Major Concepts Biology
Major Concepts Biology BIO 105
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Furman Davis on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 105 at University of North Carolina at Greensboro taught by Ellen Lamb in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see /class/229057/bio-105-university-of-north-carolina-at-greensboro in Biology at University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
In humans genes make up of the DNA E A about 75 B 85 about 10 less than 5 mmnn go about 50 E 2 Genotype is phenotype as is to E A transcription translation E 3 protein DNA E c coding DNA introns E D recipe cookie E E onion human 3 Which of the following about DNA is FALSE Eukaryotes hold their DNA as long linear strands while prokaryotes have circular C A loops E B The number chromosomes increases with the complexity of the organism E A DNA gene serves as the coded instructions for making a particular molecule of c protein 3 All the DNA found in an adult elephant cell is known collectively as the elephant D genome E E Alleles are different versions of a gene for a certain characteristic or trait p If the start sequence codon on an mRNA reads quotAUGquot what does the base sequence read on the initiator tRNA carrying methionine Remember that a codon on the mRNA binds to a complementary base sequence called an anticodon in a tRNA 3 A AUG 3 BATG E c UAC C DTAC C E UUU 5 What type molecule carries amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis E A tRNA 3 mRNA short proteins man 0 D start codons D m RNA polymerase m To start the transcription process a large molecule recognizes a A DNA polymerase termination site B DNA polymerase promoter site c RNA polymerase promoter site WEED D DNA polymerase promoter site E RNA polymerase messenger RNA N Deletions and substitutions are two types of point mutations Which is more likely to cause 39 7 mistranslations of proteins 3 Substitutions are more likely to cause mistranslations of proteins because they shift the reading frame and cause downstream amino acids to be changed 3 B Deletions are more likely to cause mistranslations of proteins because one protein is deleted 3 Deletions are more likely to cause mistranslations of proteins because they shift the c reading frame and cause downstream amino acids to be changed E Substitutions are more likely to cause mistranslations of proteins because one protein 39339 is substituted for another protein C E None of the above is correct M Which of the following statements about the metabolism of ethanol which is present in alcoholic beverages is FALSE The process requires two enzymes which enable the conversion of alcohol to A harmless molecules E B A mutation in a single base pair can inhibit a person39s ability to metabolize ethanol C c Aspirin interferes with the action of alcohol dehydrogenase 3 Individuals who do NOT produce non functioning aldehyde dehydrogenase exhibit D normal metabolism of alcohol 9 10 11 12 E E All of the above statements are TRUE Which of the following is NOT true about mutations E A Mutations are very rare A mutation in DNA always leads to changes in the structure and function of the protein produced When one nucleotide base pair is replaced by another this constitutes a point mutation One gene 0 general type of mutation is a change to the overall organization of chromosomal s U E Sunlight can cause mutation Which of the following is NOT a difficulty that medicine has encountered in its attempts to cure human diseases through gene therapy E1 It is difficult to get the working gene into enough cells at the right rate to have a A physiological effect 3 B It is difficult to get the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed E c For many diseases a malfunctioning gene has not been identified E The transfer organism a bacterium or virus may get into unintended cells and 39339 cause disease E E All of the above are difficulties that medicine has encountered in its attempts to cure human diseases through gene therapy Although genetic screening has contributed to a reduced incidence of Tay Sachs disease I 3 genetic screening puts people at higher risk of developing a disease like breast cancer B genetic screening cannot reveal whether an individual is at increased risk of disease later in life 3 c genetic screening can result in the cancellation of a life insurance policy E D genetic screening cannot be used in determining if a fetus has a genetic disease 3 genetic screening of parents produces no useful information for parents wanting to 5 have children Which of the following is NOT true about gene therapy 3 The organism used to transfer a quotgoodquot gene may infect the wrong cells in the A recipient E 3 Not enough cells in the recipient may get a working copy of the gene E c Gene therapy has rarely if ever produced any clear successful cures 13 14 15 16 E D There is some difficulty in getting a working gene into the specific cells that need it E In the few cases where gene therapy produced a cure the children of these patients E were free of their parent39s disease Golden rice E could help the 250000 children each year who are at risk of blindness due to A vitamin A deficiency B supplies more vitamin A in one serving than an individual needs in a full week c can make vitamin A without beta carotene D is an example of organic farming grows without a husk thereby reducing the processing required before it can be E consumed E E E E The gene coding for Bt crystals have been genetically engineered into crop plants in order to A make crops more sensitive to herbicides B make crops less sensitive to herbicides c make crops more resistant to insects D make crops grow faster E make crops develop larger fruits and vegetables Which of the following is TRUE about selective breeding and genetically modified organisms A GMOs are always superior to selectively bred organisms Vitamin A genes have been introduced into rice to make these crops resistant to pests Vitamin A genes have been introduced into rice to make these crops resistant to c herbicides Desired traits engineered into crops must come from DNA of the same species eg rice genes must always be used to genetically engineer rice E E Farmers have been able to produced new varieties of crops by selective breeding alone I E E E Ninety six percent of the base pair sequences in chimps and humans are the same This finding indicates that E A humans are more closely related to chimps than any two mice are related to each other E B 96 of the genes in humans have identical counterparts in chimps E c Humans are more closely related to chimps than to any other species on earth E D 4 of the DNA we carry contains mutations E 96 of the proteins produced by chimps are identical to proteins produced by humans 17 A VNTR is E A a gene that codes for a biochemical trait rather than a structural trait 3 used in biotechnology when creating a clone c produced when a mutation occurs in a non sex cell D a highly variable section of an individual39s DNA E produced when a mutation occurs in a sperm producing or egg producing cell 1 N 5 Which is the correct order of steps in the process of genetic engineering E A identify colonies grow them insert DNA amplify that DNA and chop it into pieces E E E amplify DNA chop it into pieces insert them into bacteria identify colonies and grow insert genes into bacteria chop up the DNA amplify it then grow colonies and c identify them chop up DNA amplify it insert it into bacterial cells grow colonies and identify 39339 colonies grow colonies identify the right colonies chop up their DNA amplify it and insert it E into bacteria Which of the following are always the same in every unit of the DNA molecule E A the sugar C B the base E c the phosphate group C D the sugar and phosphate group E E the sugar and base The polymerase chain reaction PCR E A makes it possible to create huge numbers of copies of tiny pieces of DNA E enables researchers to determine the sequence of a complementary strand of DNA 3 when they have only single stranded DNA C c Utilizes RNA polymerase to build strands of DNA 3 D Can create messenger RNA molecules from small pieces of DNA E E All of the above are correct Which is the correct order of events that occurs when a DNA gene is being used to make RNA E A Recognize and bind terminate capping and editing transcribe E B Recognize and bind capping and editing terminate transcribe E c Recognize and bind transcribe capping and editing terminate E D Recognize and bind transcribe terminate capping and editing E E Transcribe terminate recognize and bind capping and editing 6 10 15 During transcription at the point where the DNA strand being copied has an adenine F The E E Diabetes is to insulin as E 3 E E E is added to the mRNA a cytosine an adenine a guanine a thymine E a uracil mutations that lead to genetic disease cause human illness commonly because A mutations in DNA cause body cells to self destruct B the overproduction of extra enzymes makes you sick c most genetic diseases make people more likely to become sunburned D a molecule normally metabolized by an enzyme accumulates to toxic levels E mutations cause extra DNA to be made which gets into your blood causing illness is to A anemia human growth hormone B cystic fibrosis erythropoietin c fast flush syndrome the enzyme lactase D lactose intolerance blood doping E dwarfism human growth hormone Which of the following is NOT a possible scenario resulting from genetic engineering C nnnn Genetically engineered salmon escape from their pens and outcompete native salmon Genetically engineered corn remains untouched in one field while insects attack wild 3 corn Genetically engineered salmon reach market size significantly faster than is normally the case D Genetically engineered cattle grow faster than unmodified cattle Genetically engineered herbicide resistant rice is completely killed by application of E that herbicide 2 N The full set of an individual organism39s DNA is called its complement genome Nucleosome Nucleotide Chromosome There are different molecules for each of the twenty different amino acids that are used in building proteins E ribosomal subunit A E BtRNA C c DNA E elongation D E E mRNA quotFast flushersquot are people who lack E A enough alcohol in their diet E E E I B the smarts to know when quotenough is enoughquot c a functional enzyme that metabolizes alcohol D the ability to make proteins inside their cells E the enzyme needed to digest lactose Which of the following is NOT a potential problem cause by genetically modified organisms E A Some organisms like weeds might grow out of control and become unkillable Genetically modified crops could turn out to be cheaper to raise than unmodified ones c Some quotgoodquot organisms like monarch butterflies may unintentionally be killed D The loss of genetic diversity in crops may make them more susceptible to pests nnnn We cannot adequately evaluate the potential risks posed by genetically modified E organisms 3 7 1 3 A person39s unique DNA is carried within some of the cells and tissues of their body These include all of the following EXCEPT E A saliva E 3 skin cells E c intestines C D blood C E All of the above contain a person s DNA During transcription a thymine T on DNA pairs with in RNA E A A E B c C c T C D G E E u Which of the following would lead to an increased risk of spontaneous mutation E A smoking cigarettes E B laying out in the sun without using sunblock E c getting too many dental X rays E D working around a nuclear power plant E none of the above would change a person39s spontaneous mutation rate E Which of the following is NOT a success of biotechnology E A complete cure of people with cystic fibrosis and heart disease using gene therapy E 3 production of meatier turkeys E c production vitamin A enriched rice E D production of seedless watermelons E E production of bigger and juicier kernels in corn 1 What is the most common reason why DNA analyses overturn incorrect criminal convictions E nnnn DNA evidence is much more reliable an identifier of an individual than eyewitness A accounts 3 Science has not traditionally been used in the courtroom to convict a suspect c We39ve only known for the last five years that DNA is fairly unique to an individual The legal system traditionally has convicted anybody who refused to have their DNA 39339 sampled Scientists can study a person39s DNA and determine whether or not that person is a 5 criminal 2 Which of the following is NOT true about the discovery of DNA structure by Watson and Crick 3 E E E C E A from the structure of DNA it was clear how genes encoded information for proteins determining the structure of DNA almost immediately revealed how chromosomes 3 duplicate c X ray pictures of DNA were helpful in deducing its structure D Hydrogen bonds were shown to hold the two strands of DNA together E Because of base pairing there always is an equal number of G and C and A and T Which of the following is NOT true about DNA E Fir an A It is found in the nearly all cells of all living things 3 Plants have DNA in three places the nucleus chloroplasts and mitochondria c It can be found in human saliva hair and blood D It can be used to identify an individual person E Humans lack DNA in their brain cells Which of the following is TRUE about human DNA A Many human genes have non coding regions of DNA within them 3 A newt onion and amoeba all have smaller genomes than we humans have c More than 95 of our DNA is non coding DNA The genome size of an organism is a good measure of the complexity of that D organism E Bacteria have far more non coding regions in their DNA than humans 2 Hybridization is a biotechnological method in which IE 111am m n gt a small number of DNA pieces can be duplicated to make large numbers of these pieces a large number of bacterial cells are produced with different fragments of an original DNA molecule a DNA probe with a complementary base sequence is used to bind to and identify a gene of interest genetically identical cells are produced from a single cell the process of inserting a foreign gene into a target organism