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Week 1 Class Notes

by: Mary Cooke

Week 1 Class Notes 0010

Marketplace > University of Pittsburgh > Psychlogy > 0010 > Week 1 Class Notes
Mary Cooke
GPA 3.995

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About this Document

Notes from the first week of classes - 1/5, 1/7, and 1/9
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Friday January 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Zuckoff in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 01/16/15
PSYCH NOTES 15 What is psychology 0 quotStudy of behavior and mental processes 0 Cannot be directly observed 0 Scienti c Method looks for evidence against what we tend to believe 0 Try to prove what we think is true as wrong 0 Goes against human tendency 17 Science in Psychology 0 THEROY conceptual framework 0 Explains a set of facts or observations 0 Makes causal connections cause and effect 0 Must be falsi able 0 Makes predictions for future observations 0 RESEARCH empirical o Tests a theory and its predictions 0 Observation must be systematic and objective EX What is the relationship between violence on TV and aggression in children 0 1 Generate a hypothesis that makes testable predictions 0 2 Research 0 Who will be observed sample of the population DESCRIPTIVE METHODS o Naturalistic observation observe in realworld settings Advantages 0 Can lead to discovery of hypothesis 0 Real world no arti cial behaviors Limitations 0 Uncontrolled outside factors unclear causation correlation o How do you eliminate these factors 0 Observer bias even subconsciously 0 Case studies observe and describe a single individual Advantages Much richer detail 0 Access to rare phenomena can give proof of existence Limitations Uncontrolled 0 Generalizability does this apply to only one person or all people 0 Surveys and interviews obtain a random representative sample of the population Advantages 0 Generalizable because the sample is random 0 Efficient and cost effective Limitations 0 Sample vs population how representative is the sample really 0 Response bias 0 Lack of selfknowledge want to be socially desirable EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 0 Systematically vary one aspect of a situation and control all others 0 Measure the effects to determine causal relationship 0 ELEMENTS OF EXPERIMENT Independent variable manipulated violent TV 0 quotCausequot PSYCH NOTES Dependent variable measured result aggression Effect Hypothesis ifthen Operational de nition 0 Specify and de ne the phenomena of interest 0 What exactly constitutes aggression Physical vs verbal of behaviors etc 0 Can be limiting to a study 0 Controlling UNCONTROLLED VARIABLES 0 Have a control group and an experimental group Similar environments but control group is not exposed to the independent variable Randomized comparable groups 0 Minimize quotHawthorne effects Human beings change their behavior when they know that they are being observed 0 Minimize quotexpectancy effects quotDoubleblind study 0 Observers as well as subjects do not know the full details of the study 0 Ex observers do not know whether an individual is in the control or experimental group 0 Researchers are not the ones during the observing 19 Limitations of the Experimental Method 0 External validity 0 Do people behave the same way in the lab as they do in the real world 0 No de nitive solution to this problem Can do different studies in different environments 0 Additionally experiments are short in duration by nature 0 Some variables can t be studies and manipulated because of their nature or ethical reasons 0 Confounding variables outside variables that can effect an experiment without researchers knowing 0 Hawthorne effects cannot be completely eliminated 0 Quantifying qualitative phenomena 0 Operational de nitions can be limiting and preventative in studying certain things 0 Ethics of experimenting on humans 0 Institutional Review Boards review all proposed studies to make sure that they are ethical 0 Ensuring the informed consent of participants Can be difficult in studies where deception is used to ensure accurate results CORRELATIONAL METHOD To what extend and in what way are two or more variables related in already existing groups 0 Ex relationship between child abuse and anxiety in adulthood o It is not ethical to abuse children but researchers can nd groups of people with anxiety as adults and look for links to if they were abused as children 0 Subjects are not assigned to study groups by the researcher but already belong in one category or another 0 Examples of existing groups personal history behaviors gender 0 Purpose of this kind of study PSYCH NOTES 0 Direction of the correlation Positive correlation high values of one variable are associated with high values of another variable Vary in the same direction Negative correlation high values of one variable are associated with low values of another variable Vary in opposite directions No correlation Strength of the correlation how close is the relationship between the variables 0 How accurate is the prediction 0 Perfect strong moderate weak nonexistent Correlation coefficient r 0 Strongest negative correlation 1 0 Strongest positive correlation 1 0 No relationship 0 0 Advantages 0 Allow for the comparison of alreadyexisting groups 0 Can study phenomena that cannot be studied in controlled experiments because Not possible to randomly assign participants Ethically wrong to randomly assign participants 0 Often less complex and expensive 0 Can look for relationships in existing data 0 Can use surveys and interviews to collect data Disadvantages o Uncontrolled cannot see if other variables are present like you can in a controlled study


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