con dent in its ideas that it does not consider contingency plans It does not foresee or plan for the possibility of failure Ch9 The Organization Morgan s Organizational Metaphors lmachine organizations have parts that produce products and services 2 organism organizations are born grow function and adapt to the environment and eventually die 3brain organization process information they have intelligence they conceptualize and they make plans 4 culture what you identify with Weber s Theory of Bureaucracy aimed to explain social processes in a way that links individual human motivation to social outcomes provides a framework for the traditional view of organizational structure as hierarchical and rule driven 1 Characteristics of a bureaucratic organization hierarchical layered ruledriven and insensitive to individual differences and needs purposeful interpersonal activity designed to coordinate individual tasks Authority comes with power in organizations it must be legitimate or formally authorized by the organization Legitimate power organizational effectiveness depends on the extent to which management is granted LP N V The Process or Organizing works of Karl Weick usese communication as a basis for human organizing and provides a rationale for understanding how people organize organization are not structures made of positions and roles but of communication activities 1 Sense m aking Process we act a statement or behavior of an individual and interact involves an act followed up by a response we look back retrospectively on what we have done and assign meaning to our actions 2 Equivocality meaning uncertainty complication ambiguity and lack of predictability o The process of removing equivocality 3 1 enactment de nition of the situation pay attention to certain stimuli and ignore the other possible issues 2 selection which organizational members accept some information as relevant and reject other information 3 retention in which certain things will be saved for future use retained information is integrated into the existing body of information from which the organization operates Network Theory networks are social structures created by communication among individuals and groups 1 Formal Networks these channels reveal only part of the structure of an organization Emergent Networks are informal channels that are built not by formal regulations of an organizations but by regular daily contact among members Organizational Control Theory developed by Phillip Tompkins George Cheney and their colleagues interested in the ways in which ordinary communication establishes control over employees 1 Simple Control use of direct power open power 2 Technical Control use of devices and technologies 3 Concertive Control use of interpersonal relationships and teamwork as a means of control 4 Enthymeme is a rhetorical device used to involve audiences in the advocate s reasoning process one or more premises in a reasoning chain are left out and supplied by the audience Organizational Culture emphasize the ways people construct an organizational reality examines the way individuals use stories rituals symbols and other types of activity to produce and reproduce a set of understandings organizations present opportunities for cultural interpretation these organizations create a shared reality that distinguishes them from organizations with other cultures 1 Pacanowsky and O Donnell Trujillo s 4 Characteristics of Communication Performances 1 interactional more like dialogues than soliloquies social actions not solitary ones participate together 2 contextual cannot be viewed as independent acts but are always embedded in a larger frame of activity re ect and produce its context 3 episodes events with a beginning and an end and the performance can identify the episode and distinguish it from other 4 im provised there is exibility in how a communication episode is played out and although the dame performance may be given again and again they are never repeated in exactly the same way 0 Organizational Communication Performances 5 l ritual something that is repeated regularly 2 passion put on performance that make otherwise dull and routine duties interesting and passionate most common way is by storytelling 3 socaility which reinforces a common sense of propriety and makes use of social rules within the organization 4 organizational politics which create and reinforce notions or power and in uence involve moves to position oneself strategically in a certain way within the organization for political reasons 5 enculturation processes of teaching the culture to organizational members it is ongoing but certain performances are especially vital to this process Know the applications and implications 1 Organizations are made through communication Organizational activities function to accomplish individual and joint goals In addition to achieving goals communication activities create patterns that affect organizational life Communication processes create an organizational character and culture The patterns of power and control that emerge in organizational communication open possibilities WN VV m4 WW and create constraints Ch10 The Media Know the concept of the Global Village by Marshall McLuhan modern communication media make it possible for millions of people throughout the world to be in touch with nearly any place on the global Know the difference between micro side link focus on group and individual effects and outcomes of the media transaction and macro side are concerned with the ways media are embedded in society and the mutual influence between larger social structures and the media of media theory helping us see how signs and symbols are used what they mean and how they are organized media from a semiotic perspective consist of a blend of symbols that are organized spatially and chronologically to create an impression transmit an idea or elicit a meaning in an audience content is important but content is a product of the use of signs Baudrillaard s Semiotics of Media believes that signs have become increasing separated from the objects they represent and that the media have propelled this process to the point where nothing is real the sign had a clear connectionsimple representation of an object or condition 1 Understand the Evolution ofthe meaning of Signs including the stages l symbolic order uses feudal society to illustrate it workings connection between signs and reality were absolutely clear 2 counterfeits signs assumed a less direct relationship to the object of life signs themselves produced new meanings that were not necessarily a natural part or experience 3 production machines were invented to take the place of humans making object independent of any human use of signi ers Hyperreality bizarre mix of copies or copies living life like a reality TV show Commodity Culture one aspect of stimulation in which we live the stimulated environment tells us what we wantit forms our tastes choices preferences and needs WN VV Understand the Evolution of Medium Theory apart from media content affect how we think about and respond to the world Classical Medium Theory media apart from whatever content is transmitted impact individuals and society this idea in its various forms is what we mean by medium theory Agenda Setting and Framing works of Walter Lippman the public responds not to actual events in the environment but to the pictures in our heads which he calls the pseudoenvironment Agenda Setting Donald Shaw and Max McCombs and colleagues media depictions can affect how people think about the news help organize the world of experience and are stunningly successful in telling us what to think about establishes salient issues or images in the media in the minds of the public Media Framing refers to the process of putting a news story together including ways in which a story is organized and structured highlights certain aspects of an issue and focuses our attention The Effects Tradition magic bullet theory of communication effects and found that media were extremely powerful in shaping public opinion messages directly and heavily influenced individuals Cultivation Theory works by George Gerbner and colleagues idea that TV is so pervasive in our culture that it cultivates certain views across all segments of society Spiral of Silence occurs when individuals who perceive that their opinions are popular express them whereas those who do not think their opinions are popular remain quiet occurs in a spiral so that one side of an issue ends up with much publicity and the other side with very little 1 Quasi statistical sense people are not reluctant to make educated guesses about public opinion and have a sense of the percentage of the population for and against certain positions Equipment for Living works by Kenneth Burke rhetoric assigns the audience in coping with or maneuvering through life provide a charta creative set of guidelines for selecting a course of action as we move through the world Bell hook s Critique of Media use of communication to disrupt and eradicate the ideology of domination white supremacist capitalist patriarchy Ch11 Culture and Society Sapir Whorf Hypothesis know as the theory of linguistic relativity simply states that the structure of a culture s language determines the behavior and habits of thinking in the culture suggests that our thought processes and the way we see the world are shaped in large part by the grammatical structure of the language Elaborated and Restricted Codes shows how the structure of the language employed in everyday talk re ects and shapes the assumptions of a social group assumption of this theory is that the relationships established in a social group affect the type of speech used by the group at the same time he structure of the speech used by the group makes different things relevant or signi cant Elaborated provide a wide range of different ways to say something they allow speakers to make their ideas and intentions explicit more complexthey require more planning explaining Restricted have a narrower range of options and easier to predict what from they will take Diffusion of Innovations Everett Rogers relates dissemination to the process of social change which consists of invention diffusion communication and consequences Cultural Hermeneutics involves trying to understand the actions of a group or culture this kind of hermeneutics requires observing and describing the actions of a group 1 Process of Ethnographic Theorizing ldevelop a basic orientation to the subject including assessing personal assumptions about culture and its manifestations 2defines the classes or kinds of activity that will be observed 3theorize about the speci c culture under investigation 4move back out to look again at the general theory of culture with which they are operating and test it against the speci c case Ethnography of Communication simply the application of ethnographic methods to the communication patterns of a group 1 5 Questions Ethnographers of Communication Consider 1 forms of communication used by a group 2 the meanings these communication practices have for the group 3when and where the group members use these practices 4how communication practices create a sense of community 5 the variety of codes used by a group Speech Codes Philipsen s 6 Claims ldistinctive they vary from one culture to another 2speech community will have multiple speech codes 3 speech codes constitute a speech community s own sense of how to be a person how to connect with other people and how to act or communicate within a social group 4 codes guides what communicators actually experience when they interact with one another 5 speech codes are not separate entities but are embedded in daily speech 6 speech codes are powerful Know the difference between Modernism often refered to as structural centers on ongoing oppressive social structures which are considered real and enduring although they may be hidden from the consciousness of most people and Posmoderism not linear based on the idea that the social realities are constantly produced reproduces and changed through the use of language and other symbolic forms Communication Theory and Scholarship Chapter 1 Introduction Defining Communication A Communication is difficult to define scholars have made numerous attempts but arriving at a best definition is largely unachievable B Different kinds of definitions serve different functions and let theorists do diverse things C Three points of critical conceptual differentiation that form the basic dimensions of communication where communication definitions differ depending on 1 Level of Observation 2 lntentionality 3 Normative Judgment Academic Study of Communication II The Academic Study of Communication A Rise in communication technologies B Academic study began after World War I when advances in technology and literacy made communication a central topic C Persuasion and group decision making became post WWII areas of study due to the use of wartime propaganda D Communication studies developed in the 20th century because of pragmatic interests and applied nature F Interdisciplinary origin and studied across disciplines Academic Study of Communication Co nti n ued G Communication is the organizing element of human life H In US studied quantitatively to establish it as a social science Robert Craig s landmark article Communication Theory as a Field offers away to conceptualize communication theory in a way that addresses its complexities 1 A metamodel of communication in seeing a theory as an argument In favor of a particular approach and making theories a form of discourse 2 Theories are discourses about discourse or metadiscourse 3 Communication constitutes reality and is dynamic across contexts 4 As special formsof communication theories similarly constitute an experience of communication The Process of Inquiry in Communication I A Basic Model of Inquiry A Inquiry is the systematic nonlinear study of experience that leads to understanding knowledge and theory B Inquiry involves three stages 1 Asking questions 2 Observation 3 Constructing answers The Process of Inquiry in Communication Continued Types of Scholarship A Different types of inquiry ask different questions use different observation methods and lead to different kinds of theory B Methods of inquiry can be grouped into three forms of scholarship 1 Scientific Scholarship 2 Humanistic Scholarship 3 SocialScientific Scholarship The Process of Inquiry in Communication Continued Hi How Scholars Work A A scholar or group of scholars curious aboutinterest in a topic B The topic requires investigation C Personal interest andor professional advancement motivates D Scholarship shared with others and provides the scholar with feedback E Journal articles and books are the two main outlets for publication peers judge potential publications subjectively F Scholars begin to develop similar lines of theory and research G Theories are a human social activity scholars make theories which are then used to talk about experiences


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