Latin AmericaColonial Period
Latin AmericaColonial Period HIS 239
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Florida Treutel on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 239 at University of North Carolina at Greensboro taught by Peter Villella in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/229045/his-239-university-of-north-carolina-at-greensboro in History at University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
HIS 239 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Prof Peter Villella Fall 2010 5 overall topic areas 1 Preconquest civilizations Africa America Iberia 2 The era of discovery and profiteering in the Caribbean 14921521 early exploration phase trying to gure how to profit not on mainland 3 The conquests of Mexico and Peru 4 Establishment and solidification of colonial rule 152171 spiritual conquest 5 Moral and legal concerns the Great Debate natives had full range of rights amp could not be exploited vs slaves by nature l PRECONQUEST PEOPLES PLACES AND CONCEPTS A America 1 Mesoamerica central mexico central america a Mexica Aztecs leaders of Aztec empire b Tenochtitlan Mexica capital c tlatoani d altepetl e L39 quot Ioway war 3 btwn 2 diff altepetl to ght to get prisoners to make sacri ces organized ritualistic wars btwn altepetl f Nahuatl language mexica language 9 the Mayas of Yucatan and Guatemala main ethnic group 2 the Andes a Incas b Tawantinsuyu name of lncan empire capital city cuzco c Cuzco incas capital city of Tawatinsuyu d kuraka local leader e ayllu group of 20 families that contributed land amp labor f Atahualpa about to become lncan ruler captured amp killed after Spaniards were unsatisfied with their amount of gold 9 Cajamarca where Atahualpa was held for ransom h Quechua language dominant language 3 other peoples and concepts a sedentary stay in one place semisedentary move 2 3 times a year and nonsedentary smaller move all the time b TupiGuarani peoples nonsedentary lived on east coast of Brazil towards Uruguay amp Paraguay cannibalism c Pueblo peoples first sedentary people lived in New Mexico B Africa 1 Ethnicities of West Africa a Yoruba western Nigeria b Malinke Mali c Bantu peoples 2 Almoravid Empire Muslim Empire encompassed parts of Iberian Peninsula North Africa amp parts of West Africa 3 feitoria Portuguese system of trade a fort safe base With local peoples to receive gold spices slaves maybe ivory C Medieval Iberia 1 reconquista reconquest of Iberia by Christians over Muslims 2 alAndalus Arabic Name name of Muslim amp Islamic civilization 3 Converses Jewish Ancestors and moriscos Muslim Ancestors New Christians 4 King Ferdinand of Aragon 5 Queen Isabel of Castile II THE CARIBBEAN PHASE DISCOVERY AND PRIVATE PROFITEERING 14921521 A People and places 1 Christopher Columbus 2 Arawak peoples people on the big islands that C colombus met 3 Hispaniola Haiti amp Domican Republic Cuba and Puerto Rico Where Arawak peoples lived 4 Santo Domingo First early Spanish city set up in Caribbean phase of Spanish conquest B Early colonial concepts and introductions 1 Encomienda grant of authority over a defind group of Indians Spaniard has right to receive tribute in money food or labor and encomendero allows them to live similar to how they lived before protection amp Christian doctrine 2 caciqueindigenous chieff 3 compa ia privately organized expeditions joint profitseeking venture in armed conquest III THE ERA OF CONQUEST A Conquest of Mexico 151921 1 Hernando Cort s led organized amp ran conquest 2 Bernal Diaz cortes men who wrote account of Tenochtitlan 3 Moctezuma emperor of Aztec empire 4 Cuauhtemoc successor after Moctezuma that fought amp had to surrender 5 Do a MarinaLa Malinche native woman given to cortes by indigenous group as gift mistress amp translater enabled conquest of mexico 6 Tlaxcalans rivals to Tenochtitlan who allied with spaniards 7 The noche triste Night of Sorrowsquot june 3 1520 spaniards snuck out of Tenochtitlan amp took gold captured B Conquest of Peru 153233 1 Francisco Pizarro and his brothers main conquistador of peru 2 Atahualpa Inca most powerful inca captured at Cajamarca ransomed murdered 3 Cajamarca 4 Diego Almagro pizarros main rival was leader when Spaniards began to fight over spoils of ican empire IV POSTCONQUEST ERA 152171 A Secondary conquests 1 entradas entry into new area 2 adelantado leader fanIard man in the entrada established as governer of frontier area 3 the irony of conquestquot strong sedentary civilization with military amp cities is easier brought under colonial rule bc non sedentary can take off B Consolidating colonial rule 1 viceroy kings main right hand guy in americas 2 Viceroyalty of New Spain3 3 Antonio de Mendoza 1st viceroy of New Spain 4 Viceroyalty of Peru5 5 Francisco de Toledo 5th viceroy of Peru 6 Mexico City Tenochtitlan 7 Lima Spaniard capital of peru couldn t handle altitude of Cuzco C Economic and social developments 1 mestizosmestizas child of Spaniard amp native 2 mulatosmulatas child of African amp Spaniard 3 Creoles spaniards born in America identify with America more than spain and peninsulars spaniards born in spain 4 Zacatecas Mexico and Potosi modernday Bolivia main silver mines B Spiritual conquest 1 The Twelve Franciscansquot of Mexico 12 apostles teach Christianity to natives 2 Franciscans and Dominicans didn t like Franciscans bc weren t intelligent amp education based like dominicans V THE GREAT DEBATE OVER SPANISH COLONIALISM A People and concepts 1 Antonio de Montesinos dominican first to challenge morality of conquest told Spaniards they were going to hell 2 Bartolom de Las Casas and the Black Legendquot most impt person to argue violent conquest was never just 3 Juan Gin s de Sepulveda and the theory of natural slaveryquot las casas main rival slaves by nature B Legal proclamations 1 Inter caetera papal ruling of 1493 columbus comes back pope gives them away as long as they are taught Christianity religious amp conquest tie together 2 Sublimus dei papal ruling of 1537 3 The Requirement doc Require to submit to king of spain or we can do what we want 4 The New Lawsquot of 1542 las casas induced encomienda 5 The Two Republicsquot in attempt to protect Indians from Spaniards spanish republic in mexico republic of Indians republic of spain Discovery conquest and colonization a timeline of events 1492 to 1572 note this is for study purposes only the midterm will not ask you to remember specific dates 1492 conquest of Granada end of Islamic civilization in Iberia all Jews forced to convert or leave Castile and Aragon Columbus reaches Barbados and Hispaniola 1493 Pope Alexander Vl releases a document known today as Inter caetera which gives Castile the right to rule in the Indies so long as it spreads the Catholic doctrine in doing so 1497 Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama reaches southern India 1498 Santo Domingo founded 1500 Darien first Spanish presence on mainland founded Panama 1502 final voyage of Christopher Columbus Moctezuma ll becomes tlatoani of Mexico Tenochtitlan 1511 Antonio de Montesinos accuses the encomenderos of Hispaniola of atrocities the Laws of Burgos and the Requirement are later adopted by King Ferdinand 1516 Death of Ferdinand Charles V is crowned Spanish king and Holy Roman Emperor 1519 Hernando Cortes meets dona Marinala Malinche founds the city of Veracruz in order to authorize his expedition and begins his journey toward MexicoTenochtitlan 1519 alliance with Tlaxcala Spaniards meet Moctezuma and enter MexicoTenochtitlan 1520 Pedro de Alvarado murders Mexica noblemen during the festival of Toxcatl Spaniards flee Tenochtitlan during the noche triste Night of Sadness many are captured and sacrificed smallpox in central Mexico 1521 Seige and fall of Tenochtitlan capture of Cuauhtemoc 1522 Ferdinand de Magellan s expedition returns to Lisbon after having circumnavigated the entire globe 1524 arrival of twelve Franciscans to initiate the spiritual conquestquot of Mexico under their leader fray Martin de Valencia 1525 conquests of Guatemala and Yucatan initiated 1528 Cortes returns to Spain and receives an audience with Emperor Charles V is titled Marques del Valle de Oaxacaquot Francisco Pizarro witnesses the audience 1532 Pizarro brothers kidnap and ransom Atahualpa lnca at Cajamarca Peru Diego Almagro arrives late to Cajamarca but demands a full share of the booty which divides the Spaniards meanwhile Atahualpa s partisans assassinate rival lnca emperor Huascar in Cuzco 1533 Pizarro murders Atahualpa fall of the Inca captial of Cuzco Peru to the Pizarros Almagro goes to conquer Chile 1535 Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza arrives in New Spain 1536 the Inca puppet ruler Manco lnca rebels against the Spanish conquistadors in Cuzco origins of the neolncaquot state in Vilcabamba 1537 Pope Paul lll releases Sublimus dei declaring Indians to be fully rational human beings in possession of the full range of human rights 1539 Almagro returns to Cuzco war among the Spaniards in Peru Pizarros vs Almagros 1542 Bartolome de Las Casas writes A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies the New Laws are passed limiting encomienda conquistadors in Peru under Gonzalo Pizarro revolt in response to the New Laws 1546 silver is discovered at Potosi in Peru Bolivia and Zacatecas in New Spain Mexico the leader of Peruvian separatism Gonzalo Pizarro is executed by Spanish royalists explorations of Francisco de Coronado to New Mexico Texas and Nebraska territory 1550 the Great Debatequot over the rights of native peoples between Las Casas and Juan Gines de Sepulveda in Valladolid Spain 1552 Prince Philip Charles V s son rules in favor of Las Casas Sepulveda is censored and Las Casas s Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies is published for the first time 1555 Philip ll Charles V s son is crowned king of Spain 1569 Viceroy Francisco de Toledo arrives in Lima Peru and establishes authority among Spaniards and the remaining lncas 15712 Tupac Amaru l ascends to the throne of the Incas and rejects Christianity and Spanish rule he is captured by Viceroy Toledo and executed fortreason a year later end of the independent lnca state and the end of violence in Peru
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