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Intro to Robotics

by: Noemy Blick
Noemy Blick
GPA 3.89

James Conrad

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About this Document

James Conrad
Class Notes
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemy Blick on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECGR 4161 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by James Conrad in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/229003/ecgr-4161-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Electronics and Computer Technology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Preface Autonomous robots are intelligent machines capable of performing tasks in the world by themselves without explicit human control over their movements This book is an introduction to these remarkable systems which have proliferated in re cent years and promise to play a major role in our lives in the future The book has several objectives to provide a guided tour of the eld of autonomous robots in two ways rst by reviewing the hardware implementations of several hundred current systems and some of their application areas such as entertainment industry the military and personal service and second by introducing some of the technology underlying these robots and their uses including control architectures learning manipulation grasping navigation and mapping to review the biological inspiration that forms the basis of many current and recent developments in robotics to discuss some of the fundamental issues associated with robot control The breadth of the eld can be seen from the fact that the book includes discussions of wheeled robots legged robots with two four six and eight legs ying robots underwater robots snakelike robots climbing robots jumping robots and other kinds of robots We frequently de ne a robot as a machine that senses thinks and acts In arti cial intelligence such systems are known as agents Robots are distinguished from soft ware agents in that they are embodied and situated in the real world They receive information from the world through their sensors They can be touched and seen and heard sometimes even smelledl they have physical dimensions and they can exert forces on other objects These objects can be balls to be kicked parts to be assembled airplanes to be washed carpets to be vacuumed terrain to be traversed or cameras to be aimed Robots are also subject to the world s physical laws they have mass and inertia their moving parts encounter friction and hence produce xiv Preface heat no two parts are precisely alike measurements are corrupted by noise and alas parts breaki Robots also contain computers which provide them with ever increasing speed and power for both signal processing and cognitive functions The world into which we place these robots keeps changing it is nonstationary and unstructured so we cannot predict their behavior accurately in advance These are some of the features of autonomous robots They suffer from all the lim itations of the real world but because they are physical they also fascinate us This is particularly true of humanoid robots but there is some intrigue in all moving robots They are an imitation of life and we are drawn to watching themi It is not only the fact that they move that beguiles us since many things move in the world but that they appear to move intelligently they avoid obstacles they interact with one an other and they accomplish tasks For those of us who design and build them en abling them to perform these and other actions is precisely our goal This book is an introduction to both the science and practice of autonomous robots It can be used as a textbook in seniorlevel or rstyear graduate courses It is also a book of reference readings for practitioners in industry Although there is some mathematics in the book it appears primarily in connection with issues of con trol and localization The book does not however offer a rigorous treatment of ro bot control Rather it attempts to stimulate to pose questions to review the way in which robots are designed constructed and used and to provide some perspective on a rapidly changing eld Some chapters like those providing overviews of mobile robots chapter 7 legged locomotion chapters 8 and 9 and humanoid robots chapter 13 should be accessible to anyone with some engineering or computer science background or even an intelligent layperson with no formal technical training Autonomous robots are increasingly evident in many aspects of industry and ev eryday life As Rodney Brooks of MIT stated in a recent article The robots are here They are accepted by military organizations since they are capable of recon naissance and other missions They are very evident in the entertainment industry where they appear as pets or even as soccer players In the service industries robots are being used or considered for use in such tasks as vacuuming carpets washing air planes lling gasoline tanks of automobiles and delivering meals in hospitals and mail to o ices I believe that during the next twenty years we will see autonomous robots appear in many aspects of our personal and professional lives We may not recognize some of them since they may be embedded in our cars or kitchen appliances or innu merable other objects with which we interact Mobile autonomous robots will also become increasingly evident not only in the exploration of distant planets or under sea environments but also in the performance of numerous services for people in Preface xv health care industry the environment and our homes These will indeed be exciting years for roboticists There are several hundred pictures of robots from many laboratories throughout the world in this book Even so the eld is growing so rapidly that it was impossible to include all of the robots that have been developed So I apologize to all my col leagues whose robots are not mentioned in the book and whose articles are not citedi I am grateful to all of you for helping to create this dynamic eld This book would not have been possible without the help of numerous colleagues and friends I would like to acknowledge my intellectual debt of gratitude to Rodney Brooks of MIT from whose work I learned to look at the intelligence and control of robots in a totally new way to my USC colleague Michael Arbib whose astounding breadth of knowledge about both the brain and robotics continues to be a source of inspiration for me and to my late colleague Rajko Tomovic from the former Yugo slavia from whom I learned many analogies between human control and robot con trol I am also immensely grateful to my other USC colleagues particularly Maja Mataric and Gaurav Sukhatme for their support for sharing some of their deep knowledge of the eld with me and for continuing and vastly enhancing the robotics program I started many years earlier I also want to thank all my former doctoral students particularly those who worked in robotics and related areas including Andrew Frank John Coggshall Jim Chang Fred Hadaegh Dan Antonelli Howard Olsen Tasos Chassiakos Huan Liu DitYan Yeung Danilo Bassi Gerard Kim Patti Koenig Arvin Agah Tony Lewis John Kim Gaurav Sukhatme Alberto Behar Michael McHenry Ayanna Howard Jim Montgomery and Stergios Roume liotis Over the years it has become clear that I have learned more from them than they have from me The book would have never been nished without the help of Arun Bhadoria and Catherine Hrabari Most of the line drawings in the book were made by Arun a for mer student whose friendship I value immenselyi Catherine wrote most of the letters requesting permission to use gures organized all the captions for the gures and made sure that no details were omitted Were it not for her amazing skills at organi zation the details associated with the book would have been a nightmare Thank you both from the bottom of my heart Finally without the support love and patience of my wife I could not have n ished the book Thank you dear Shirley for putting up with me when my head was somewhere else and I was buried in the book instead of replacing burnedout light bulbs the way a husband shouldi George A Bekey Arroyo Grande California m2 4M am me 2405 0 LAOS 7 3M 4M M bvwlg bead 13900 Mb Take hbm az 2M V Q FWJQS 9 W345 ZV beigems ECG 416 Etc WasCi sKoq M5 7mm 0 mm boavoe Por OMBW Bsm M23 I Prim in 10004 52W ml fa Z Ga f PanF5 3 Cod icMfew Wm lt 5M6 4 6le mam S 591 aha fs 9 333 MW M WWWWW Y a saw PETS 5 attacks 4 121 wqukxl 4W pmw Noioad 0 Tod WMO IVV WA Desawcws l5 9 9y s TV WOMVWMOQ Z39 2 30 mm M wowva zuzsz Ck FYWM W29 3 71915 60 wm w 996 QVZS 50 80M 9008 Kg 0v EC9 4 quot MAG quot3496 39 67 025181 Pc ew I MACVVB QWQWIVQ5 iocvmmd m C011 l 69quott wilabb bAVfi WW 239 74h l a CKSUVt WWI o Pdcs m 3 796m quotimam av Md Ag 2 cowlwmmd 464mm 39 a uxquot 39 39 WV Mk 39 Ma m vr quot each for Z WV Wnlc donAg 3 ECG Z HGI grin M0467 yr77 Gull i5 A D9113 N VWEMQL CPmSM Ivth You Mimi 3 H datan Mwb m gawk 0 DCSIQM T3 con 44 D IS 391 bm lotduc 5 Is bdll39l amHy7 F 9 W 3970 PW iw Iedewa aui DDvM Zo umds JP Macover 2 600m 6A May M eadA commacl 5 Dry 2 Mo vvs wot cWMe 4 R14th Mess Lua39t wSruks mow 5W1 9 Covdl Mon Ancilw om owned 3 f06I QEXbE 39lb be bOIH by 0m mucus 5iM RB paw I Tum y CERAUGs EKM a jQq WE r Vzolc ofes 40M chm bOaa 6 VON5amp5 7 PWM gt 1 1M 0 QM 0mg M 3 gum wd Pv 6amp0 ng 0w Po 5wwts W4 WHHO W W 2 92 ee9v s T20 0u6 1 ma 29 070 www Em 3600 faQE a 901073th I 9amp8 W9 7 n m 5 w faq 4 Oomba l Ob i gk Wm 6608 E gums 5 600140 an rgbod39 0w MOU H Da lg L5 VWT 12173 39 m PM i chongi W w ax quot owfew Dam Azsv mch 39 2030 Whrhdw gw4 39ff rwvf u lavaA Wklya 2 Ms W Va w o Pad 43 av I0 ECGBAHH 54 M4 Vato q M h g 231256 z Zwtloz r Vmc 1P 25 ms 127 9st 5 46 390 51 75 256 5v 1 439 1024 V wa 39v 10 amp 0x03ij 030 2 0000 000 nu oooo 39 09009 Hum 500 com uuobbo39 5 E 4 395quot Wu quot4 lwm Wer B Vi ME A at bmm 1 WOWQ QM U 76227 EWPLQS WM wake k WW9 A 5 localize qu er Counde quot Yam lei systows 064724 2 6061M bow H W4 9 t Irw We r quotm s oq a diNf C J W bu Sub ona ws role a We 7 Microcontroller Introduction TMHNHlME Embedded Systems 21 Data Formats for the Renesas Microcontroller 7 an 8 bits N NM NM DATA H slgned amp unsigned M2 M2 unsigned range N3 Na 0 to 255 unsigned char a W 53990quot Word 27 he N N 39 15 b NH NH signed amp unsigned N2 N2 3 N s unsigned range 55535 2mm Address data Long Word 132m data int b unsigned int b Longword 32 bits signed and unsigned unsigned range 4294967294 long int c unsigned longint c I mtgMimi Embedded Systems Review of the Renesas Architecturei Microcontroller I a a a a a a a General purpose i 4 km i i LFM 1 Re isters E g mpiyuHW Elimdmgi 39m milkquot EWLI lllllil I 7 Flash 1quot quotf39 39mn 7 39 Hemtr a TinHui 39hlgmmlwl Clad with quotii CI l maul m mlljtm I bin1 dun hl E J Digital Ports Wigwam a g If I wash hm Analog Ports I 391 a Timers m E Equot 39 E l E I Oscmator l E H 39 L 39 m L 2 a DMA Controller 3 r i39i39ll I pcdm l ata39J purl a Reliability I n a and safety 39 39 s I E 3 39 3 3 mtgEm i mm39 HERE Furl P11 DbF39H HistDrth 1281quot erl 5 g N HMEIUITE Embedded Systems 23 Memory Map for Renesas Microcontrqller IIID DEIh quot i sea 39 d h Intern al W1 LFEuer HAM Area Area 3391 ME 513 El 125 TF39FFh M MFTFI39I R ew d an F Fh IIIFIIEIIEI39h Hugh Em 4kg data Nate User pragrams must bl Wk nni use shaded areas 10 DUh REEE39BWEU A l h Special Page Area Hash ROM Fanln Area 33413 FFFDICh FFE39Mquot Fixed Vector Area FFFFFhi g MHARIUITE Embedded Systems 24 A C Code Proie ctf 7 You will use an Integrated Development Environment IDE to develop compile load and debug your code Your entire code package is called a project Often you create several files to spilt the functionality Several C files Several include h files Maybe some assembly language a30 files Maybe some assembly language include inc files A lab like Lab7 will be your project You may have three c three h one a30 and one inc files 5E TLRZLH u IDTI39E Embedded Systems 35 Compiling a C Program 7 C Entire mechanism is usually called H eader Files the compiler Preprocessor macro substitution I I I I CPreprocessor conditional compilation sourcelevel transformations output is stiIIC Compiler Compiler generates object file T Cd machine Instructions Linker combine object files including libraries lTibrary Linker into executable image OblectFI39es Symbol Table Executable Image 5 y N HN UITE Embedded Systems 36 Compiler Source Code Analysis frontend parses programs to identify its pieces variables expressions statements functions etc depends on language not on target machine Code Generation back end generates machine code from analyzed source may optimize machine code to make it run more efficiently very dependent on target machine Symbol Table map between symbolic names and items like assembler but more kinds of information my MKHNEIDTT E Embedded Systems 37 D39gital InputOutput IIO Ports The fundamental interfacing Port P8 direction register subsystem 3 525 ll f Port bits can be inputs or outputs M30626 has fourteen Programmable IO 0 WWW Ports total of 106 digital lO bits PO to ggmmi saquotinbiiibori Functions as an output poll 13 8 bits each P14 2 For some other MCUs some ports may be limited to only input or output Direction register sets bit direction Port Direction register names PDx 1 Output 0 Input Port P8 register Data register holds actual data 8 b1 My Port data register names Px P5 03 M16062P Hardware Manual The value is 0 when read When reset XX 1 6 Note 0 Lquotleveldala 1 H levedala L level data 1 H level data 5quot MHNZIUTFE Embedded Systems 7398 Example P6 Echoes Nibble Data Configuring port to desired structure Top 4 bits 47 of P6 are inputs Clear bits 47 of PD6 Bottom 4 bits of P6 are outputs Set bits 03 of PD6 Bits 74 395 ill metme Embedded Systems 79 Example in C P6 Echoes Nibble Data Reading and writing data 1 nd ude Sfr62p h Load data from input port defi ne DIROUT 1 Move top nibble to bottom def i ne DIRIN 0 Write data to output port un519ned Char 3 Jump backto start pd6 Oxfo V Now let s invert the data before pd60 pd61 DIROUT writing it out pd62 pd63 DIROUT Load data from input port pd64 pd65 DIRIN Move top nibble to bottom pd 6 pd6 7 DIR IN Invert it complement Wh e l 6 Write data to output port 2 gt 21 Jump back to start p5 a b ail MQHARIUITE Embedded Systems 710 Sample Code fromiDiemo inc1ude quotstdiohquot sprintf void main inc1ude quotsfr62phquot char buf9 inc1ude quotSKPLCDhquot iong int i r12345 inc1ude quotstringhquot initswitches define REDLED p80 from board schem initLEDs define YELLED p74 InitDisp1ay define GRNLED p72 if 0 define LEDON 0 0 is GM for LEDs testswitches define LED0FF 1 endif Disp1ayStringLCDLINE1 quotResponsequot define DIRIN 0 Disp1ayStringLCDLINE2 quot Timer quot define DIROUT 1 whi1e1 for i0 ilt200000r50000 i define SW1 p83 define SW2 p82 i0 define SW3 p8l REDLED YELLED GRNLED LEDON whi1e SW1 void initswitches i39 pd81 pd82 pd83 DIRIN if 1 sprintfbuf quot81dquot i Disp1ayStringLCDLINE1 buf void initLEDs Disp1ayStringLCDLINE2 quotiters quot pd 0 pd74 pd72 DIROUT e1se REDLED YELLED GRNLED LEDON sprintfbuf quot83fquot i39l287674 REDLED YELLED GRNLED LED0FF Disp1ayStringLCDLINE1 buf Disp1ayStringLCDLINE2 quotmi11isecquot endif void testswitchesvoid REDLED YELLED GRNLED LED0FF whi1e 1 r REDLED lswl LEDON LED0FF whi1e lswl wait for switch to come YELLED lSWZ LEDON LED0FF up GRNLED SW3 LEDON LED0FF r 1 5E TLRZLHMUDTI39E Embedded Systems 711 From Analog to Digital Embedded systems often need to measure values of physical parameters These parameters are usually continuous analog and not in a digital form which computers which operate on discrete data values can process A Comparator is a circuit which compares an analog input voltage with a reference voltage and determines which is larger returning a 1bit number An Analog to Digital converter AD or ADC is a circuit which accepts an analog input signal usually a voltage and produces a corresponding multibit number at the output Comparator AD Converter VinO Vref 0 0 1 Vinl V In 0 Clock 1 all MilMUMPS Embedded Systems 812 ADC Basic Functionailityi n converted code n sampled input voltage Vref upper end of input voltage range Vef lower end of input voltage range N number of bits of resolution in ADC 5uu33Hmu nTE 33Ov210 1 Vm Vef 2N 1 Vref V 12 quotef int Vm 2N 112 int ref Vref 0V 2675 v 12 7 int Embedded Systems 813 ADC Transfer Function The ideal output from an AD converter is a stairstep function see right Ideal worst case error in conversion is i 12 bit 1101 Silli iiaf ed Missing codes or the 00 imperfections where 1011 increasing voltage does not 1010 result in the next step being g 1001 output are described as non8 1000 monotonicity 5 0111 g 1LSB Errors in AD conversion 3 0110 may be significant 0101 particularly if the full range of 0100 the analog signal is 0011 M39SS39 gc de significantly less than the 0010 range of the analog input of 0001 the ND 0000 10 V Input Voltage 10 V xi Milimam E Embedded Systems 814 M30626P ADC Perig eral 10 bit successive approximation converter can operate in 8 bit mode Input voltage 0 to VCC Reference voltage applied to VREF pin Can be disconnected with VCUT bit to save power Input Multiplexer 8 input channels 7 TIELHMHDTI39E Embedded Systems 81 5 InEut Mux 262I but 626 similar Decoder for channel selection P011 P2 group P101AN1 LNCCHAKLUTFE Embedded Systems J 3934 M30262 Converter Overview 626P similar AVSS 07 VCUT1 Aunrssses 0301I503C0 s 03CF15D3CE15 Comparator 6E1 LNCCHAJHD39ITE Embedded Systems Repeated ADC The microcontroller performs repeated AD conversions and can read data whenever needed adconO 0X88 adconl 0x28 adcon2 0X01 adst l Start a conversion here Then in your procedure TempStore adO amp 0X03ff r TJELHMHDTI39E Embedded Systems 81 8 E662 4wl 5 was 4407 its pr ron r Ma a 9 r f M Mud V gisicw u m go I Wigs e w c V 4quot WltcQNW4x c l e89 WW AS quotwade Mre mr l VWV ECG 4 P g 1ch w XMVJ 3 jq 45v Zwo WM 1973 200 PP r J 47 9417 5 3M 15quot 435 PPS 425730 640 quotE j Mka fiq 016 Cb4VL quot vatvvt WM 7 1 060 WWI DAG CG 4 oatCaquot 07 MW 1 e 6 6W WQ OML ll 9 1 Jc wqu aa IOO PW Fibcwmb T5 gj WW W542 WNW3g i 44 1 30 2019 m emq 2 ExC g f M w W 7 bnnggxljof gxw Ba ao am imqmglMVL MHZ saw 414 EYM N095 4500t AM owa mew quots D E w Cvdc f M5 Semr uar 21m WoaoQ W04 40 WW L399 applica ong 5d CMN 6M a m yguqlubc CI P 0 COOPevaHNcobuy SWMM mb ch 0 5 moic LII3 nk Wad Hm scam g COMP 2 1 1w3L Mum 4zo Wu 4 Now 42 390 W IthCSquot 416 E m 119 en f ML ota kwa W3 kFoM a in quotI 4M saw ow ML 1 k0 7 f cm P0 39 ous 31 QC 5 0W6 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