Principles of Chemistry II
Principles of Chemistry II CHEM 1252
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Glenna Mitchell III on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1252 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Kathryn Asala in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/229035/chem-1252-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Chemistry at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Figure 14 The three physical states of water W M m Important Characteristics of Gases Gas Pressure and Its Measurement P force area ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 39 is the by the atmosphere above us Measured using a barometer a device that can welgh the atmosphere above us Figure 102A mercury barometer Vacuum H g Almospliel Ic 1 preswre Common Units of Pressure Unit ansplleric Pressure atmosphere am 1 aimquot millimeters of mercury mm Hg 760 mmHgquot torr 760 torrquot Pascal Pd 101325 Nm2 Pa Boyle s Law P V Relationship WNW Mumpm V V H mm 1 l 71 l l v an u MW 7 u ml Figure 106 Figure 107 Graphs based on Boyle39s Law Charles Law V T Rela ns E Figure 109 m n ma mu m 7 w 2an 7 mm umlL Avogadro s Law Amount n and Volume Fig 1011 He N2 cu1 anume 224 L EAL 24L Prcsxurc 1 Mm 1 mm 1 mm Temperature U C O C 0 C Mas or gas um g 2811 1n n g Number of wz X In 502 x mquot 102 gtlt 10quot gas mnleculeS Ideal Gas Law An ideal gas The ideal gas equation is PV nRT R 008206 L atmmo K 8314 Jmol K Relationship between the Ideal Gas Law and the Individual Gas Laws IDEAL GAS LAW PVnFlT or v fixed fixed fixed n and T n and P Pand T Boyle39s law Charles39s law Avogadro39s law V w v constant x T V constant x n Standard Temperature and Pressure STP Standard temperature 0 C 27315 K 0 Standard pressure 1 atm 760 mm Hg 0 At these standard conditions if you have 10 mole of a gas it will occupy a standard molar volume Gas Problem 1 A gas sample in the laboratory has a volume of 459 L at 25 OC and a pressure of 743 mm Hg If the temperature is increased to 155 0C by pumping compressing the gas to a new volume of 310 mL what is the pressure Gas Problem 2 Calculate the pressure in a container whose volume is 875 L and it is filled with 5038 kg of gtltenon Xe at a temperature of 188 0C Gas Problem 3 How many liters of CO2 are formed at 100 atm and 900 OC if500 L of propane at 100 atm and 25 0C is burned in excess air C3H8 g 5 02 g gt 3 C02 9 4 H20g Further Applications of the Ideal Gas Law Density Molar Mass Partial Pressure in Gas Mixtures The Density of a Gas Recall m moles7 amp d molarmass volume PV nRT n moles Gas Mixtures 0 Gas behavior depends on the number not the identity of gas particles 0 Ideal gas equation applies to each gas individually and the mixture as a whole 0 All particles in a sample of an ideal gas behave exactly the same way Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Dalton s Law of Partial Pressure cont d 0 Pressure exerted by an ideal gas mixture is determined by the total number of moles 0 Each component in a mixture contributes a fraction of the total number of moles in the mixture mole fraction X1 Dalton s Law Problem A mixture of gases contains 446 mol Ne 074 mol Ar and 215 mol Xe What are the partial pressures of the gases if the total pressure is 200 atm Ideal Gas Law and Reaction Stoichiometry The ideal gas law can be used to convert between gas variables P T V and amount n of gaseous reactants andor products Gas Law Stoichiometry Problem A slide separating two containers is removed and the gases are allowed to mix and react The rst container has an excss ofammonia gas at a temperature of 187 0C The second container has a volume of 116 L of HCI gas at a pressure of 0932 atm and a temperature of 187 0C The reaction that proceeds is given below What mass of solid ammonium chloride will be formed NH3g Hckg NH4CI5 The KineticMolecular Theory A Model for Gas Behavior Figure 1017 The molecular origin ofgas ressure p 4 p I v I Postulates of the KineticMolecular Theonl BattingJam Particle motion Postulates cont d Particle forcs Figure 1018 The effect of temperature on molecular speeds 0C 7 WC r X m1 Ni x w arweml mm Diffusion vs Effusion o Diffusion One gas mixing into another gas or gases 0 w i the molecules are colliding with each other and exchanging energy between molecules 0 Effusion A gas escaping from a container Into a vacuum There are no other or few collisions Molecular Effusion and Diffusion o rms speed is inversely proportional to the square root of molar mass Graham s Law of Effusion The rates of effusion of two gases at the same temperamre and pressure in identical containers can be exprssed as cwmmwamm Fig 1025 and 1026 33 eal Beha Corrections for No r o The idealgas equation can be adjusted to iake these deviations from idml behavior into account 0 The corrected idaIgas equation is known as the van der Waals equation P 2 f V nbnRT TABLE van dErWaals Cnnsrams m Ga Muleculus Subsiance I lLmu I In uvozavn Nu 00171 Ar 00322 Kr 10398 Xu ms 1 u 17 1 0266 NI 00391 03 mm H 12 00562 1 110 00305 cm 00428 CoI 011427 cm i 01383 Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces Liquids Solids Rewew Secuons 8 478 7 and 9 179 3 Rev39ew Sect39ons 8 7 and 9 93 1 r w a complete and accurate umee dimel lsiol la s a ll39lclude dlrecuol lallty for lone palrs but ll39lclude e O Lewls Structure 3 AsBr b Xer 2 Determll39le me molecular geometry and me polarlty of each molecule m 1 umeuun uumpnusun of Gases Liquids and Solids qe 1mm molly N lle mlwwl rml m Mm m Mp ll 1 p m lmlm Wm Flgure 11 1 States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces n mp mm and pressure depends on two antagomsuc factors e The kmeuc energy ofme parudes r The strength of the attraction between the garudes IonDipole Forces Q Q 939 a 9 3 1m 11M mudw Fun 113 DipoleDipole Forcs Hm mltm linn 1m 11quot any m n oppmlh 11mm ulmcuw mm quota hum m uu 1m mum uw mm m 51mm 41an h Tummy p ngure 114 Dinah Mnmml mu n In Attracter betwee a s E NOF Hydrogen Bonding n mu e ma kmgh y e ectruneg an arm smaH e ectrunegatwe m u we 3 Elm bundedtu awe ammthh une e ectrun paws ns ared e ectrun pawn a me n ratum a m p m aux Water m ecmes n u l H 9 a 1 6 V 9 0 u Hquot n u I mg 0 The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on the Boiling Point Compound BoililggDPoinl H20 100 H25 750 3 HZSe r41 Je 72 Covalent Bonding and H Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA bonding in the tructure o London Dispersion Forces e a e Helium atom 2 Whiie eiecuons m the 15 orbitai of heiium tend to repei each other ilvivum Mum 1 London Dispersion Forces London Dispersion Forces iimrmim innitnun tr 2 i 829 e a iiviium iium i a i a 5 Helium Mom 2 London persinn Forces These forces are present if a rnoiecuies whether they are poiar or nonpoiar The strength of the dispersion force is dependent on how easiiy the charge distribution if a moiecuie can be distorted to induce i poie a momentary d Additional Factors Affecting London Forcs Wx Shape ufmuiecuie Numberufeiectruns 8 e Tabie ii 3 Mumquot m lamul my Which Have a Grater Effect nm i rl39hn i lnl m h h rDiSperSioi i Forces7 If two molecules are of comparable size and shape If one molecule is much larger than another Predicting the Type and Relative Strength of In termolecular Forces Problem List the intermolecular forces that is present h each i wuh the higher boiling point h each pair a 12 777777777 COZ 777777777 higher boiling point7 b CHZCl 77777777 CHKOH 777777 higher boiling point7 Intermolecular Forces Affect Many Physical Propertis The strength at the a etluns b Ween panleles ean greatly atteet the prupemes uf a substance ur sulutlurl Meltlngbulllng pulrlt Vlseuslty Surface tenslun co ty Reslstarlce ofa llquld to ow lS called vlscoslty It lS related to the ease wrth whteh molecules can move past each other Surface Tension llqulu ls attraete u bythe mulecules surruurldlrlg lt resultlrlg ln no n ction in any direction Flg 1115 Phase Changes Gas nywnlminu unduninlimv sttthmtimt ntpntitmt Liquid tttthtp mm 117 Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State Heat of tuston mm E a t hergy requtred to change a sohd at tts rnemng potnt to hand AHW Heat of vaporization a gas Heat of subhmauoh mm Energy regurred to change a sohd to a gas The heat added to the Figure 119 Heating Curve Sohd gtLiquid eVapor t rnattherneun rnotecutes farther apart from each other r t r The temperature of the gurrng the phase rtrr change The pre Fig 11 r w Liquid unarmi U I iqimi Mm nm unlmrrlimn Mu i Iu m Vapor Pressure ssure orme vapor present at equiiibrium 22 nqmlihnum vapm Fri um M will i hriumr mnlu mp iiquhl at the smm39 4h Vapor Pressure Hedict and he intermo pressure rationalize the affect fhe sh39engfh of lecular forces would have on he vapor Evaporation an F e Equiiibrium is never esrabirsned 7 Liquid evaporate to dryness t Va or Pressure and Bo n P The Wu of a hqurd rs me temperature at whrch rs vapor pressure equa s atmospherrc pressure r mm rr mm Mquot WM 1 h u r ur v mayme r rr Frg 1124 Phase Diagram Represehe me phases as a ruheuOh ofterrperamre a d pressure rdehu es where equrhprra exrsr between phases Importantfeamres 1 regrOhs of me dragrarh 2 hhes between regrOhs 3 crmca pomt 4 mp e pomt 29 g 11 7a PhaseD gram ofWater 1 p hm quid walur YI quId hm w u owl Tumpcmlum m 1 Fig 1127 b Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide 73 Aim 5 u Aim t a alm C011 cow quot1X 1 com quotWY 1 77quot 3i icm ummm i u Useful Constants Avogadro sNumber N 6022 x 1023 mol Mass of electron 911 x 103931 kg Specific heat of H20 I 4184 Jg C Mass of neutron 1675 x 103927 kg Planck s constant h 663 x 103934 J s Mass of proton 1673 x 103927 kg Speed of light in a vacuum c 300 x 108 ms 19 Electron char e 1602 x 1039 C Gas Constant R Singm 01 K g giga G 109 nano n pico p Formulae d yield I x 100 mass maSSO fsolute X 100 m m01 solute V theoretical yield mass solution kg solvent 07 V Ehv h c A h En218x1039 J l AE E E A mv 39 2 final 39 initial 11 1 1 KQ Q 7 18 1 2 AE 7218x10 Jlt nfz niz E d KE mv2 AEqW 11Aernclncnquotjlsdn39msolnssolnATsoln qnm39cca1AT W39PAV AHOUm Z nAH f products Z nAH f reactants AH nm Z enthalpies of bonds broken Z enthalpies of bonds formed BO no of bonding electrons no of antibonding electrons 7 RT 7 m 7 2 7 n1 PviriRT Wig iRT PiixiP r PltVnbinRT Xi E u VS EII A721 Ptotal 11 P2 P3 Pmln Xsolvmt X Posdvent AT iKm Hi1IRT 111AktlnA Lam k Ae RT 1 0 Ai Alo cog39ugate base PH PKa 10g acid Ecell E cell 39 mgzy 10g MiVi Mfo 2 X bi1b 394 foraX2bXc0 2a Relative Strengths of Conjugate AcidBase Pairs Increasing Acid Strength Strong Acids Weak Acids Acid Conjugate Base r HClO4 perchloric acid C10439 perchlorate ion HI hydroiodic acid I39 iodide ion HBr hydrobromic acid lt HCl hydrochloric acid HC103 chloric acid HzSO4 sulfuric acid HN03 nitric acid H3O hydronium ion HSO439 hydrogen sulfate ion HF hydro uoric acid HNOz nitrous acid HCOzH formic acid lt CH3COzH acetic acid NH4 ammonium ion HCN hydrocyanic acid H20 water K NH3 ammonia Br39 bromide ion Cl39 chloride ion C10339 chlorate ion HSO439 hydrogen sulfate ion N0339 nitrate ion H20 water SO4239 sulfate ion F39 uoride ion NOz39 nitrite ion HCOz39 formate ion CH3COz39 acetate ion NH3 ammonia CN39 cyanide ion OH39 hydroxide ion NHz39 amide ion q uens estzg guiseeloul Solubility Rules 1 wzv 3 U 9 Most nitrate salts are soluble Most salts of alkali metals and ammonium cations are soluble Most chloride bromide and iodide salts are soluble Exceptions Salts containing Ag PbH and HgZH ions are insoluble Most sulfate salts are soluble Exceptions Sulfates containing Ca2 Ba Pb and Hg ions are insoluble Most hydroxide salts are insoluble Exceptions Hydroxides containing alkali metals BaH Sr and Ca2 ions are soluble Most sul de carbonate chromate and phosphate salts are insoluble Exceptions Salts of alkali metals and ammonium cations are soluble
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