Social Mvmnts & Interest Group
Social Mvmnts & Interest Group POLS 3108
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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joel O'Hara on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 3108 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/228970/pols-3108-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Political Science at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Decline of Social Movements Theories of Decline Classic Model Resource Mobilization Model Political Process Model The Classic Model The movement loses its radical ideology The movement becomes hierarchical Leaders are really different from followers in their ideas Leaders become more conservative to keep their jobs eg Labor unions Followers no longer want to change society but simply want a better deal Established administrative procedures Elections bureaucracy Resource Mobilization Model Funds dry up as the movement becomes less popular or loses its leadership or is repressed This is particularly true of external resources Fewer resources mean fewer selective incentives available to members Political Process Model Group success depends upon 1 Organizational strength according to McAdam a reticulated structure is best 2 The structure of political opportunity at any particular time 3 Response to other groups to the movement a Resources b Repression Impacts of Political Model on Civil Rights Organizational strength Deep divides among and within the Big Four NAACP SCLC SNCC and CORE Within group divides within SNCC and CORE reduced the groups resources and leadership Death of MLK had a longterm impact on the leadership resources Flight of Stokley Carmichael H Rap Brown and others reduced leadership of radicals Civil Rights External resources remained high but gradually support shifted to the nonviolent groups of SCLC and NAACP As violence increased around the movement resources went almost entirely to the NAACP Precipitated by MLK s stand against the Vietnam War As movement s goal switched from integration to radical social change there were fewer external donors Civil Rights lll External Response Repression FBI infiltrated and created internal distrust Riot police trained to respond to protestors and to incite violence Chicago 1968 Donors refused to fund any organization for which integration was not the primary goal Republican Party s Southern strategy states rights meant that when the GOP won civil rights leaders and groups had no voice in the government Political Opportunities Early on southern police and KKK provided the perfect foil for gaining support and members Integration and equal political rights were mainstream goals But as the movement changed its goals to socioeconomic reform it lost the support of the Nonh Bussing in Boston and other northern cities Affirmative action a challenge to white privilege Unions wanted change in the South but not in their unions To achieve equality of opportunity would require huge social programs and radical social change Political Opportunities lll GOP Southern Strategy 1 Party realized it could make great gains in the South by supporting segregation 2 Tradeoff between gaining a moderate of the black vote and gaining a majority of the white vote 3 Defend traditional values against hippies war protestors affirmative action gays men and women using the same bathrooms 4 Agnew and Watergate delayed the final victory because of Carter but RR solidified the gains 5 Districts that were Black and districts that were GOP Political Opportunities Women s Movement Early on followed gains of the civil rights movement equality of treatment under the law Focus on the ERA sapped the strength of the movement and then the loss of that battle reduced the energy of the movement Continued struggle within the movement from the radical left v the legal and political goals The movement won most if not all of its early objectives Identification with the Democratic Party hurt its opportunities when the GOP won Summary of political opportunities Your enemy must be unsympathetic eg KKK and Southern Sheriffs Your goals should be part of the American myth of equality of political and legal opportunity You must not appear so radical that the moderates in society will even after education see you as opposed to their values Partisanship has huge costs the choice of abortion as an issue pushed feminists away from the GOP The Elite Perspective Collective and Private Goods West amp Loomis View All issues are dominated by elites Public opinion is relatively unimportant only elite opinion matters No real accountability because the masses do not pay attention and the elites can be manipulated by interest group resources Parties have been captured by groups with resources Dems teacher unions lawyers unions GOP tobacco doctors business peak amp trade associations eg insurance Lowery and Brasher Neopluralist View Few issues are dominated by elites The domestic issues that elites dominate are relatively unimportant Highly salient issues have organized interests on all sides There is little evidence that money or a few groups dominate politics Constituency concerns and information are the key factors in decisionmaking Clinton Successes Failures NAFTA Health Care Welfare Reform Reform Balanced Budget Selling the vision of PNTR a competitive America to Labor Democratic Party s vision of America Vision of America as a dominant economic force in technology Bush Successes Failures so far Tax Cut for Wealthy Energy policy Delay EPA regs on Energy bin power plants Artie Drilling RX Medicare End of estate tax coverage F I End of taxes on 39503 dividends accountability Bankruptcy Iaw Overturn Roe v revision Wade Client Politics 141 billion JOBS bill give away Congress has a collective action problem Limitation of insurance coverage for terrorist acts Bankruptcy legislation making bankruptcy more difficult Reverse Clinton s Student Loan Program All agricultural subsidies All tax expenditures loopholes 7000 pork barrel projects in 2003 Rule waivers and implementation decisions Client Politics in NC Highway funding Public employees get three days to serve as election precinct workers No tuition for HS students who attend community colleges Interest Group Politics Clean skies initiative Yucca mountain and energy policy Writing of major energy and environment rules Minimum wage legislation Commonsite picketing legislation Notice that while client politics is often characterized by subsystem or iron triangle networks issues in interest group politics tend to involve issue networks rather than iron triangles Knowedge other resources and salience get you into the network Entrepreneurial Politics 1972 Clean Air Act amp Establishment of EPA 1984 Tax Reform Showdown at Gucci Gulch Packwood amp Rostenkowski 1972present Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Site 1980 Superfund legislation 1979 Equal Credit Opportunity Act 1993 NAFTA 1993 Student loan program 1994 Welfare Reform School vouchers in state legislatures 2003 No Child Left Behind NC Cigarette Tax Majoritarian Politics 2005 Social Security Reform 1964 Voting Rights Act 2003 Bush tax cuts 2004 Medicare Prescription Drug Program Elections influenced by the Vietnam War State abortion laws Flag desecration and school prayer amendments NC Lottery Bill Notice the key roles of political parties presidents governors and candidates for President Elite versus Neopluralist Models Question Elite r39 quot What types of politics are dominated by All only Client Politics elites How important are client politics Important Usually um 1mportant Who holds public officials accountable Elites Ehtes pames amp mass opinion Who controls political parties Major client groups eg tobacco MDs Ideology mass opinion client groups To what degree does money in uence policy outcomes Very Important Not as important as other resources How important are constituency Only major groups Almost always group s concerns important Client politics generally resemble Iron Triangles Issue Networks How frequent are Majoritarian politics Somewhat Frequent How frequent are IG politics Frequent Very Frequent How frequent are Entrepreneur1al Rare Somewhat polltlcs Money information Const1tuency What resources are key for 1nterest const1tuency 1nterests interests access to media information money Corporate Lobbying for Private Rents 1 Missile story 2 Private Intermediate and Collective Rents Fig 101 3 Why are most political science articles like the drunk under the street light 4 Private rents generally have the characteristics of Client Politics or more rarely IG Politics 5 Firm calculation is Prob X Bene t gt C and is the return higher than for other investments the rm can make 6 Political costs are less and bene ts greater if the corporation or interest is a constituent 7 Legislator Ef ciency of E rt VR How does this issue compare with other issues on Which the legislator can spend resources 8 Corporations in more heavily regulated industries and corporations dependent on government contracts Will spend more lobbying 9 Wright Amendment and ee riding by Delta 10 Rubberresin and Goodyear privileged goods 11 Publishing industry changed When publishing went to the internet amp merged with TV amp lm corporations 12 Trade associations and intermediate goods Table 102 13 PAC contributions Table 101 This class is listed as covering interest organizations and social movements Most of this class will be devoted to interest groups The rst three weeks however are devoted to social movements Why does political science cover social movements when the topic is largely researched by sociologists and social psychologists 1 Social movements often have major legislative and bureaucratic impacts mmwgnrw h i j End of McCarthyism and anticommunism on the left Civil rights legislation Voting Rights Act Fair Housing Act McNamara integrating DC area apartments Af rmative action debate women s rights legislation Environmental legislation Antiwar movement probably responsible for ending the draft DPA DENR in NC X n Right 2 Social movements often precede major swings in political parties and critical elections a b Nixon used South s dissatisfaction with civil rights legislation to break the South away from the Democratic Party X n Right captured the Republican Party in the South and elsewhere 3 Social movements create political leaders for other movements and interest groups a Many civil rights and women s rights leaders became active in politics b Are the most meaningful political behavior for participants and their opponents 4 Social movements often change mass behavior and later attitudes follow Racist and antiwomen jokes no longer acceptable among 83 educated people Job discrimination has been lessened and being a minority F can be an advantage Banks lending practices as well as real estate practices 9 5 De ne what we mean byjust and fair and show where society is coming up short a Southern sheriff b Dogs attacking demonstrators c Title IX legislation and its impacts on women s sports amp US Olympic teams 5a Show us where liberalism has been and where it is going Declaration of Independence all humans are created equal Unalienable rights Life liberty property 11 Where do Social Movements Come From 1 Changing economic conditions a Great Depression and in ation in Germany b African Americans migration to the North c General economic prosperity of the early 60s allowed some people not to be concerned about working People must be available and willing Few movement members who must riskjail or physical harm have children or fulltime jobs Charismatic leaders Gandhi Hitler MLK Ralph Nadar MN Single mobilizing or crystallizing event dogs attacking civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham and Memphis Greensboro sitins Santa Barbara Oil Spill J Book Silent Spring The Feminine Mystique UI A coherent ideology nonviolence Gandhi MLK equality liberalism of Locke and Jefferson moral suasion by personal example existential action O PreeXisting social network 83 Historically black colleges and universities Black church F G Previous social movements civil rights spawned antiwar and feminist movement all of these spawned the environmental movement 7 Sponsors with monetary resources 8 Government does not repress heavily or the government is split ParticPB CSl D P probability that your participation will make a difference B benefit or cost of policy change to you or to those you care about C cost of participation Time money risk SI selective incentives magazines discounts friendships solidarity D duty to do your part Free Rider Problem How many of you consider yourselves pro environment How many of you belong to a duespaying environmental group How much difference will 50 make to Tsunami victims To lobbying by environmental groups To you Voting 1 1014 But seective incentives do a pretty good job of predicting group snze Why is the Free Rider problem so important Social movements P B C D SI P B C D SI Environment Women s rights Black amp Latino rights Gay rights Rank high medium low Data Who joins environ grps What groups are the largest NWF Audubon Sierra Club Wilderness Soc Whatgroups failed Environmental Action Friends of the Earth Free Rider Problem Unless the marginal benefit of an action exceeds the marginal cost a rational person does not contribute to a collective good Sanctuary Movement Movement took immigrants from El Salvador into US and hid them during the war B What is the benefit here A characteristic of many social movements is that many participants seem altruistic Sanctuary Right to Life abortion rights whites in civil rights movement religious leaders in antiwar movement What is the probability of success Very high with individuals who were in the Sanctuary system Very low in terms of changing US policy What are the costs Jail Fines Jobloss Social sanctions Were there social benefits Duty requirements Get to know other people who are idealistic and share your ideals Duty to be your brother s keeper Sense of doing something For whom were costs lowest Single persons and persons without young children College professors who have flexible hours and tenure Church workers who could receive time off without loss of salary College students Are Freeman s six factors for mobilization present Preexisting communications yes churches Crisis Yes arrest and repatriation of refugees Entrepreneurs Catholic priests Core organizations churches but they could not go public Cooptable ideas New Testament Leaders only local Because the activities were illegal leaders were hard to identify Was participation rational As to costs yes Otherwise it s hard to see benefits unless you believe that doing good deeds gets you to heaven and not doing them sends you to hell Why Do Groups Divide 1 Social movements frequently splinter and form new groups Why does this happen and what are the positive and negative consequences 1 Beneficiary constituents and conscience constituents have different values and backgrounds a Rich vs Poor b Voluntary immigrants vs involuntary immigrants 2 Preexisting cleavages Black Power advocates Stoker Carmichael vs those who wanted integration Radical women vs establishment women young versus old 3 Competition among groups there are a limited number of groups that the society will support Lowery and Gray example of environmental groups and list trading 4 Demand for ideological purity this is particularly true of radical groups on the far left or right and of religious groups Advantages of multiple groups 1 Reduces the ability ofthe government to suppress the entire movement eg civil rights and antiwar movement 2 Aids in the adaptation to circumstances different regions ofthe country may react differently to the same message 3 Competition increases the effort of dedicated members amp leaders 4 Competition encourages innovation and efficiency Disadvantages of multiple groups 1 Sometimes all groups are harmed by the actions of one group 2 There may be a leadership shortage 3 Lobbying may be more difficult because no single group is sufficiently large in a number of different political divisions to achieve logrolling and bargaining Why Do Groups Divide Example of the Women s Movement Resources Younger Branch Older Branch Tangible Resources Money Little Substantial UAW Space People s homes Offices provided by Commission amp UAW Publicity Underground Access to establishment newspapers papers Specialized Expertise Expertise Community organizing Public relations Lobbying skills Access to networks Radical community Professional groups Committee on status of women Access to None Some in govt media policymakers and unions Status in polity None Little Status in group Within movement Little Unspecialized Resources Time A great deal Little Commitment A great deal Some Ideology and goals Goal Revolution Change discriminatory practices Organization No leadership no hierarchy Leadership is key Why Do Groups Divide Similar differences exist in most movements Operation Rescue versus Profamily Lobby Earth First versus Sierra Club