Week 10 Lecture Notes
Week 10 Lecture Notes PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Week 10 Lecture Notes Monday 101915 Social behavior of the week Think of a time when you needed help Describe the time you needed help Did you receive help Why or why not Would you help someone else if that person were in your situation Passionate love 0 Usually is short term and intense 0 Two factors necessary 1 Physiological arousal and 2 Companionate Love 0 Is a caring relationship based on trust and mutual respect 0 Tends to be long lasting Marital Satisfaction 0 Typically declines over time o More interdependent they do things together have shared hobbies take vacations together couples stay together Schindler a heroic helper he hired Iewish workers in his factory and he tried to protect them from the Nazi s and persecution He grabbed a child that was in line to be sent to a death camp and came up with an excuse to the Nazi to save this child Made sacrifices to help his workers But nobody helped Catherine Genovese on her way home a man jumped out and attacked Catherine Genovese All her neighbors heard her screams and turned on their lights The attacker ed but nobody came out of his or her apartment to help her and nobody called the police until 35 minutes later The attacker came back and assaulted her for half an hour Synonyms 0 Helping altruism and prosocial behavior are all synonyms Helping is intentional and has no obvious benefits for the help giver Are humans truly altruistic Do people help others for the benefit of others or do they always have some type of selfish motivation Being helpful is rewarding so people do it for the reward egoistic alternative Empathyaltruism hypothesis says yes humans are truly altruistic if a person s emotional response is empathic meaning that they identify with them then the motive is altruistic Why people help 0 Evolutionary Factors I Heredity genetics determines social behavior Assumes that helping provides an adaptive or reproductive advantage This would mean people who were helpful either lived longer or had more children that survived to reproduce I Kinship selection The genetic advantage to helping relatives 9 you are helping your genes to survive Under risky conditions you have to risk your life to help someone else people are more willing to help kin people who are related than a friend or a stranger I Reciprocal altruism helping a friend who returns the favor I Cooperative groups have a survival advantage over those that wouldn t help each other out selfish groups 0 Social norms social expectations about how we ought to behave I The reciprocity norm We should help others who have helped us This norm is universal We are afraid others will see us as a moocher if we don t return the help I We reciprocate based on the intention of the helper I Exception to reciprocity reactance feeling that our freedom is being threatened might make a person less likely to reciprocate help you don t want to feel obligated to help especially if you think they only helped you in order to manipulate you 0 The social responsibility norm we should help others who depend on US Wednesday 102115 Remember only your 5 tops scores on social behaviors out of the 7 count towards your score Modeling models bring social responsibility norm to our attention 0 0 After seeing someone make a donation we do too Children model adults behaviors rather than words More in uenced by what the adults do rather than what they say Christians who saved Jews from Nazis I Irena is credited for saving Iewish children whose parents died in Nazi camps The Nazis tortured her for information about the children s whereabouts but she wouldn t give in Many of the people who saved Jews from the Nazis identified with a moral parents Rescuers tend to be adventurous and competent Why Modeling Increases Helping Behavior 0 Focuses attention on helping brings it to your awareness rather than being able to pass by a donation box without thinking about it Supplies information about what is appropriate Supplies information about consequences of helping if people compliment someone else who helped Is a person in need of help in that position due to personal reasons or situational Causal attribution 0 Was the cause of the victim s problem controllable o If uncontrollable cause we feel sympathy and will help that person 0 But if controllable we feel disgust and do not help Reinforcement 0 Helping increases when it is rewarded 0 External rewards for helping I Our past reinforcement history if we ve been rewarded for helping someone before people are more likely to help again I If there are immediate costs for helping we won t o Biblical Good Samaritan I Students in a divinity school were told to go give speeches either about vocational role of ministers or about the Good Samaritan story Some of each group was told they had time to give this speech while others were told they needed to hurry and give the speech across campus in a few minutes When someone a confederate fell down in their path regardless of what they were giving a speech on people who were in a rush were much less likely to help it would be costly to help because it would cause them to be late 0 Internal rewards for helping I Helping increases the helper s mood and selfesteem I You will get all you want in life if you help enough other people get what they wantquot Zig Ziglar Situation In uences in Helping 0 Does the number of bystanders affect helping YES 0 Bystander effect The more bystanders there are watching an emergency the less likely it is that the victim will be helped 0 Lady in Distress Experiment a woman posed as a marketing researcher and they had different numbers of people come to the office to fill out questionnaires She goes in a back room and plays a tape of her falling down crashing and getting hurt If there is only one person in the office they are likely to help But if a stranger of confederate is there and doesn t do anything people are unlikely to help If it s two friends they are more likely to help Five Steps to the Bystander Effect 0 1 Noticing We don t always notice emergencies when we re in a group or we are distracted by something else 0 2 Interpreting Situations are often ambiguous We don t know exactly what s going on just by what we re observing We tend not to interpret a situation as an emergency when we are in a group I Social comparison in emergencies When physical reality is ambiguous we rely on social reality We ask ourselves What do others thinkquot Other people are often nonresponsive so we use social comparison if they aren t worried then maybe we shouldn t worry and decide not to do anything We define the situation as nonemergency I is present everyone is upset but no one knows it o 3 Taking Responsibility People need to feel personally responsible for helping a person in need There s a diffusion of responsibility 9 as a group grows larger each individual feels less responsible Friday 102315 Diffusion of responsibility as a group grows larger individual feels less responsible When people are begging for money on the street would they be more likely to get help if there were in a town or in a big city town Five Steps to the Bystander Effect Continued 0 4 Deciding how to help Do we feel competent enough 0 5 Providing help Am I too inhibited Is this going to be costly could I get in trouble for helping this person or might I get hurt Better to do something even if someone doesn t need help 9 better safe than sorry Iust knowing about the bystander effect can make you less likely to become a victim of it Personal In uences o Agreeable and humble people are more likely to help 0 Pleasant odors improve mood and increase helping o Mood happy people are helpful people 0 Success leads people to help 0 Why does a good mood promote helping I Try to maintain our good mood we usually feel good after helping someone I Having happy thoughts improve helping o The effects of a bad mood on helping are unclear we don t know whether it reduces improves doesn t affect the likelihood of helping Guilt 0 People who feel guilty are often helpful 0 Reparative altruism After harming someone we try to repair the damage by helping someone Empathetic people 0 Empathy is when you actually take on the other person s perspective you fee their pain compared to sympathy where you simply feel bad for someone else 0 They feel another person s discomfort o Tend to be more helpful Which gender is more helpful 0 Women provide more social support and are more concerned with others women tend to be more empathetic 0 Men are more agentic helping when strength is needed or when danger is involved Aggression Aggression behavior intended to harm another person A harmful outcome doesn t always indicate aggression accidents that harm others are not classified as aggression Also a harmful intention alone IS considered aggression 0 Example someone who tries to punch you but misses is still showing an act of aggression o Attempted murder is still punishable Aggression has a long history Perspectives on the causes of aggressive behavior 0 Evolutionary Psychology I Says aggression is part of our genetic makeup I Freud proposed a death instinctquot or Thanatos turned inward leads to selfpunishment or masochism turned outward leads to murder and destruction 0 Freud and the hydraulic model I Aggression builds up unless expressed we re born with this aggressive instinct and it will boil over if we don t find some way to express it I It s an inevitable negative facet of life I Needs to be channeled into socially desirable acceptable way 9 this is call sublimation An example of sublimation would be channeling negative stress and aggression into football 0 Ethology I Ethologists study animals in the wild in their natural habitat I Says aggression has positive survival value allows for protection of one s offspring doesn t feel like aggression feels like a defensive reaction ensures that the strong survive get to mate and reproduce I Ethologists also adopt the hydraulic view Sex differences in aggression o Males are more aggression in physical and directverbal types of aggression but females are show slightly more aggression in indirect ways than males 0 Women in ict emotional or relational aggression 0 Men s aggression does physical damage
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