Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes ELP 510 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Marie Jones on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ELP 510 - 001 at Portland State University taught by Dr. Heather Burns in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Permaculture and Whole System Design I in Education and Teacher Studies at Portland State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
ELP 510 Permaculture Week 5 Notes Danielle Jones Fall 2015 Guiding Questions How can we apply the concepts of do nothing farming and produce no waste to social and educational projects How do you use renewable resources in your own life Readings Holmgren 91125 Birnbaum amp Fox Part 3 One straw revolution video Holmgreen 93125 Principle 5 Use and Value Renewable Resources and Services Let nature take its course p 93109 Renewable resources are those which are renewed and replaced by natural processes over reasonable periods wout the need for major nonrenewable inputs Renewable resources should be seen as our sources of income while nonrenewable resources can be thought of as capital assets Renewable services passive functions are those we gain from plants animals and living soil and water without them being consumed tree shade vs tree shelter Permaculture design should make best use of nonconsuming natural services Renewable Resources as Energy n energy decline the limited and erratic nature of renewable energies provides a valuable negative feedback all natural resources must be used carefully and respectfully Criteria for Using Renewable Resources What constitutes quotappropriatequot use will always depend on site specific factors Resource replacement time and product halflife 0 quotWill the function or product which the resource is being used for last at least as long as it took nature to generate the resource 0 Halflife the time taken for half the quantity or value of a product to be degraded or lost Multiple products from every resource Total process evaluation a wholesystems approach that sees every resource and product as part of a larger industrial ecology reveals important crosssubsidies and links Appropriate use Table used for occasional dinner party vs one used for nightly dinners imbued with memories and marks of living Capital asset size Along with resource replacement time the total size of the resource available is crucial because it can provide a buffer against the adverse effects of variations in rate of consumption Investment of NonRenewable Energies Human labor animal power many of tools used in agriculture and forestry of preindustrial times were all generated from renewable sources ELP 510 Permaculture Week 5 Notes Danielle Jones Fall 2015 Modern agriculture serves as an example of increases in productivity from renewable resources by the sue of additional nonrenewable energies EMERGY evaluations of tidal hydropower and forest biomass require less input than wind power Solar cells renewable salvation or technological diversion Maximum Power Law p 56 also discounts optimistic claims about solar cells billions of years of evolution have probably already optimized the capture and conversion of solar energy Tree Nature s Solar Power Plants Forest trees are the ultimate development of the biological capture and storage of solar energy in forms useful to future generations of people Trees could be efficiently replace many current uses of fossil fuel wood gasifiers etc Appropriate Role of Solar Cells to make use of already embodied fossil fuel energy in human skill and industrial manufacturing capacity to contribute to electric power production during transition Should only be used for highquality functions small motors lighting communications Sustainable Use of Renewable Resources ensure that harvest does not deplete the capacity of nature to continue to yield amp rebuild natural capital Fluctuating and mobile resources resources that disappear if they aren t harvested at appropriate times Exp stone fruit hay yabbies ducks Regulation of wild harvesting in traditional societies Only known after centuries of experience and mistakes 0 Exp quotthe common in English Village permaculture zoning interpretation of traditional Indian regulation of land use by the Brahmins Sustainable harvesting of native forests o Thinning of regrowth forests quotremove little trees to grow big trees 0 Fryers Forest EcoVillage 0 Hunting for sustainable yield Sensible harvesting by humane methods both provides a useful yield and keeps the population and its environment healthy 0 Old growth trees and dominant animals represent the essence of the population and environment They should have the highest value in any managed wild system 0 When we consciously obtain and value any harvested yield we provide for our needs recognize our connection to and interdependence on the cycles of nature Renewable Service from Nature Classic permaculture examples pioneer plants quotbiological service Introduction of some exotic species that are easily reproducible and useful plants and fill a missing niche is one of the most simple democratic and cheapest development solutions Deeper applications of biological solutions will be social and ethical rather than technical Working animals The value of a wellbred welltrained working animal could be greater than that of a human worker Ecosystem services Water purification swamps streamside vegetation willows wetlands Composting as microbial service turning undesirable waste into useful compost Environmental technology Stateoftheart environmental technologies may never become universal in poorer countries Nature often uses apparent wastes to expand and strengthen living systems ELP 510 Permaculture Week 5 Notes Danielle Jones Fall 2015 Principle 6 Produce No Waste A stitch in time saves nine Waste not want not p 111125 Industrial processes that support modern life can be thought of in an inputoutput model or rather consumeexcrete Bill Mollison defines a pollutant an output of any system component that is not being used productively by any other component of the system Waste or Exchange in Nature As a general rule organisms and systems that are sustained by rich energy resources generally appear more wasteful but they generally support coevolved systems Waste minimization quotrefuse reduce reuse repair recycle is a hierarchy of strategies for dealing w waste Refuse and reduce Container reuse Food and water waste Limitations to reuse 1Possible to collect so many things that one cannot reuse them before they degrade 2 General design strategies can become so dependent on the availability of complex manufactured items at no cost that when supply dries up the design solution is no longer appropriate Repair The permaculture approach is to balance the obsessive focus on restoration of one valued item with more pragmatic and timely repairs of anything of value quotstich quote Recycling Suggests some input of energy to actively degrade a material to its more basic constituents recycling a bottle vs reusing it Industrial Models Industrial recycling as a transitional strategy retrofit green waste piggeries upstream design can cut off the resources that feed downstream wastebased industries A 2quot l Industrial Revolution Application of natural design principles to industrial and business processes is creating a 2quot l Industrial revolution which will increase material wellbeing while reducing environmental impact and depletion Industrial efficiency and human ingenuity It is widely believed that human ingenuity design skill and culture are the keys to this 2ncl industrial revolution but EMERGY analysis suggests these less concrete forms of human and social capital are themselves the product of past embodied energy from fossil sources Durability and Maintenance Maintenance is the preemptive response to the predictable and incremental depreciation of value that think 2quot l law of energy affects all stores of embodied energy One of the modern delusions about the built environment is that it should be maintenance free Maintenance Engineering a profession with a great future 0 Largescale problems of failures of maintenance under the onslaught of economic rationalism are mirrored at the domestic scale by a lack of interest and effort in home maintenance Pest Plants and Animals as Wasted Resources More prevalent in rich countries for two reasons 1 Available water nutrients and land Redevelopment of nature on a scale not seen for centuries 2 Affluence A complex set of economic and social factors urban lifestyles the social welfare net low prices for food and other natural resources a lack of people actively involved in agriculture a We must recognize our own role in contributing to nature s plagues learn how to accept animal and plant plagues as opportunities for us to creatively provide for our needs while restoring a greater degree of balance ELP 510 Permaculture Week 5 Notes Danielle Jones Fall 2015 Wasted Human Resources Our current global economy devalues traditional skills destroying people s capacity to apply knowledge productively and treats them as uneducated and unskilled quotfactory fodder Conservation and reinvigoration of aspects of traditional sustainable systems is not charity but a path to survival for the global community Selfhelp development projects and fair trade cooperatives vs white knight Rubbish as Nature quotIf modern living generates rubbish pollution and waste then it is childish and naive to try to hide and ignore it Israel vs Stockholm ELP 510 Permaculture Week 5 Notes Danielle Jones Fall 2015 Birnbaum amp Fox Part III Arid Climates Dessert and Steppe Zones Arid climates those in which annual precipitation is less than evaporation and there are no permanent river Desert ecosystems low rainfall on average less than 10 inches Semiarid steppe climate quotcold desert found in the middle of continents and in the quotrain shadow of high mountains Dead Sea Valley Permaculture Project Jordan Kibbutz Lotan Community Israel 0 Building Earthbased Architecture Project Bustan Israel Greater World Earthship Community USA 0 Building Passivesolar Architecture Lama Foundation USA Suvraga Aguyt Cooperative Mongolia 0 Building Passivesolar Architecture Ladakh Ecological Development Group India 0 Dr Vandana Shiva on Climate Change ELP 510 Permaculture Week 5 Notes Danielle Jones Fall 2015 The One Straw Revolution Video Masanobu Fukuoka Edited by Larry Korn Written in 1975 quotFrom this one straw a revolution could begin Fukuoka In 1973 Larry stayed with Fukuoka to learn his philosophy and farming ways Fukuoka was born in 1913 rice farmer plant pathologist quotan understanding of nature lies beyond human intelligence Fukuoka Peeled away unnecessary agricultural practices plowing flooding rice fields Four Principles of natural farming 1 No cultivation 2 No chemical fertilizer or prepared compost 3 No weeding by tillable or herbicides 4 No dependence on chemicals quotUnless people can become natural people there can be neither natural farming nor natural food Fukuoka Plants doing soil improvement daikon burdock dandelion deep rooted white clover nitrogen fixing mustard and daikon buckwheat nitrogen fixing trees Acacia Trees 0 Like a natural forest At this farm we practice quotdo nothing farming Fukuoka Mr F insisted that the best disease and insect control is to grow crops in a healthy environment Time farmer used to take time in winter quotCould there be anything better than living simple and taking it easy Fukuoka Shows Bill Morrison quotThe father of Permaculture 0 He adopted many ideas from Fukuoka Anchor for human spirit Nature quotTo the extent that people separate themselves from nature they spin further and further from the center Fukuoka quotNatural farming is not simply a way of growing crops it is the cultivation and perfection of human beings Fukuoka