Human CSC 540
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Mr. Cleve MacGyver
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Cleve MacGyver on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSC 540 at University of North Carolina at Greensboro taught by Nancy Green in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/229058/csc-540-university-of-north-carolina-at-greensboro in ComputerScienence at University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
CSC540 Widqit Toolkits Topics 1 Describing implementation of widgit toolkits in terms of MVC 2 How lookandfeel relates to widgits Implementation of its widgits largely determines look andfeel of a GUI The Look comes from visual presentation of widgits The Feel comes from their interactive behavior The implementation of a widgit class can be conceptualized in terms of a simple ModelView Controller design Model very simple for widgits the state information maintained by the widgit View the visual presentation of the widgit Controller handles the widgit39s input events Advantage of implementing widgit with separate model easier to develop new lookandfeel without changing model but rare for separate widgit View and Controller implementations Grouping widgits according to what information is in their models Buttons 0 Model is value of a single variable 0 Example 3 radio buttons sharing a single model value size variable ll Sliders and scroll bars 0 Model is upper and lower limit and current value in continuous range of values 0 Thumb handle on slider controls current value 0 Example volume control Sometimes model for scroll bar also includes page size so user can click between handle and end to advance by one page lll Menus 0 Model similar to button model but must be able to handle large number of possible values IV Text Boxes Model is string of textual data Desiqn issues related to lookandfeel 1 Ease of learning must be obvious from appearance what widgit39s purpose is and how to use it o consistency helps 2 Ease of use once the user has learned how to use the widgit is it easy to use 0 Not the same as 1 above eg widgits that are physically difficult to control 3 Attractiveness 0 quotLooks sell softwarequot 0 as long as they do not interfere with usability Issues to consider when designing the Look what information must be presented visually ll screen space lll consistency IV software architecture Information that must be presented visually by widgit 1 Affordances 0 Definition a property of the visual appearance that makes objects appear as if they can be manipulated and that provides cues as to what might happen if the object is manipulated 0 Sometimes affordances must be learned 0 Can exploit metaphor with realworld object 0 Example Fig below shows two sets of sliders Set on right have quottracksquot 9 visual cue that ovals can be slid up and down Red Blue Green Red Blue Green Human perception issues in designing affordances o Lighter objects attract attention eg ovals above 0 Objects with detailtexture attract attention 0 Objects with high contrast attract attention ex gray out disabled widgits Large takes precedence over small 0 Varied takes precedence over regular Information that must be resented visuall b wid it cont 2 Enabledisable status Whenever widgit does not accept input need to visually show that it is disabled Confusing to make the disabled widgit just disappear Better to show its status eg by reducing contrast Activeinactive status Widgit should react to input to show that is active Example animation of button when user performs action on it to show that it quotheardquot the action Echo Purpose visually display current value Example showing settings in Font dialog box as checked or unchecked Information that must be resented visuall b wid it cont 5 Structural grouping 0 Related widgits often grouped to support complex task eg dialog box reasons 0 Related to same object in model 0 Conserving screen space and simplifies finding related widgits o Grouping helps users remember 6 Commercial product style 0 Eg Macintosh vs Windows Issues to consider when designing the Look a what information must be presented visually 0 screen space 0 consistency 0 software architecture Screen space is scarce only 19x19 inches and lower resolution than a real desktop so important to use it effectively Tips 0 Physical design of widgits to provide needed functionality while minimizing space ex sliders instead of big circular dial 0 But size can be used to draw attention ex in flight simulator artificial horizon needs to be very prominent even though sliders could be used as control Issues to consider when designing the Look a what information must be presented visually a screen space 0 consistency software architecture Consistent Look of widgits 1 Ease of learning 0 Users expect widgits that look alike to behave alike 0 Example Fig 626 Looks like you can type in a number But you change the font by pressing the 3D button on the right to get a menu of choices 0 User needs to learn this 2 Ease of use 0 Important to make it easy to visually scan screen to find desired control 0 Ease depends on o consistency of spatial location 0 Type of scanning required 1 Fastest imagematching 2 Slower conceptmatching Scanning using imagematching 0 User already has an image in mind quottemplatequot quotschemaquot 0 User39s vision system automatically searches for pattern matching the image 0 Prewired into visual perception system 0 Example finding a paperclip in a drawer Consistent look of widgits exploits image matching 0 User learns an image of what a button should look like Scanning using conceptmatching 0 User has to check each item and think about whether it is what he is looking for o Requires inference not automatic 0 Example looking at menu items for first time Issues to consider when designing the Look o 0 9 what information must be presented visually screen space consistency software architecture allow internationalization and allow artists to design look Issues to consider when designing the Feel o feel is determined by input events needed to manipulate the widgit ie quotsyntaxquot consistency of feel more important than consistent look 0 Why User needs to remember how to manipulate widgit invisible syntax Example cut and paste a Select text mousemovetotext buttondowndrag release Select copy mousemovetobuttonclickrelease Select location mousemovetotextclick Select paste mousemove tobuttonclick release Experienced users input behavior in quotmuscle memoryquot If behavior change then requires conscious thought and may clash with automatic behavior Principle of Safety make it safe for users to explore GUI actions without damage to system or work Examples 0 Scroll bars can be returned to previous position 0 Button not activated until released so user can change his mind 0 Moving or clicking mouse outside of menu will not make a choice
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