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Principles of Biology I

by: Alyce Sawayn

Principles of Biology I BIOL 1110

Alyce Sawayn
GPA 3.91


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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyce Sawayn on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/228984/biol-1110-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Biology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Biology 1110 Warner 1 Outline for Cell Structure and Function The average size of most cells ranges from 10 to 100nm One pm is equivalent to 1 i meters Cells tend to be so small because they need to be able to take in nutrient and expel waste quickly The larger something is the longer this takes In relative comparison cells need a large surface area relative to a small volume This is referred to as a lame surface area to volume ratio Cells come in two basic varieties prokaryotic and eukaryotic The major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells can be summarized by these differences Feature Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Size Relatively smaller Relatively larger Organization of DNA a single loop of DNA several linear pieces of DNA called chromosomes Use of oxygen to produce Oxygen is not always Oxygen is usually needed energy in the process of needed cellular resiration No Yes I 0 An organelle is A compartment in the cell separated by a membrane where a specific specialized function takes place 0 The advantage of having organelles is This keeps things organized and efficient in the cell Biology 1110 Warner 2 The following sTrucTures are always found in bacTeria LisT Their funcTions STrucTure FuncTion Cell plasma OuTer boundary of The cell membrane leTs Things in and ouT of The cell Nucleoid Area where single loop of DNA is locaTed This is noT so much a parT buT more of a region where The DNA is Ribosomes Produces proTeins ProTeins are criTical for ANY organism They are The workhorse of The cell By The way The insTrucTions for The cell To make These proTeins is locaTed on The DNA CyToplasm Liquid porTion of The cell LoTs of chemical reacTions happen here The oThers sTrucTures are J J in This liquid I These sTrucTures are only found in of bacTeria LisT Their funcTions STrucTure FuncTion Cell wall An exTra layer usually made of pepTidoglycan on The surface of The cell This gives some exTra shape and proTecTion To The cell Flagella A quotTailquot The singular is flagellum This sTrucTure allows The cell To move Capsule A gooey layer of The surface of The cell This is a sTicky layer used To help The bacTerium adhere To a surface keep in mind ThaT surface could be you Pili Microscopic quothairsquot on The bacTerial cell surface These also aid in aTTachmenT To surfaces specialized Types can be used for a sorT of reproducTion in bacTeria Plasmid An exTra loop of DNA These are quiTe inTeresTing They ofTen conTain genes ThaT code for some sorT of resisTance To someThing ThaT mighT kill The bacTeria BacTeria ThaT have These resisTance genes can survive Things ThaT mighT ordinarily kill Them An example of This is anTibioTic resisTance This can be dangerous because when we geT infecTions we use anTibioTics To kill Them If The bacTeria have plasmids ThaT make Them resisTanT To The anTibioTics They won39T die Spores BacTerial cells can converT Themselves To spores as a survival sTraTegy These are also quiTe inTeresTing and RARE A few Types of bacTeria can converT Themselves To spores in bad condiTions These spores can live for years wiThouT waTer or nuTrienTs and They aren39T killed by Typical means Some spore forming bacTeria cause some major diseases such as anThrax TeTanus and boTulism Biology 1110 Warner 3 EukarxoTic Cells All organisms in The domain Eukarya are comosed of eukar oTic cells EukaryoTic cells are described as planTlike or animallike 1 n quot in The charT To conTrasT and Shape RecTangular Roundish Presence of a cell wall Yes No Presence of chloroplasTs Yes No Presence of a cenTral vacuole No For The following eukaryoTic cell sTrucTures indicaTe Their funcTion and circle if They are found in planTs animals or boTh STrucTure Membrane PlanTs FuncTion bound animals or boTh Cell membrane No BoTh OuTer boundary of The cell Ribosomes No BoTh ProTein synThesis CyToplasm No BoTh Liquid porTion of The cell Cell wall No A rigid layer on The surface of The cell membrane NoT The Made of cellulose AKA fiber which mainTains same as The The shape of The planT cells When we eaT The cell wall in cell wall of planTs we geT fiber in our dieT bacTeria Biology 1110 Warner 4 Flagella No Animals A quotTailquot MAYBE movemenT sperm are an example of an animal cell ThaT would need These CyToskeIeTon No BoTh A series of fibers ThaT runs Through The cell These are used To supporT The shape of The cell for reproducTion and for Tracks for oTher39 organelles To move along in The cell Cilia No Only found Microscopic quothairsquot on The cell surface on cer39Tain Types of cells noT a sTandar39d sTr39ucTur39e o WhaT happens To cilia when you smoke quot739111 ul39r39giqimillll Houses chromosomes 0 WhaT is The nucleolus a sTr39ucTur39e in The nucleus ThaT makes parTs of The ribosomes Biology 1110 Warner The endomembrane sysTem composed of The SER RER Golgi lysosomes and cenTral vacuole PLUS SmooTh Yes Endoplasmic ReTiculum SER o How does This relaTe To The developmen l39 of a Tolerance Rough Yes BoTh Y a 943 Endoplasmic The surface of The RER is sTudded wiTh ReTiculum ribosomes which creaTe proTeins These proTeins RER Then enTer The RER where They are modified This modificaTion ofTen involves adding a sugar which serves as a label To idenTify ThaT proTein Given ThaT a cell mighT have insTrucTions To make more ThaT 10000 differenT Types of proTeins labels are imporTanT The resulT is a glycoproTein Golgi complex Yes BoTh SorTs conTenTs from The ER and rouTes Them To Their appropriaTe locaTions some iTems may need To be senT To oTher places in The cell and some may need To be senT To The cell membrane To exiT The cell Lysosomes Yes BoTh sorT garbage disposalquot of in These conTain digesTive enzymes ThaT break down planTs The iTems Things The cell doesn39T need has Too sTrucTures much of or are damaged will be senT To The ThaT do lysosomes To be desTroyed This go by 0 WhaT is Tay Sachs disease oTher names Biology 1110 Warner Cen rral vacuole Storage of wafer and nu139rien1s irgor39l39an l39 for plan139s Ch loroplas rs Photosynthesis This is where plan139s c0nver139 carbon dioxide 1390 glucose The process also produces oxygen gas More 1390 come on 139his process la139er in 139he semes139er 0139her organisms d0n39139 need 1390 d0 139his because 139hey can ge139 139heir glucose by ea139ing 0139her organisms or absorbing i139 from 139he environmen139 Mi rochondria Yes Bo1h Aerobic cellular respira rion This is 139he process 139ha139 breaks down glucose in order 1390 produce ATP aka energy for 139he cell A n0139e on some unique fea139ures of chloroplas139s and mi1390ch0ndria o Bo139h of 139hese organelles have 139w0 unique fea139ures 139hey have 139heir own DNA and 139hey have a double membrane around 139hem The 139he0ry of endosymbiosis explains 139his This 139he0ry supposes 139ha139 a139 some p0in139 cer139ain bac139eria which have DNA and a cell membrane where engulfed by a larger cell The cells 139ha139 were once bac139eria are now living inside 139he larger cell


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