Assembly ETEE 3285
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Della Daniel on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ETEE 3285 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Stephen Kuyath in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/228972/etee-3285-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Electrical Engineering at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
ETEE 3285 Topic 1 Embedded Systems Outline I Embedded systems overview o What are they I Design challenge optimizing design metrics Technologies 0 Processor technologies 0 lCtechnologies 0 Design technologies CREDITS Most of this presentation was taken from Vahid Frank Givargis Tony 2002 Embedded System Design A Unified hardwareSoftware Introduction VWey Embedded systems overview I Computing systems are everywhere I Most of us think of desktop computers 0 PCS 0 Laptops 0 Mainframes 0 Servers I But there s another type of computing system that s far more commn mo y we m Embedded systems overview Embedded computing systems 0 Computing systems embedded within I electronic devices 0 Hard to define Nearly any computing system other than a desktop and here computer WQ 0 Billions of units produced yearly 7 if i versus millions of desktop units 0 Perhaps 50 per household and per Lotsmoreofthese though they cost a lot less each A short list of embedded systems Antilock brakes Autofocus cameras Automatic teller machines Automatic toll systems Automatic transmission Avionic systems Battery chargers Camcorders Cell phones Cellphone base stations Cordless phones Cruise control Curbside checkin systems Digital cameras Disk drives Electronic card readers Electronic instruments Electronic toysgames Factory control Fax machines Fingerprint identifiers Home security systems Lifesupport systems Medical testing systems Modems MPEG decoders Network cards Network switchesrouters Onboard navigation Pagers Photocopiers Pointofsale systems Portable video games Printers Satellite phones Scanners Smart ovensdishwashers Speech recognizers Stereo systems Teleconferencing systems Televisions Temperature controllers Theft tracking systems TV settop boxes VCR s DVD players Video game consoles Video phones Washers and dryers And the list goes on and on Embedded systems are everywhere I In 2000 more than a quarter billion 8bit embedded processors were being sold eaCh month httpwwwextremetechcomarticle20397318917005 9 Microprocessor Unit Sales All types ali markets worldwide Montth Units 1mm 1990 1992 133d 1593 1998 Embedded systems are everywhere I The average middleclass American household has about 40 to 50 microprocessors in it plus another 10 processors for every PC httpwwwextremetechcomarticle2O39731891700639 I There39s a microprocessor in your The microwave oven The washer dryer and dishwasher Color TV and another one in the remote control The VCR and its remote Your stereo receiver CD player and DVD player An automatic garage door opener and each remote control for it also contains a microprocessor A Embedded systems are everywhere I There39s a microprocessor in your I An automatic garage door opener and each remote control also contains a microprocessor I The average new car has a dozen 0 BMW 7series has 63 0 Mercedes S class has 65 I Every modern car has electronic ignition 0 Ford Jaguars and Volvos use a PowerPC to control the engine I Automatic transmissions and Antilock brakes are microprocessor controlled as wel Embedded systems are everywhere I Got a Volvo o The processor in its automatic transmission communicates with the processors behind each sideview mirror 0 Allows the outside mirrors to automatically tit down and inward whenever you put car into reverse gear the better to see the back end of the car Embedded systems are everywhere l The Additional Processors in Your PC 0 There39s an 8bit processor in your keyboard 0 Another processor in your mouse 0 There s one in each hard disk drive and floppy drive if you still have one One in your CDROM A big one in your graphics accelerator A CPU buried in your USB interface A processor handling your NIC OOOO Common characteristics of embedded systems Singlefunctioned o Executes a single program repeatedly Tightlyconstrained 0 Low cost low power small fast etc Reactive and realtime o Continually reacts to changes in the system s environment 0 Must compute certain results in realtime without delay I Programmed in C or Java An embedded system example a digital camera Digital camera chip CCD preprocessor l l Pixel coprocessor l D2A lens 6 9 JPEG codec l lLicrocontroller l l MultiplierAccum l l DMA controller Display ctrl Memory controller I l ISA bus interface I l UART l LCD ctrl A A V CCD V Singlefunctioned always a digital camera V Tightlyconstrained Low cost low power small fast Reactive and realtime only to a small extent Design challenge optimizing design metrics I Obvious design goal 0 Construct an implementation with desired functionality I Key design challenge 0 Simultaneously optimize numerous design metrics I Design metric o A measurable feature of a system s implementation 0 Optimizing design metrics is a key challenge Design challenge optimizing design metrics I Common metrics O COStI the monetary cost of manufacturing each copy of the system excluding NRE cost NRE cost NonRecurring Engineering cost The onetime monetary cost of designing the system 0 Size the physical space required by the system Performance the execution time or throughput of the system Power the amount of power consumed by the system 0000 the ability to change the functionality of the system without incurring heavy NRE cost Design challenge optimizing design metrics I Common metrics continued 0 Timetoprototype the time needed to build a working version of the system 0 Timetomarket the time required to develop a system to the point that it can be released and sold to customers 0 Maintainability the ability to modify the system after its initial release 0 Correctness safety many more Design metric tradeoffs Expertise with both software and hardware is needed to optimize design metrics Notjust a hardware or software expert as is common A designer must be comfortable with various technologies in order to choose the best for a given application and constraints Because of the tradeoffs optimization is always a balancing act This image shows metrics as pushbuttons as you change a parameter push the button in the other buttons are pushed out Power 0 O O Performanc l NRE 17 cost Revenues Timetomarket a demanding design metric Market window Period during which the product would have highest sales I Average timetomarket constraint is about 8 months Delays can be costly O Time months Losses due to delayed market entry I Simpli ed revenue model P k 0 Product life 2W peak at W 0 Time of market entry defines a Peak revenue from 39 delayed entry trlangle Revenues penetration Marketfall o Triangle area equals revenue I LOSS o The difference between the 1 6 2w ontime and delayed triangle Ontime Delayed Time a reas entIy entIy U 2 The performance design metric Widelyused measure of system widelyabused o Clock frequency instructions per second not good measures 0 Digital camera example a user cares about how fast it processes images not clock speed or instructions per second Latency response time 0 Time between task start and end 0 eg Camera s A and B process images in 025 seconds Throughput o Tasks per second eg Camera A processes 4 images per second 0 Throughput can be more than latency seems to imply due to concurrency eg Camera B may process 8 images per second by capturing a new image while previous image is being stored l Speedup of B over S B s performance A s performance 0 Throughput speedup 84 2 Embedded system technologies Technology 0 A manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes methods or knowledge Three key technologies for embedded systems 0 Processor technology 0 IC technology 0 Design technology Processor technology I Processors vary in their customization for the problem at hand total O fori1toN loop total Mi end 100 Desired p functionality Generalpurpose Applicationspeci c Singlepurpose pfOCGSSOf processor processor Generalpurpose processors Programmable device used in a variety of applications 0 Also known as microprocessor Features 0 Program memory 0 General datapath with large register file and general ALU User benefits 0 Low timetomarket and NRE costs 0 High flexibility I Pentium the most wellknown but there are hundreds of others Controller Datapath Control Register logic and le State register I General ALU Program Data 1119111013 memory Assembly code for total 0 for i l to E Singlepurpose processors Digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program 0 Ex coprocessor accelerator or peripheral 10g Features 0 Contains only the components needed to U E m quotU E IIquot Controller execute a single program Data 0 No program memory memy Benefits 0 Fast 0 Low power 0 Small size Applicationspecific processors Programmable processor optimized for a particular class of applications having common characteristics 0 Compromise between generalpurpose and singlepurpose processors Features 0 Program memory 0 Optimized datapath 0 Special functional units Benefits 0 Some flexibility good performance size and power Controller Datapath contml Registers logic and State register Custom ALU I I Data Program 1116111013f memory Assembly code for total0 fori l to IC technology Three types of IC technologies 0 FullcustomVLSI o Semicustom ASIC gate array and standard cell 0 PLD Programmable Logic Device FullcustomVLSI IC Design I All layers are optimized for an embedded system s particular digital implementation 0 Placing transistors o Sizing transistors 0 Routing wires Benefits 0 Excellent performance small size low power Drawbacks 0 High NRE cost eg 300k long timetomarket Ems w k I Semicustom I Lower layers are fully or partially built 0 Designers are left with routing of wires and maybe placing some blocks Benefits 0 Good performance good size less NRE cost than a fullcustom implementation perhaps 10k to 100k Drawbacks 0 Still require weeks to months to develop Programmable Logic Devices I All layers already exist 0 Designers can purchase an IC 0 Connections on the IC are either created or destroyed to implement desired functionality o FieldProgrammable Gate Array FPGA very popular Benefits 0 Low NRE costs almost instant IC availability Drawbacks o Bigger expensive perhaps 30 p hungry slower A Summary I Embedded systems are everywhere I Key challenge optimization of design metrics 0 Design metrics compete with one another I A unified view of hardware and software is necessary to improve productivity I Three key technologies 0 Processor generalpurpose applicationspecific single purpose IC Fullcustom semicustom PLD Design Compilationsynthesis librariesIP testverification