Managerial Leadership MGMT 3287
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Toni Roberts on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3287 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gary Kohut in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/229040/mgmt-3287-university-of-north-carolina-charlotte in Business, management at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Leadership Outline Chapter 1 Objectives Define leadership and leadership effectiveness Explain why ppl need leadership Discuss the major obstacles to effective leadership Compare and contrast leadership and management List the roles and functions of leaders and managers Summarize the debate over the role and impact of leadership in organizations A leader is a person who influences individuals and groups within an organization helps them in establishing goals and guides them toward achievement of those goals thereby allowing them to be effective 3 Common leadership elements 1 Group phenomenon there can be no leader without followers 2 Goal directed Use influence to guide others through a certain course of action or toward the achievement of certain goals Hierarchy within a group can be formaldefined with leader at top or can be informal and flexible 2 When is a leader effective Fred Fiedler gt Contingency Model gt defined in terms of group performance Robert House gt Path Goal Theory gt defined in terms of follower satisfaction Other researchers gt defined as the successful implementation of large scale change in an org Effective managers satisfied and productive employees Successful managers promoted quickly 3 Elements of leadership effectiveness Goal Achievement meeting financial goals producing quality productsservices addressing the needs of customers and so forth Smooth internal processes group cohesion follower satisfaction External adaptability a group s ability to change and evolve successfully Why do we need leaders To keep groups orderly and focused To accomplish tasks To make sense of the world To be romantic ideals Obstacles to effective leadership Organizations face uncertainty Organizations are often rigid and unforgiving Fall back on old ideas that are simplistic solutions that do not fit new complex probs May face resistance to change generated by the established culture ofan org Understanding and applying the findings ofacademic research Leaders vs Managers Managers Leaders Focus on the present Maintain status quo and stability Implement policies andprocedures Maintain existing structure Remain aloof to maintain objectivity Use position power FoCus on the future Create Change Initiate goals and strategies Create a culture based on shared values Establish an emotional link with followers Use personal power Functions of a manager Planning organizing staffing directing and controlling Negotiate for resources and coordinate decisions and activities with their bosses other departments Functions of a leader Creation and development ofa culture climate for their group Organizations reflect their founders personalities A Leadership Basics Find your passion Learn about yourself Experiment with new situations Get comfortable with failure Pay attention to your environment Don t take yourself too seriously Leadership is Insignificant Leadership Has an Impact Outside environmental factors affect Leadership is one ofthe many important organizations more than leadership factors Internal structure and strategy determine the Leadership is key in providing vision and course and organization takes direction Leadership accounts for only 7 to 15 percent Leadership can account for up to 44 of a offinancial performance firm s profitability Leaders have little discretion to really make an Leadership is critical in orchestrating change impact Leadership is a romantic myth rather than a Leadership s impact is moderated by real organizational factor situational factors Controloriented Leadership Resultoriented Leadership I I I I I I I I I Leader assumes Responsibility Employees assume responsibility Factors fueling changes in organizations and their leadership Worldwide political changes Increased globalization Demographic changes Employee expectations Chapter 2 Objectives Understand the role culture can play in leadership Describe the three levels of culture Discuss the models of national culture Identify the impact of gender on leadership Discuss the role diversity plays in leadership Culture affects how people view the world and how they think and therefore shapes behavior 3 levels of culture x tional Culture Group Culture Group Culture Organizational CultUre Organizational Culture Organizational Culture National Culture Values and beliefs shared by ppl within a nation Group Culture Different ethnic and other cultural groups that live within a nation Organizational Culture The set of values norms and beliefs shared by members of an org High context cultures Japan China Korea Everything in communicating a message is important from subtle body posture tone of voice detailed rituals and a person s title and status Low context cultures US Great Britain Canada More explicit and specific Pay more attention to the words in the message Hofstede s Five Cultural Dimensions Power Distance The extent to which people accept unequal distribution of power In higher power distance cultures there is a wider gap between the powerful and the powerless Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism Masculinity Time Orientation The extent to which the culture tolerates ambiguity and uncertainty High uncertainty avoidance leads to low tolerance for uncertainty and a search for absolute truths The extent to which individuals or closely knit social structure such as the extended family is the basis for social systems Individualism leads to reliance on self and focus on individual achievement The extent to which assertiveness and independence from others is valued High masculinity leads to high sex role differentiation focus on independence ambition and material goods The extent to which people focus on past present or future Present orientation leads to a focus on short term performance Vertical and Horizontal quot39 of andC quot quot39 Individualistic Collectivistic Vertical Emphasis on Hierarchy Focus on the individual where each person is considered unique and superior to others often based on accomplishments and performance or material wealth USA Strong group feeling with clear rank and status differentiation among group members members feel obligation to obey authority and sacrifice selffor good of the group if needed Japan Trompenaars s Cross Cultural Organizational Cultures Egalitarian A Incubator Individual Oriented Leader removes obstacles Focus on individual growth Horizontal Emphasis on Equality Although the focus is on each individual being unique individuals are considered equal to others without a strong hierarchy Sweden All group members are considered equal the group has little hierarchy and there is strong focus on democratic and egalitarian processes Israel Guided Missile Performance oriented Leader is a guide Focus on achieving common goal Person lt Famin Power oriented Leader is caring parent Focus on building relationships v Hierarchical r Task Eiffel Tower Rigid and robust Leader is undisputed legitimate boss Focus on rational performance Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness GLOBE Assumes that culture affects what leaders do and how organizations are structured and managed Based on their findings the US is among the highest in assertiveness and performance orientation and falls in the middle in all the other dimensions Dimensions of Group Cultures and Diversity Primary Dimensions Gender ethnicity disability race age sexual orientation Secondary Dimensions Education income religion marital status occupation socio economic background Chapter 3 Objectives Identify the three major eras in the study of leadership and their contributions to modern leadership Explain the methods results shortcomings and contributions of the trait and behavior approaches to leadership and identify their impact on current approaches Present the most significant early theories of leadership and their implications for current theory and practice of leadership Three eras ofleadership The Trait Era late 1800s mid 1940s More than 40 years of study provided little evidence to justify the assertion that leaders are born and that leadership can be explained through either one or a collection of traits Some traits do emerge as important Which ofthe traits are most relevant however seems to depend on the requirements ofthe situation The Behavior Era mid 1940s early 1970s Behaviors can be observed more objectively than traits Behaviors can be measured more precisely and more accurately than traits As opposed to traits which are either innate or develop early in life behaviors can be taught Democratic leaders consult their followers Autocratic leaders make decisions alone Laissez faire leaders provide no direction and do not become involved with their followers The Contingency Era early 1960s present Fred Fiedler s Contingency Model Leadership effectiveness is a function of the match between the leader s style and the leadership situation If the leader s style matches the situation he will be effective otherwise the leader will not be effective Fiedler used the least preferred coworker scale to determine if a leader is Task motivated Low LPC or Relationship Motivated High LPC TaskMotivated Low LPC RelationshipMotivated High LPC Draws self esteem from completion of task Draws self esteem from interpersonal relationships Focuses on the task first Focuses on people first Can be hard with failing employees Likes to please others Considers competence of coworkers to be key Considers loyalty of coworkers to be key trait trait Enjoys details Gets bored with details 3 factors to describe a leadership situation Relationship between the leader and the followers The amount of structure ofthe task The position power ofthe leader Leader style and behaviors in different levels of situation control High Sit Con Moderate Sit Con Low Sit Con TaskMotivated Low Confident Tense taskfocused Directive task LPC Leader considerate and overbearing and focused serious little supportive removes overly controlling concern for others obstacles and stays insists on getting out ofthe way things done Relationship Bored aloof and self Considerate open to Tense and nervous Motivated High LPC centered somewhat ideas and hurt by group s Leader autocratic can suggestions conflict indecisive interfere with group concerned with resolving conflicts Normative Decision Model 4 Decision Methods Autocratic Consultative Group Delegation Contingency Factors in the Normative Decision Model Contingency Factor Question to Ask Quality Requirement QR Commitment Requirement CR Leader Information LI Structure of the problem ST Commitment Probability CP Goal Congruence GC Employee Conflict CO Subordinate Information SI How important is the quality of the decision How important is employee commitment to the implementation of the decision Does the leader have enough information to make a high quality decision Is the problem clear and well structured How likely is employee commitment to the solution if the leader makes the decision alone Do employees agree with and support organizational goals Is there conflict among employees over solution Do employees have enough information to make a high quality decision Path Goal Theory Leader is an obstacle remover Chapter 4 Objectives Explain the role of individual difference characteristics in leadership Describe the difference between the past and current approaches to leadership traits Discuss the role demographic characteristics play in leadership Identify the impact of values on leadership Present the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership Highlight the role of the quotbig five and other personality traits that are relevant in leadership Understand cross cultural differences in individual difference characteristics Individual Differences Framework Individual Characteristics Traits that facilitate a leader s acquisition of needed leadership skills Drive motivation and energy Desire and motivation to lead Honesty and integrity Self confidence Intelligence Knowledge ofthe business Intelligence and drive CANNOT be acquired through training Relativist vs universalist views Relativists believe that what is right or wrong depends on the situationculture Universalists believe that all activities should be judged by the same standards Abilities and Skills Intelligence Practical and Emotional Intelligence Components of Emotional Intelligence Component Description Selfawareness Being aware of and in touch with your own feelings and emotions Self regulation Being able to manage various emotions and moods without denying or suppressing them Self motivation Being able to remain positive and optimistic Empathy for others Being able to read others emotions accurately and putting yourself in their place Interpersonal Skills Having the skills to build and maintain positive relationships Creativity divergent or lateral thinking 1 Perseverance in the face of obstacles and self confidence 2 Willingness to take risks 3 Willingness to grow and openness to experience 4 Tolerance of ambiguity Skills less technical and more interpersonal and conceptual Skills Category Description Technical Skills Knowledge ofthe job processes methods tools and techniques Interpersonal Skills Knowledge ofinterpersonal relationships including communication conflict management negotiation and team building Conceptual Skills Knowledge of problem solving logical thinking decision making creativity and reasoning in general Big Five Personality Dimensions Personality Dimensions Description Conscientiousness Exralntroversion Openness to Experience Emotional Stability Agreeableness Degree to which a person is dependable responsible organized and plans ahead Degree to which a person is sociable talkative assertive active and ambitious Degree to which a person is imaginative broad minded curious and seeks new experiences Degree to which a person is anxious depressed angry and insecure Degree to which a person is courteous likable good natured and flexible Type A Characteristics and Behaviors Defining Characteristics Time urgency Competitiveness Polyphasic behaviors Hostility Work related behaviors Poor delegation Like to work alone Jump into action Set high goals Hard working Perceive more stress High need for control quotDoing more in less and less time
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