Popular in People and Environment (I)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Torres on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 310 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Lucero Radonic in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see People and Environment (I) in Social Work at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Lecture 11 Commons Goods or services like oceans irrigation systems 0 Dif culty of exclusion Meaning it is hard to enclose or exclude hard but not impossible Substractability If one user uses the resource it reduces the availability of the resource to the rest of the people The resources are nite Tragedy of the Commons 1968 0 Most cited piece by environmental scientist He was in uenced by Thomas Malthus The author Garrett Hardin was a neo Malthusian The message of the piece was about population control but it was focused on the access and management of the natural resources 0 This article became a model that in uence international policies The prisoner dilemma People are rational people39s testimony will hurt each other without realizing that in the end the long term bene t will be worse The pastor metaphor Rational individuals bene t from exploiting a common resource while costs are distributed across the group They though that technology will solve all the people39s problems 0 The article There are not technical solutions for the social and environmental problems Rational individuals are not stupid they are sel sh People seek for their personal bene t and don39t take into consideration the long term harm it might produce Lack of communication produce problems in the distribution of resources 0 Solution Private properties Privatization via enclosure of the commons quotopen accessquot resources must be bounded and given over to individual owners or strong state management agencies Assumptions of the article Rational individuals are sel sh There is no social learning Lack of communication between individuals Resources are open access with no rules or norms in place 0000 Criticism Total absence of rules would mean degradation and destruction but there is not a total absence of rules We need to understand them 0 What Heardy was describing was not open resources it was an open access scenario 0 He oversimpli ed the system 0 He overgeneralized There are more than just the two solutions that he stated Environmental commons are not open access free to all resources with no management rules Most environmental common are common pool resources meaning that they are common property Environmental commons are not free but governed by rules and norms that constrain behavior and encourage cooperation We have 3 main types of property 1 Group common property The resource39s rights are held by a group of users that can exclude people 2 Individual property Resource rights that are owned by individuals or corporations They can exclude others 3 Government or state property Resource rights are held by the government they regulate how and who uses the resources Examples Mongolia Worked in group common property this allowed mobility Less resource degradation Russia State property Less mobility More degradation of resources China Private property Even less mobility bus environmental impact Commons management include Restriction of access Implementation of incentives to invest in resources instead of overexploiting them 0 Proportionality This means that whatever you invest you need to also obtain equal bene ts Collective choice The locals need to be engaged because they know theland o This has been passed generation by generation just orally The tragedy of commodi cation Issues with the management of resources and how the market manages resources too Commodity A good or service that is exchanged for a valuable resource like money They have use and exchange value Exchange value is what makes a commodity a commodity because all resources have use value The exchange value is money in our case US Dollars Commodi cation The process of creating a commodity Read previous study guides