Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Lifespan Developmental Psychology DEP 3054
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morton Schinner on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DEP 3054 at University of North Florida taught by Jason Grotuss in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/229089/dep-3054-university-of-north-florida in Developmental Psychology at University of North Florida.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
111 Lecture 7 Study Guide Outline Human Nature A Hobbes Leviathan 1 Every one vs every one rights to every thing even another s body B Darwin 1 Evolution of species follows after wars famines and death 2 Process of natural selection C Nietsche 1 Every animal strives for optimal conditions to expend all its strength to achieve maximum power D Dawkins The Selfish Gene 1 Individuals are selfish machines programmed to do whatever is best for its genes as a whole Can Cooperation Work A Prisoner s Dilemma 1 Nowak 1996 a Evolution is constructive because of cooperation b New levels of organization result when lower level units cooperate c Cooperation specialization biodiversity d Cooperation is the secret of openendedness of evolution Inclusive Fitness Reciprocity amp Altruism A Williams 1975 1 Kinship evolves altruism by natural selection 2 Example Haldane 1932 quotI would take a bullet for him a Altruism as a result decreases personal fitness B Wright 1994 1 We show altruism to specific groups a Kin who share our genes family VI VII VIH b Significant others because we want to pass our genes on through them c Nonkin friends who would probably do the same for us Reciprocity Economic Games A Homoeconomicus the selfish man economic man 1 Behavior evolves to maximize fitness in local environment B Chimpanzees don t take into account the outcomes affecting others C Humans do NOT display rational selfinterest in resource acquisition games Do Children Share with NonKin A Warneken amp Tomasello 2 006 Ask in class don t understand this topic Primates amp 25 year olds Hermann et al 2007 A Physical Domains 1 Chimpanzees are about equal to children in correct responses B Social Domains 1 Children are far superior to chimpanzees in correct responses Social Deprivation A Psychosocial Short Stature PSS psychosocial dwarfism 1 Decreased growth hormone 2 Can cause body to completely stop growing B quotGeniequot 1 Extreme case of confinement and social deprivation Social Deprivation amp Genes A 68 Generation F8 1 Distinguishable quotmazedull and quotmazebright rats based on how fast they can solve a maze Equot Selective breeding a F8 Generation raised in 3 environments 1 Social 2 Isolated b 3 Cramped Social Deprived rearing conditions show more errors in maze 1 Example put a dull rat in enriched rearing conditions he performs as well as the maze bright rats in the same rearing conditions 2 Evidence in support of environmental in uence more social interaction yields higher results regardless of genes IX Origins of Social Interaction Attachment A AinsworthStrange Situation 1 Infants behavior of interest E P C d Reaction to caregiver departure Level of stranger anxiety Reaction to reunion with caregiver Amount of explorationplay B Attachment Styles 1 Secure 60 a b Low avoidance Low anxiety 2 Dismissive a High avoidance b Low anxiety 3 Preoccupied a Low avoidance b High anxiety 4 Fearful a High avoidance b High anxiety X Tomasello Motivation to Share Psychological States A Animate Action looking 1 Dyadic Engagement a Shared emotions amp behaviors XI XII X111 1 3 months old 2 Incapable ofpredicting behavior B Pursuit of Goals seeing 1 Triadic Engagement a Shared goals ampperceptions 1 9 months old 2 Can predict behavior C Choice of Plans 1 Collaborative Engagement a Joint interactions amp attention 1 14 months old 2 Imitative behavior SelfConscious Emotions A Emerge middle of 2 101 year of age 1 Children become aware of self as separate and unique 2 Require adult instruction on when to feel emotions a Shame b Embarrassment c Guilt d Envy e Pride Empathy amp Sympathy A Ioliffe amp Farrington 1 Low affective empathy has mixed results as to whether its related to bullying 2 Cognitive empathy is unrelated to bullying B Empathy 1 Ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others C Sympathy 1 Feelings of concern about the welfare of others Early Social Cognitive Abilities XIV XV A Fantz 1961 1 23 month infants have higher function time percentage for ambiguous facelike stimuli but less for actual faces compared to older infants B Focus is mainly on the eyes ofa face 1 Example Yawning is contagious because of the expression seen in another s eyes We won t yawn ifwe cannot see the yawner s eyes NeeNatal Imitation A Neonatal imitation declines to chance at 2 months old 1 At 3 months the level ofneonatal imitation is related to level of social behavior Imitation A Local amp Stimulus Enhancement 1 Example We see someone across the room playing with Hot Wheels We go over to that area observe the behavior and begin to play in a similar manner with a Tonka truck or another hot wheels car B Emulation 1 RESULTS not imitating behavior to get result just focused on the result E Example Donald Trump is wealthy but he got that way by being a jackass who sues people I want to be wealthy too have the same result but I will get there through other methods C Mimicry 1 Copying behavior without knowing the goal or purpose of the behavior D True Imitation 1 Understand the goal ofbehaviors and reproducing the key aspects ofbehaviors used to achieve a similar goal E Deferred Imitation 1 Occurs after a significant amount of time has passed F Piaget 1 Imitation develops at 18 months old a Newer research shows differently 1 Facial Imitation 6 weeks old Copying ofActions with Objects 69 months old Rational imitation 1214 months old FSNN Can imitate intended but incomplete actions 18 months old XVI Theory of Mind A FalseBelief Task 1 Dr Grotuss stuck peanuts in a Crayola Crayons box 2 His daughter was shocked to discover that peanuts were in the box 3 She was expecting to see her beloved crayons 4 When he asked her quotWhat will your brother say is in the box 5 Her response will indicate whether she has a falsebelief or if she has progressed past this stage in cognitive functioning E If she says peanuts Dr Grotuss has successfully installed a falsebelief in her 9 If she says crayons she has progressed past this stage realizing her brother does not see what she sees XVII Biological Basis for Social Abilities A Mirror Neurons 1 Located in motor cortex a Fire when observing behaviors 1 Assist in imitation ofbehaviors seen speech emotional contagion and shared attention 2 Autism implications a Possible that the mirror neurons are disrupted XVIII Development of MakeBelieve Play A Higher Age XIX XX 1 More detached from reality 2 Less selfcentered 3 Complex sociodramatic play B Benefits of MakeBelieve Play 1 Strengthens mental abilities a Sustained attention b Logic c Memory d Reasoning e Creativity Grandmother Hypothesis A Menopause as an adaptation 1 Spend more time with developing children a Contribute knowledge and skills to physical fitness of group 2 Developed children as a result have a greater chance ofproducing grandchildren The Longevity Project A Long and Happy Life Correlates 1 Large social networks 2 Enjoy their careers and thrive within them 3 Have nurturing marriages and friendships 4 They engage in physical activities they enjoy III Lecture 6 Study Guide Outline Body Growth In Middle Childhood A Slow regular pattern 1 Girls are shorter amp lighter until 9 years old B Lower body grows the fastest 1 Bones lengthen 2 Flexible muscles C All permanent teeth arrive D Growth Spurts 1 Girls reach puberty first 11 years old done by 14 years old 2 Boys reach puberty 13 years old and have a larger spurt done by 17 years old The Importance of Sleep A Body growth 1 Growth hormone is released during sleep B Contributes to cognitive performance 1 Low SES children had poorer performance because of higher likelihood ofless sleep C Poor sleep affects parents functioning and sleep patterns Preventing Malnutrition A Improve water supply sanitation and hygiene B Health education for a healthy diet C Improve access to healthy foods to the poor 1 Eating healthy is ironically more expensive D Ensure industrial agriculture does not increased malnutrition Obesity Rates in the US A 32 children overweight 1 17 are obese B Dramatic increase in overweight amp obese in Western nations C Obesity rates in developing nations also rising VI 1 China 20 overweight 7 obese 5X increase over 25 years 2 Some cultures view overweight as a sign ofprosperity D Obesity rates soar in 1980 s 1 13 children are overweight or obese 9 23 ofadults 2 Reasons a Cheap fat amp sugar b Supersizing ofportions c Increasingly busy lives less time to eat healthy d Less physical activity leisure society School Recess A 7 ofschools do not provide recess 1 On average kids only get 26 minutes of recess which includes lunchtime B Recess boosts learning capacity 1 EVERY study shows children are more attentive postrecess C Regular unstructured recess fosters health competence physically academically amp socially Language Structure A Grammar general rules of structure B Pragmatics 1 Communicating more than what s explicitly stated 2 Emerges 2 years old C Semantics 1 Conveying meaning a Syntax 1 Rules for putting a sentence 2 Emerges 4 years old D Morphology Morpheme 1 Smallest unit denoting meaning E Phonology Phoneme 1 Smallest unit denoting soundspeech VII VIII 2 42 phonemes in English Vocabulary Development A FastMapping 1 New words acquired from brief encounter B Mutual Exclusivity Bias 1 Every object has one label C Syntactic Bootstrapping 1 quotMyfoots are cold D Invention of own words Children s Private Speech A Egocentric Speech Piaget 1 Foundations for all higher level cognitive processes Vygotsky B Helps guide behavior 1 Applications a During difficult tasks b After making mistakeserrors c When confused about stuff C Gradually becomes more silent 1 Children with learningbehavior problems use it out loud longer Speech Perception A quotSpecialquot Specialization 1 Evidence of categorical perception a Continuous dimension perceived as distinct 1 Sudden break between categories 2 No discrimination within sounds B Phonetic Refinement Theory 1 Analyze auditory signals 2 Shift to higher level processing using context to determine what was actually heard 393 Categorical Perception 1 McGurk amp MacDonald 1976 XI XII XIII a Voice Onset Time VOT b Supports theory of quotSpecialquot processes being used to process speech SES and Language A Hoff 2003 1 Higher SES Mothers a Talk more to child b Are more responsive 9 Use speech to initiate amp sustain conversations SD Use speech LESS to direct behaviors e Use more complex syntax H Use varied vocabulary ShortTerm Memory Research A Capacity of STM changes over time 1 2 years old 2 items 2 5 years old 4 items 3 7 years old 5 items 4 9 years old 6 items Development of Autobiographical Memory A Form of episodic memory 1 Memory for events that occur every day 2 Long Term Memory B Depends on hippocampus circuits 1 Circuits can be quotpreferentially activated C Highly distributed memory 1 Example our memory of quothammerquot has a lot of different branches Age Differences in Suggestibility A Responses to leading questions 1 Children are more suggestible than adults B Cassel amp Bjorklund 1995 1 FalseMemory Creation XIV XV a Misleading questions lead 68 year olds to respond incorrectly b Positiveleading questions lead 68 year olds to respond more correctly than adults Historical Trends in Intelligence A 0 Francis Galton 1 First to use mental tests 2 quotMeasurement is the best empirical basis of science 3 Eugenics a Society should encourage the breeding of quotsuperior people Binet 1 First IQ test a Basis for modern IQ tests today 2 Found retarded children not as developed as normal children StanfordBinet 1 Lewis Terman a Intelligence Quotient 100Mental Agechronological age b First modern IQ test Cross Cultural Work on Intelligence A B Intellectual achievement depends on motivation and attitudes Beliefs about origins ofmental abilities parental standards and attitudes towards education can account for performance differences 1 Example In America ifyou do well teachers think you re quotgiftedquot but in Japan teachers challenge their students believing that practice will yield increased performance which is true Evidence to support CrossCultural in uences 1 Kp elle tribe in Africa a Prefer functional sorting b Westerners view them as less intelligent because we prefer hierarchical sorting 2 Italian Americans IQ study a First generation had IQ87 b In 1996 Ceci did a study showing that they had IQ gt 100 c Cultural Assimilation explains the increase XVI Intelligence and SES A Intelligence is not any better at predicting success than are grades or parental socioeconomic status B Low correlations between IQ and Wealth 1 High IQ does not necessarily mean you will be wealthy 2 Low IQ does not necessarily mean you will be poor