Week of October 19 - October 23
Week of October 19 - October 23 HI 1063
Popular in Early US History
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grey Garris on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HI 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Andrew Lang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Early US History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Vll Nationalism and Sectionalism 1815 1824 l Nationalism After the War of 1812 The imaginary victory over England increased the national pride while a boom in technology and several social changes altered the social atmosphere ll Economic Nationalism A Growth of the US As people moved into the new Louisiana Territory the economy boomed The Southern states remained agricultural and plantations became even more common and influential Boats and eventually trains made transport through the nation easier and increased trade Market Revolution Prior to this point farms existed for the sole purpose of survival as people would consume what they made With mass transport the market system grew rapidly and the idea of cash crops and specialized farms grew which in turn increased the power of the market even more New Republicans The new generation of Republicans were different from their predecessors They favored the new market system and appreciated the war the occurred 1 Tariff of 1816 A tax was placed on imported goods This made those goods more expensive than those produced by local manufacturers The tax was created for the sole purpose of encouraging local purchases to better the economy 2 2nd Bank of the US The 1st Bank s charter had run out so it had to be renewed 3 Internal Improvements Government funded infrastructure roads bridges etc There was resistance to the idea as strict interpretation did not allow the Feds to do that They failed to get most of it passed at first 4 American System Henry Clay combined all the above three ideas into the idea of the American System Clay was an ardent nationalist but his ideas were viewed as Sectional state focused and mostly shot down lll Political Nationalism A James Monroe won the election of 1816 because there was no one to run against him however as it was believed that George Washington should forever remain the only President to receive unanimous approval for office the Republicans threw in a trash candidate to save Washington s status As the Republicans were the only party active it was called the Era of Good Feelingsquot since there was theoretically no problems with each other IV Judicial Nationalism A John Marshall a Federalist was still Chief Justice McCulloch v Maryland was a case where the state of Maryland tried to tax the National Bank in its state out of existence under the idea of the Compact Theory Mr McCulloch who worked for the bank sued the state up to the Supreme Court Marshall issued that the Compact Theory had no grounds and was a worthless argument and states had no power to overrule the Federal Government V Diplomatic Nationalism A FloridaInternational Treaty The US desperately wanted Florida from the Spanish for its location and trade aspects and to decide what to do about the runaway slaves that went there to escape their slavers Andrew Jackson who was now a General was set on the FloridaGeorgia Line and got annoyed with the whole thing and just decided to invade FloridaHe won the area easily and did so without permission from anyone even though he said he did Monroe sent John Quincy Adams to Spain to try to stem the situation but instead Adams said that Spain might as well just give Florida to the US since they couldn t even protect it well anyway Eventually the point was made that the Latin American colonies of the Spanish were gradually achieving independence anyway Adding to that point was the American concern for the idea that these newly independent nations would be readily latched onto by other European nations Monroe Doctrine 1823 Due to the escalation of the above situation Monroe declared that the entire Western Hemisphere was now under the explicit protection of the US and that it would be totally closed to further European influence The US could not actually achieve this idea but it was held anyway due to the huge boost in national selfesteem that rose from the victory of the War of 1812 VI Economic Collapse and Sectional Conflict 18191821 A Panic of 1819 The Boom and Bust Cycle of the market system that America had entered itself into had passed its Boom phase and was now in the worst economic depression in the nation s short history up to that point The Boom period was caused because of the rapid expansion of the nation and the increase in agricultural production of cash crops like cotton The demand for cotton on the world market skyrocketed but eventually that demand faded and the economy that was built around its production tanked The problem with this was in that the US Bank had loaned out HUGE amounts of money to farmers who had planned to make money off of the increasing market but instead got taken down with it when the market crashed The new Westerners were hit the hardest by this particular effect as they had taken out the most extensive loans to set up on the new land Following the American tradition they blamed the government for forcing them to take out those loans and became upset with the East as a whole for allowing such a thing to occur This began the issue of WestEast Sectionalism Missouri Controversy and Compromise 1820 1 The most politically violent and dangerous exercise in government power to that point At this time the debate between slave states and free states was at an alltime high as there had been a massive explosion in the use of slavery as the nation grew westward The Founders had expected slavery to die out of its own natural course but that of course did not happen They had tried at first to set up ways to end it in the future but the southern states wouldn t ratify the Constitution with those provisions so the Founders conceded and left those ideas out By 1819 there were 11 Free States and 11 Slave States in the Union but when the territory of Missouri asked to join the Union as a Slave State both sides erupted into chaos The North saw the admission of a new slave state as a way to tip the balance of political power in Congress towards the South due to the 35 Compromise which would increase the state s population size and thereby increase their representation in Congress and their resistance was viewed as a breach of Constitutionality by the South A New York Congressman proposed the idea that Mlssouri would be allowed to be a slave state but it could not bring in any more slaves and the children of slaves already there would be freed on their 25th birthday This proposal infuriated the South as it was a very transparent attempt at making Missouri a free state at some point in its future a Questions from this Problem 1 Could Congress restrict slavery s expansion South said no because of Constitutional Compromise over the issue but the North said they could because the Founders had never imagined the huge expansion slavery managed to get 2 Wasn t there a moral problem in this Many viewed slavery as wrong but the southerners by majority did not and worked hard to reconcile their acceptance of the Constitution with their acceptance of slavery 2 Compromise Henry Clay proposed his own way to end this issue and allow both sides a win Missouri would be admitted as a slave state as long as Maine a new state to the North would be admitted as a free state This was done in order to ensure that the balance of power in Congress would not be tipped one way or another The Compromise was accepted and was held as a sacred trustquot between the two sides of North and South but simultaneously inspired HUGE political backlash C Protective Tariff and Southern Opposition 1 The Tariff of 1816 was increased even more and the South already riled up by the Missouri issue lashed back more violently than ever Southern identity grew alongside the Northern and both sides now transferred their nationalistic feelings into sectionalist as they favored their respective sides of the issue Vll Election of 1824 A The Republican party was still the only true political party but now the sectionalist conflict allowed for several candidates to vie for the office Nobody received the necessary majority though Jackson received a plurality and Adams got the second most in the Electoral College and as such the vote for the Office went to the House of Representatives The only problem with this was that one of the candidates Henry Clay was the current Speaker of the House To prevent backlash Clay stepped away from the election and manipulated enough support for JQ Adams that he got the Presidency 1 Bargain and Corruption Jackson s supporters were infuriated by this as up to this point every President had been the Secretary of State of the former President That former Sec was Henry Clay and even though they didn t like Clay either they did like the tradition In response the Jacksonians made Adams life a living hell B Candidates 1 Henry Clay Kentucky Senator famous for securing the Missouri Compromise and his creation of the idea of the American System 2 William Crawford Unimportant from Georgia oldschool Jeffersonian Compact Theory and Strict Constitutional Interpretation 3 John Quincy Adams Son of John Adams very intellectual follower of Henry Clay believer in National Power and Supremacy 4 Andrew Jackson The people s man not a politician in ANY way war hero no set political ideology had a tremendously influential and favored personality Vlll Rise of American Democracv 18241840 Emergence of Democratic Republicans A By the end of JQ Adams presidency the Republican party had died outjust like the Federalist party before them They were actually replaced with the Democratic Republicans though unlike the Federalists who just kind of vanished Their death was caused almost entirely by the Jacksonians themselves B Jacksonian lmage Jackson became what was essentially a folk hero as he and his followers crafted his reputation and image into that of the people s man and his party as the people s party They made sure to make out that they were removing the aristocratic style that the system had possessed for so long Their intention was to bring the common man into the political world 1 Jackson His father died before he was born His mother died when he was 15 years old and he grew up a proud gritty brawler During the Revolution he had his face scarred by the saber of a British officer who sliced his face after Jackson refused to shine the officer s boots when he was captured Held staunchly to the belief that you must be able to command respect and even fear He engaged in several duels won all of them and had several men who died by his hand He was even shot in the heart once and survived In essence he got shot at and threatened A LOT but still survived One man even attempted to assassinate him but when the hammer froze in both the main gun and the backup apparently Jackson chased the wouldbeassassin down and proceeded to beat him with his cane He even engaged in a race with another steamboat and when the other boat began winning he took out his gun and began shooting at it All in all Andrew Jackson was a very charismatic and eccentric man who took nobody s shit 2 Martin van Buren A New Yorker with massive ambition and favor towards Jackson s political ideas 3 John C Calhoun The Warhawk New Republican from South Carolina who became Jackson s righthand man IV National Republican Party A The entire party was unable to get anything done as the Jacksonians opposed every idea and proposition made by their rivals Due to continued stress on Congress the Jacksonians managed to break the Republican party and their influence until the party itself was dissolved Election of 1828 A B The Election of 1828 was the first modern election in all its mudslinging epic stupidity It was up to that point the most bizarre election to ever occur Jackson vs Adams Jackson s image of a charismatic war hero vs Adams image of a studious and brilliant aristocrat Jackson ran around the nation riling up the populace against Adam and his intellectual nature This was shocking to many as the people had never been directly involved in the election process but now Jackson was saying they could be and this idea won him a HUGE following The two sides attacked each other brutally in the media but Adams ways were far less effective as they tended to backfire such as when he called out Jackson s hitlist of the men he had killed in duels with the intent of tarnishing Jackson s image instead the people loved this In response Jackson started the rumour that Adams who had been the diplomat to Russia had secured the Tsar an American pleasure girl Results 1 Popular 56 went to Jackson which was the most popular support achieved by a President up to that point 2 Electoral 68 3 Inauguration Jackson invited the American Public to his Inauguration Address and the Party following it 10000 people showed up and trashed the place in what became a massive violent and drunken party People stole paintings the entire estate was damaged etc Jackson as President 18291837 A Spoils System Jackson began a practice that tarnished his image on both sides of the aisle the Spoils System In this practice Jackson handed out political appointments to his friends and supporters regardless of their qualifications for those positions This made people lose faith in the electoral system Indian Removal Jackson was welldocumented as violently hating Natives As a response to pressure from Southern farmers wanted the land that some of the Native Nations held Jackson initiated the infamous Trail of Tearsquot This action was the forced removal of five of the Great Native Nations Chickasaw Choctaw Creek Seminole and Cherokee from their lands towards a reserve of sorts in an area that Jackson thought no white people would ever want to live Oklahoma This entire process destroyed these great Native peoples and earned Jackson contempt and love in equal measure Tariff Continued with South Carolina 1 The Protective Tariff that was made to ensure that Americans bought American was causing more and more issues as time went on The Tariff really only helped the industrialized North while it damaged the South and the West Somehow South Carolina equated the Tariff with a threat against slavery and argued for the purpose of criticizing the majorityminority power struggle Calhoun spoke up for South Carolina even though he was an ardent nationalist as he was politically shrewd and knew that he would lose his office if he did not follow the will of his electors 2 Tariff of 1828 This increased the Tariff even higher than the last increase South Carolina was having none of this and began to discuss secession from the Union as a viable option for resisting this 3 South Carolina Exposition and Protest 1828 Calhoun responded to quotthisA with an anonymous letter that stated the Compact Theory as active and that the states could nullify Federal Law and that if the Feds didn t concede then the state would have the full right to secede He did however say that nobody should do anything until Jackson s election if they wanted to avoid secession South Carolina calms down but the theory was put out there and began to take hold of many minds jackson himself suspected Calhoun of being the author of the letter and the relationship between the two started to crumble as Jackson was a massive proponent of the Union and National Supremacy One man Robert Haynes tried to mollify both sides at one dinner and Jackson responded with the Union must be preserved while staring directly at Calhoun Calhoun responded to that pointed address with the Union next to our libertyquot End of JacksonCalhoun Alliance The rift between the two was being encouraged by the massively ambitious Martin van Buren who wanted to replace Calhoun as Jackson s nghbhand a Peggy Eaton Affair John Eaton was an early ally of Jackson and his present Secretary of War The widower met the daughter of a barkeep whose husband was a Navy man The two had an affair so Eaton kept it quiet until the husband died at sea Four weeks later the two got married Everyone saw this as extremely odd and saw it for what it was the result of which was an insane rift in Jackson s cabinet The wives of Jackson s cabinet members had always met but Calhoun s wife refused to be in the same room as Peggy and riled up her friends as well Jackson insisted that everyone accept her and even called an official Cabinet meeting to discuss the matter van Buren was the only one unaffected by this as he did not have a wife involved in this and suggested that Jackson fire his entire Cabinet and start over Jackson conceded and in doing so left Calhoun without a single ally as he was still Jackson s VP This was the nail in the coffin as Calhoun no longer had a reason to stop his state from their secessionleaning ac ons
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