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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catalina Hudson on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOP 3742 at University of North Florida taught by Nancy Schwartz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/229088/sop-3742-university-of-north-florida in social psychology at University of North Florida.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Nathan Breidenbach SOP3742 Summer 13 MW 69 Chapter 1 Paving the Way How Did The Psychology of Women Get Started A U Women s Movement of 1960 1 Psychology ofwomen examines female biases 2 Women used to be left out of studies 3 Female behavior Viewed as a deviation ofa malestandard Androcentric 1 Malecentered View prominent Naomi Weisstein 1 Psychology didn t say anything about what women are really like what they wanted or what they needed 1968 Phyllis Chesler 1 Women and Madness 1972 a Claimed that psychology was used to control women Comparative Statistics 1 In 1974 not a single article on women achievements 2 In 1993 there were 161 such articles The First and Second Wave Movements A First Wave 1 Seneca Falls Declaration of 1848 a Rejects doctrine of female inferiority 2 Lost momentum by 1920 a Women gain the vote which was believed to lead to other equalities Second Wave 1 Feminism movement of 1960s a APA lobbied to form a Division of the Psychology ofWomen 111 b Known as quotDivision 35 1973 c Women earn over 70 of PhDs awarded in psychology C Third Wave 1990spresent 1 Young women now tackle issues like a Reproductive freedoms b Domestic violence c Integrating women into leadership positions through The Third Wave Foundation d Social justice primary focus Voices from the Margins A History A Mary Calkins 1 Was denied a PhD at Harvard because she was a woman twice 2 First female president of the APA B Helen Wooley 1 First experimental lab study of seX differences and mental traits C AWP D35 journals and programs ensure that research will not fade away like before Feminism s Multiple Meanings A Liberal Feminism 1 Deeply held beliefs about American equality 2 Women entitled to full social and legal equality with men 3 Favors changes in the laws customs and values to achieve this goal B Radical Feminism 1 Separatism a Creating quotfemale only communities C Womenofcolor feminism 1 Also called quotwomanismquot by Alice Walker a Minority problems 1 poverty racism jobs healthcare education access b Rejects separatism U Cultural Feminism 1 Stresses qualities characteristic ofwomen have been devalued E Global Feminism 1 Cross cultural awareness of prejudice and discrimination against women 2 How connected to NeoColonialism and Global Capitalism 3 Issues for example Sextrafficking sweatshop labor unequal education and healthcare violence against women in developing countries F Liberal and Cultural have generated more debate and research than others V Is there a simple definition A Feminist 1 That women are valuable and that social change to benefit women is needed 2 Feminism a Bell Hooks 1984 1 a movement to end seXism and oppression B Profeminism 1 Men who hold feminist beliefs and support the movement C Conservatism 1 Contrast with feminism 2 Seek to maintain past gender arrangements a Women as wives and mothers defined by sexuality b Men holding public power and higher status VI Methods and Values in Psychological Research A Quantitative methods 1 Measuring behaviors averaging over a group ofpeople comparing with statistical tests 2 Generalization from random sample results VII U D1 Surveys 1 Report the beliefs attitudes or opinions ofa group ofpeople Correlation studies 1 Whether two variables are related or not 2 Cannot determine causal relationship Longitudinal Design 1 Measuring at two or more points in time Archival Research 1 Relationships among variables in preexisting set of data a For example National test scores Experiments 1 Systematic manipulation of variables 2 Determines causal relationships Qualitative Methods 1 Openended without systematic count or manipulation of variables Interviews amp Focus groups Case Study FWN Ethnography 5 Not easily generalized to a larger population Interpreting and Publishing Results A U Overgeneralization 1 When gender differences in performing a specific task are interpreted as evidence ofa more general difference perhaps one that is considered permanent and unchangeable Publication Biases 1 Studies that report similarities between genders are less likely to be published Media 1 Media overlooks some findings Gender fair research VIII 1 Women and men and their concerns are of equal worth and importance Feminist Values in Research A Choice in method shapes and constrains what can be found B Research and the creation of knowledge do not occur in a social vacuum C Trying to understand the effects of gender 1 Race 2 Social class 3 Sexual orientation About the Text A Women have NOT yet achieved full equality with men B Shouldn t assume women have more in common with each other just because they are women 0 Psychology can contribute to social change Chapter 2 Gender Status and Power I What Is Gender A SeX 1 Biological differences in genetic composition and reproductive anatomy and function 2 Whether you have a penis or a vagina B Gender 1 Characteristics and traits socioculturally considered appropriate to males and females what makes us masculine or feminine 2 Whether you had a pink blanket or a blue blanket as a baby 3 Broader definition a Classification system that in uences power and resources and shapes the relations between men and women C Differences are created and power is allocated at three levels 1 Societal 2 Interpersonal 3 Individual II Gender Shapes Societies A Hierarchical society 1 Dominant group over subordinate groups E Dominant group has more power and higher status 9 Patriarchal ruled by the fathers men as more powerful c No modern society with women controlling the political practices or means ofwarfare B Iustifying Gender Inequality 1 Legitimizing myths a The attitudes values and beliefs that serve to justify hierarchical social practices 2 Prejudices III a A negative attitude or feeling toward a person because of hisher membership to a particular group b Sexism is prejudice on the basis of gender or sex c Heterosexism is prejudice against homosexual bisexual or transgendered people 3 Discrimination a Treating people unfairly because of their membership to a group b Oppression is the widespread systematic pattern ofprejudice and discrimination c Many parts of the world deny women and girls basic human rights 4 Feminist research emphasizes ranking systems are connected Gender Shapes Social Interactions A B U P1 7 1 People over rely on gender as a cognitive category Intergroup bias effect 1 People tend to perceive their own group more positively than other groups Equot Outgroup Homogeneity Effect a Characterizing outgroup members as being all alike Low status groups 1 Incompetent 2 Likable High status groups 1 Competent 2 Dislikable Selfpresentation 1 Acting out a self in response to the expectations of others Selffulfilling prophecy 1 Expectations can make the expected events come true Doing Gender A Gender is not something people have but something they do B Performance of gender can be deliberate C Femininity has meaning only in contrast to masculinity 1 Men do as being a man as much as women do being a woman D Physical appearance 1 Gender construction takes place through women s appearance 2 Feminine appearance is more of a put on than a masculine appearance 3 When women do gender they do subordination therefore doing gender is disadvantageous to women E Doing gender often takes place without conscious awareness V Talking Down Ordering Around and Silencing A Men are more likely to do Intrusive interruptions 1 The kind that are active attempts to end a sp eaker s turn and take over the conversation 2 When a woman interrupts a man she is doing more than just breaking politeness she is violating the social order 3 Command verbs are used more by men because they imply the learner is not competent B Nonverbal messages 1 High status a More nonverbal privileges b Less nonverbal obligations C Women smile a lot more than men do in interactions D Visual dominance 1 High status people look at their subordinates when talking to them but look away when being talked to by them E Touching 1 Can communicate intimacy or dominance 2 Men are allowed to initiate more touch with women 3 Lower status people initated more handshakes VI VII VIII 4 Higher status people tended to touch the shoulder or arm of people Double Binds A Damned ifyou do damned ifyou don t situations 1 Nowin situations 2 Dominant acts are more likely to be initiated by men 3 Submissive acts are more likely to be initiated by women B Women have to choose whether to be submissive and let others dominate them or to be assertive and riskbeing disliked C More attractive women are seen as more feminine and can harm them if in a high status job D Gender Management Strategies 1 Ways of softening a woman s impact 2 Reassuring others that she is not threatening 3 Displaying niceness with competence Gender shapes individuals A Gender Typing 1 Ascribing to oneself the traits and behaviors normative for people of their seX in their culture B Leads to accepting legitimizing myths subordinates no longer need to be controlled since they control themselves Denial of Personal Discrimination A Crosby et al 2003 1 Much less likely to acknowledge that this has happened to them 2 Each woman seemed to think they were the lucky exception 3 Told a lie long enough you begin to believe it type of ordeal a Accepting legitimizing myths as facts Sexist Attitudes A Ambivalent 1 Hostility and kindness toward women Equot Hostile sexism involves beliefs of women being inferior and a threat to taking over men s rightful dominant place 3 Benevolent sexism emphasizes that women are special and should be cherished and protected a It s a problem because it exaggerates gender differences b Offers compensation for patriarchal status quo confining to the woman though B Ambivalent sexist 1 Polarizing images ofa woman a Believes the career woman is hardworking and intelligent but aggressive selfish and cold C Statistics 1 The more sexist a nation s men were the more women endorsed benevolent sexism and the lower the status ofwomen in that nation 2 Hostile sexism punishes women who challenge the status quo D Social Dominance Orientation SDO 1 General measure ofhow much an individual supports the domination of supposedly inferior groups by superior groups X Levels of Gender A Gender can be conceptualized 1 A universal system of social classification with greater power to men 2 Dynamic process of performing what it means to be male or female 3 An aspect of identity and attitudes B ConsciousnessRaising Groups 1 Women meeting informally to talk about being a woman 2 Led to opening shelters for battered women and protesting against sexist advertising 3 Greater awareness of sexism
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