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Wireless Comm & Networking

by: Sidney Stehr

Wireless Comm & Networking ECGR 6120

Sidney Stehr
GPA 3.51

Ivan Howitt

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Ivan Howitt
Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sidney Stehr on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECGR 6120 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Ivan Howitt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/228997/ecgr-6120-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Electronics and Computer Technology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
ECGR 6120 Wireless Communications amp Networking Lecture I Ivan Howitt 11 MHMHUHE 1102008 1 Class 1 Outline 7 Syllabus 7 V CL A I UI39IIl 7 Wireless Overview mHmu rrE 1102008 2 Communications A Systems Overview 7 Analog amp Digital Systems 7 Destination signal should approximate source signal to Within a speci ed degree of fidelity analog or accuracy digital 7 Source amp Destination may require transducers 5W DECHNeIUITE 11 02008 3 Communications A Systems Overview 7 Distortion linear amp nonlinear Linear can be thought of as passing the transmitted signal through linear filter 7 Interference Other signals in the same frequency band 7 Noise Thermal noise ie White noise caused by random motion in charged particles 5139 DECHNeIUITE 1102008 4 Communications A Systems Overview 7 Fundamental llmlLaLiuu or channel capacity measured in bits second given by C Blog2l SN 7 Where B is the channel band width S is the average power of the transmitted signal and N is the average power in the noise ail U lmel lTE 1102008 5 Communications A Systems Overview I Communication System Design Goals 0 Received signal should be Within desired tolerance of transmitted signal 0 System design should be capable of tolerating anticipated levels of noise interference amp distortion 0 Minimize required channel bandwidth amp system cost 5139 DECHNeIUITE 1102008 6 Communications A Systems Overview 7 MOdUlatluu iVlethOdS 7 Involves two waveforms 7 Modulatin sinal ie information sinal 7 Carrier waveform selected based on application 7 Continuous Wave Modulation 7 AM amplitude modulation 7 FM frequency modulation 7 Pulse Modulation 7 PAM pulse amplitude modulation ail UECHNdUITE 1102008 7 Communications A Systems Overview 7 Why Modulate the Information Signal 7 Match Transmission medium 7 E for wireless transmission antenna lenth needs to be gt 1 10 the signal s wavelength 7 For 100 Hz implies 300 km antenna Impractical ll 7 For 100 MHz implies 03 m antenna Practical 7 Hardware considerations 7 Minimize hardware complexity and cost bandwidth carrier frequency 001 to U 1 7 Multiple Access ail UECHNdUITE 1102008 8 Why Wireless 7 Information Location 7 Libraries vs WW W 7 Files vs Databases 7 Information Timeliness 7 Industrial 7 Mobile Workforce 7 Efficienc amp Iml lementation 7 Commercial Time 7 Mobile Society 7 Efficienc amp Iml lementation I Info A I Info D D Info L 7 Untethered vs Cost vs Time Info Value ail m mm 1102008 9 Applications 7 Cellular First Generation Analog Voice Only AMPS Second Generation Digital Primarily Voice GSM IS95 Third Generation Data Services Modest Data Rates Fourth Generation Integrated Services C 7 Data Networks IP Networks Last Mile Last 100m Services WiMaX Wireless Mesh WiFiWiMaX based Wireless Sensor Networks Home Area Networks Industrial Sensing amp Control Network Car Area Networks Wireless Entry carhome garage 3333 3333 N ail U i WQUITE 1102008 10 Wireless Issues 7 Information Source Signals 7 Real time audio visual delity 7 Data impact due to latency quantity sensitivity to error 7 Locatlon SC Kange Cnannel 7 Medium air water vacuum 7 Environment buildings hills weather dust etc 7 Distances within meters building city nation planet etc 7 Time Variations mobile users weather new buildings etc 7 Service Type 7 Single UserMultiple User 7 One way or Two way Simplex or Duplex 7 Network Issues Routing Network Accesses Security EndtoEnd Q05 ail u HmumTE 1102008 11 Focus Cellular Systems 7 Applications 7 7 7 7 Issues 7 7 Telephony Wireless Local Area Networks Wireless Local Loops Signal real time speech Quality Error rates up to l to 5 Coverage Region country world Expediential growth users Channel many impairments m mu rrE 1102008 12 Cellular Concept 7 FCC licenses services in specific bands 7 Cellular band AMPS 25 MHZ bandwidth 832 channels Full Duplex 2 service providers per region NNNNN 7 416 channelsprovider 7 WiFi 30 kHz bandwidth channel Cellular Cellular am Pam M 9017902 929731 9340 III l agl 8967901 9407941 PCS PCS 15259 1850 19101930 199101355305 UL PC S 239072483 5 PCS 2180 2200 2130 215 US Frequency Allocation for Commercial Use ail DECEM UITE 1102008 13 Cellular Concept 7 Issue 7 Large service regions 7 Exponential user growth 7 Finite small voice channels 7 Trunking 7 Basestations have a pool of voice channels 7 Channels assigned amp relinquished 7 Frequency Reuse ail HECHMIUITE Signal Representation Bandwidth xt xtsin2m yt sin27t K 3sin2 gtlt 2750 I T 05sin7gtlt27t 0 1 2 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 E 09 A 0 imiihn 0 01 02 03 04 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 time 5 Frequency Hz 135 m mam 1102008 15 Signal Representation Digital Representation a Continuous to discrete b Continuous amplitude to time samples digital amplitude 5 5 I I 11 25 I I I 10 I I t5 n I I V r I Time digital 25 representation 01 5 Time Samples I 5 H 00 Amplitued 4 g I on a U 2 3 2 a 2 3 7 Quantlzatlon v w v Discrete time 7 Time Sam linv 2 X Hivhest Fre 1 7 Speech 2 X 4kHz 8ksps 1102008 16 represent amplitude with xed bits 7 Fidelity 8 bits ail UECHNdUITE Signal Representation Digital 7 Speech 7 Remember AMPS 7 Sampling rate 8 ksampless 7 Analog Standard 7 Bits 8 bitssample 7 Each channel 30 kHz 7 Required data rate 7 1 Userchannel prs X 8 ksps 64kbps 7 Using digital techniques 7 Bandwidth Data Rate 7 3 Userchannel 7 Speech Digital 7 3 fold increase in users Representation Bandwidth 7 US Digital Standard 64kbps 18136 7 Alternative Voice Encoders VOCODER 8kbps down to 4kbps 1102008 17 N CDMA Cellular IS95 ail U i WQUITE Multiple Access Techniques b TDMA E 5 d a 1 U N 5 t oquot quot D o H o o 5 7 time 111mm g uoueoone pueg frequency time c DS SS CDMA d FHSS air DECEmel l39l39E 1102008 18


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