United States History to 1865
United States History to 1865 HIST 2610
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Farrell on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2610 at University of North Texas taught by Jeffrey Zemler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/229094/hist-2610-university-of-north-texas in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Zemler l N E Possible Essay Questions for Test Two Trace the development of the AngloAmerican con ict from the close of the French and Indian War to the Americans decision to declare their independence in 1776 Could the relationship between Britain and its American colonies have been saved Discuss the movement to erect a stronger central government Why did Nationalists dislike the Articles of Confederation Why did they like or dislike the federal Constitution Why did Antifederalists like or dislike the federal Constitution Discuss Hamilton s economic program What were its major provisions Why did such people as Madison object to it Why did people support it What did Hamilton hope to accomplish Test 2 102010 Lecture 7 The America Revolution 1 Where does the meaning of the American Revolution lie What were the colonies like at the beginning of the Revolutionary period What is the scoop on taxes Grenville formulates a plan The colonists reaction is unexpected Henry s Resolves in ame the colonies The colonists agree on a response The British back down What has changed F7 UquotFWN As the French and Indian War came to an end the British sought to govern their newly won empire The colonists the subjects of many of the British efforts pushed back against the British efforts Viewing them as violations of their rights The first major clash occurred in 1765 as the British imposed a stamp tax on the colonies The clash ended in stalemate in 1766 but the clash had changed the colonies Where does the meaning ofthe American Revolution Iie Is it with the Declaration of Independence or with the federal Constitution Declaration Three Key Points 0 quotAll men are created equal 0 quotUnalienable rights life liberty and the pursuit of happiness 0 quotIt is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it and to institute new government The Constitution 1787 o Equality Nothing 0 Inalienable Rights Nothing 0 Right to Revolution Nothing Is it because ofwho signed them 7 0 Declaration 56 signers 0 Constitution 39 0 Both 6 What the difference between the two documents Is it the documents themselves 0 Declaration destroys a government 0 Constitution creates a government Phases of the American Revolution 0 Phase One the causes 17631776 0 Phase Two The military 17751783 0 Phase Three The Consequences 17831789 Whig View of the American Revolution 0 View of the first historian and participants 0 A defensive Revolution A conservative Revolution 0 To preserve the liberty they already possessed 0 Not trying to destroy their present society and create something new They see continuity between the Declaration and Constitution since both sought to preserve what already existed Progressive View of the American Revolution 0 See the Revolution as Two Revolutions 1 Americans versus the British independence 2 Americans versus the Americans class struggle o Argue that Americans were motivated more by economic interested and not by ideals 0 Believe that the Constitution destroyed the gains of the revolution a document by rich men for rich men Radical view of the American Revolution 0 Americans were concerned with changing their entire society 0 They sought to end all vestiges ofpatronage and dependency o In their place the revolution s leaders sought to instill republicanism with themselves as disinterested leaders but the American people paced past them and embraced liberalism democracy and capitalism o The constitution must be view in light of this struggle between the republican elite and democratic masses De nitions Republicanism Sel ess community service Liberalism The pursuit of rational selfinterest in commerce and politics America in 1763 o 1 out of 2 colonists lived in the South o 1 out of 5 colonists live in Virginia 0 5 of colonists live in cities 0 Philadelphia 30000 But it is in the cities where the Revolution starts 0 Cities have printing presses and money 0 1 out of 3 colonists newly arrived or first generation 0 1 out of 6 colonists were enslaved o Colonists are ethnically diverse which will cause suspicions George III will get the blame for the American Revolution He became King in 1760 The Aftermath of the French and Indian War concerns of the British Government 1 How to govern a continent with diverse groups ofpeople 2 How to pay for the debt incurred in fighting the war After the Treaty of Paris 1763 the colonists don t have to worry about their enemy the French Prime minister George Grenville April 1763 to July 1765 gets to pay for the war The Colonies and Taxes 1 quotNo taxation without representation is a fallacy since Americans knew that they could be represented in Parliament Thus they will argue that only their own assemblies can tax them From 1763 on colonial taxes actually declined From 1763 on colonists taxes were only about 25 ofwhat the British people paid 9 But they believe that they are being overtaxed and that Britain is assaulting their rights of taxation Lecture 8 The American Revolution cont dl 1 Charles Townshend tries a new approach but meets with the same American resistance 2 Circular letters and British troops in Boston 3 The Revenue Act of 1767 is repealed 4 Despite the tragedy the Boston massacre will usher 3 years ofpeace After their victory in the Stamp Act Crisis Americans believe that they have won the constitutional argument but the British have conceded nothing The British will attempt to exploit loopholes in the American argument but ill discover that they are mistaken After five years ofdebate 1765 to 1770 both sides are still locked in a constitutional squabble Grenville s Program 1 Tighten Trade Regulations by Enforcing the Navigation Acts designed to implement the Theory of Mercantilism 0 Why necessary Americans especially New Englanders are smuggling goods ro avoid paying taxes 2 Raise only what Britain needs to govern the colonies 1763 0 Act for the encouragement of officers making seizures This act establishes viceadmiralty courts in Halifax Nova Scotia Proclamation of 1 7 63 o This act prohibits settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains 1764 Sugar Act 0 First law specifically aimed at raising colonial money for the Crown 0 The act increased duties on nonBritish goods shipped to the colonies It also cut duties on foreign molasses from 6 pennies to 3 pennies per gallon 0 Point Currency Act 0 This act prohibited American colonies from issuing their own currency 0 The colonies had difficulty keeping gold and silver coins thus they had resorted to paper money Quarterl39ng Act 0 Requires the colonies to supply British troops with barracks food and other supplies alcohol fire candles vinegar salt bedding and utensils 1765 Stamp Act 0 Parliament s first direct taX on American colonies o It taxed newspapers almanacs pamphlets broadsides legal documents dice and playing cards 0 The British government estimated that the taX would raise about 350000 pounds per year British anticipate no reaction to the Stamp Act 1 The British and already paying such a taX 2 Some colonial leaders are also in support Benjamin Franklin tries to get friends appointed as taX collectors But they are all wrong May 29 1 765 0 Patrick Henry speaking in the House of Burgesses quotCaesar had his Brutus Charles I his Cromwell and George III Henry s resolves ln ame the Colonies First printed in the Newport Mercury on June 24th Boston 0 August 14 First Stamp Act riot parade Level taX collectors houses 0 August 26 Second Stamp Act riot parade Burned Admiralty Court records level Lt Governor Hutchinson s house What should the colonists do 0 Merchants shut all businesses down thus avoid having to pay the tax 0 Small towns and committees all businesses should stay open If they close colonists are obeying the law The people must place themselves above the law Why such an in tense reaction 7 1 Great Britain has no written constitution Precedent is extremely important in issues of constitutionality 2 Americans believe that the smaller the taX the greater threat to liberty They see rge British trying to sneak it in and thus establish precedent 3 Americans know their history He who controls the purse string controls the official They know that this is how Parliament brought the king under its control The Stamp Act Congress 1 765 1 Called by Massachusetts on June 8 2 Meets from October 7 to October 25 in New York City 3 Nine colonies attend MA SC CT PA MD N DE NY RI 4 Issues the quotDeclaration of Rights and Grievances which was mainly written by the moderate Iohn Dickinson 5 Issues a call for a nonimportation agreement The Stamp Act Congress 1 765 Declaration of Rights and Grievances Claimed for Americans all the rights and liberties of the King s subjects in Britain Pointed out that Americans were not and could not be represented in Parliament Declared that only their own legislatures could impose taxes on them The Crisis marks the beginning of Colonial cooperation 1 Stamp Act Congress convenes 9 out o f13 states attend 2 The Sons of Liberty begin forming It can be viewed as one of the first inter colonial political organizations it will become the muscles of the revolution 3 Americans begin to see themselves as one people A glimmer of American Nationalism is seen here 1766 Repeal ofthe Stamp Act 0 British merchants put pressure on Parliament 0 Parliament divided Some MPs think the army should be used to enforce the Stamp Act 0 The act is repealed and the colonies abandon their ban on imported British goods 1766 Declaratory Act 1 Passed by Parliament on the same day the Stamp Act is repealed 2 States that Parliament can make laws binding the American colonies quotin all cases whatsoever Who won the debate 0 British believe that nothing has changed The repeal of the Stamp Act was an expedient measure 0 Americans believe they have won the constitutional struggle PICTURE What has changed 1 Colonies are far more unified than before with constitutional goals and are moving toward a uniform political ideology 2 Intercolonial organizations are forming The Sons of Liberty have established committees of correspondence 3 American confidence is up 4 Parliament is looking for a way to put the Americans in their place 1767 Charles Townshend Chancellor of the Exchequer for Prime Minister William Pitt June 1767 Townshend Acts A series of acts designed to raise money and demonstrate the power of Parliament 1 Suspends the New York Assembly until it has fulfilled its obligations under the Quartering Act of 1765 o For Americans the suspension shows them that the British do not consider their legislatures equal to Parliament 2 Revenue Act of 1767 Initiated taxes on glass lead paint paper and tea Essentially import duties the British viewed them as external taxes which they believe PICTURE 3 Establishes a Board of Customs Commissioners at Boston 0 Required custom commissioners to be stationed in Boston instead of sending their deputies 4 Reorganization of the Vice Admiralty Courts 0 Creates three more courts in Boston PICTURE For a short time the Americans seemed to be in a bind since the British frame the Revenue Act as trade regulation In October Americans reintroduce nonimportation Some oppose it especially merchants which make PICTURE November 1767 0 quotLetters from a farmer in Pennsylvania to the inhabitants of the British Colonies Originally published in a newspaper this is a widely reproduced pamphlet by John Dickinson 1 Parliament cannot taX the colonies internally or eXternally PICTURE February 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter 0 Written by Samuel Adams and approved by the Massachusetts House of Representatives 0 Attacks Parliament s persistence in taXing the colonies without proper representation and calls for unified resistance by all the colonies 0 Many colonies will issue similar statements 0 In response the British governor PICTURE Tensions Escalate o In June 1768 custom officials in Boston seize the Liberty a ship owned by John Hancock The ship had been smuggling Madeira wine 0 PICTURE October 1768 British troops arrive in Boston Governor Bernard is worried about the situation getting out of the hand andPICTURE o The British troops who arrive are viewed suspiciously by the Americans 1 They were from Ireland where the British government has sanctioned killing and maiming They were Catholic Americans knew that a sign of tyranny was a peacetime army ordered wzv upon a populace Nonimportation will suddenly become a success By 1770 Americans 1 Think they see a plot by Britain against colonial liberty 2 Think they are facing a British government intent on destroying the British constitution in America 0 Thus they begin to question Britain s right to govern the colonies 0 Talk of independence is appearing in some newspapers where a sense of American nationalism is growing 1770 Revenue Act Cut Back 0 Because of the reduced profits resulting from the colonial boycott of imported British goods Parliament withdrew all of the Revenue Act of 1767 taxes except for the tax on tea Tar and feathers 0 Why tea Just like the Declaratory Act Parliament wants to tell colonies that it has the right to legislate in all cases 1770 An end to Nonimportation In response to Parliament s relaxation of its taxation laws the colonies relaxed their boycott of BritishSHIT What has changed Nothing 1 Money issue still present 2 Discontent in colonies still present 3 Colonists position that Parliament cannot legislate for them is stillPICTURE Lecture 9 The American Revolution Cont d 1 British attempts to rescue the East India Company from bankruptcy will reignite tempers on both sides of the Atlantic 2 As Americans move toward war a sizeable portion of the population will remain unsure about independence John Adams estimated that onethird ofAmericans supported independence one third opposed independence and onethird had little feeling on the issue Still the colonies will declare their independence based on perceived grievances with Britain Without the ideals of the Revolutionary period few people would have supported any rupture with the British government 1770 Boston Massacre o The arrival of troops in Boston provoked con ict between citizens and soldiers On March 5 a group of soldiers surrounded by an unfriendly crowd opened fire killing three Americans and fatally wounding two more 0 Background British soldiers had taken parttime jobs in Boston at half the local rate Boston workers are so upset that it is dangerous for soldiers to go out alone at night Crispus Attucks runaway slave killed in the Boston Massacre Given hero burial with 4 others Boston Massacre cont d o A Violent uprising is avoided only with the withdrawal of the troops to the islands in the harbor Captain Preston and 8 soldiers will be tried for murder only two soldiers will be convicted of lesser crime noted patriot John Adams is their principal lawyer 0 Point What would upset the colonists more acquittal or conviction It will become a great propaganda tool quotOur lives are not even worth enough for the law to protect 1772 Government salaries 0 Salaries of Governor Hutchinson and the judges of the Superior Court will now come out of custom revenues 0 Point How do you make sure officials do not become despotic Control their salaries o Ifyou cannot control their salaries they will be susceptible to orders from the British ministry and will form their own patronage networks which will decrease your independence Eventually you will become a dependent working for the great lords Committees of Correspondence 0 Established by Samuel Adams and Boston 0 Purpose to communicate Boston s position to the other colonies 0 Importance Committees are created throughout the colonies The Som erset Case 0 Lord Mansfield Chief Justice Court of King s Bench 0 Charles Steuart slave belonging to VA colonial customs agent 0 Decision without a positive parliamentary law on slavery Steuart could not be captured and sold to a Caribbean plantation He had rights under the British Constitution JeffersonSouthern response 1 Case ofjudicial activism 2 Realize need for written constitution 0 Jefferson Franklin and others The horror ofit lay in the powers it removed from them as colonists 1773 Tea Act 0 Designed to save the East India Tea Company from Bankruptcy 0 The Law 1 Gave the company permission to sell directly to their own agents or merchants cutting out wholesalers 2 Dropped the 12d taX in Britain and retained the 3d taX in the colonies Colonial objections 1 Threatened to undersell lawabiding colonial merchants and those merchants who bought Dutch tea from smugglers The taX suddenly becomes a threat to American liberty Response to the Tea Act 1 Most colonists are more upset with the monopoly granted the East India Company and want the tea returned to Britain without payment of any taxes 2 Colonists force tea consignees to resign except in Boston Response to the Tea Act cont d 1 Governor Thomas Hutchinson support the tea agents with troops 2 On November 30 the Boston Committee of Correspondence tells the ship s captain to leave The captain is willing but Governor Hutchinson will not allow it A standoff ensues Cont d o The law states that 20 days after arriving a port a ship must 1 Unload cargo and pay duty or 2 Leave with proper paperwork First ship arrives November 27th 1773 Boston Tea Party 0 On the evening of December 16 a group ofmen at the direction of Samuel of Adams disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea in the harbor In all they dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor No other private property was touched o A similar situation developed in Charles Town on December but custom officials will simply impound the tea for failure to pay taxes when the 20 days expire Residents of the city offer no resistance Once the war starts the tea will be sold to support the American side 1774 Coercive Acts 0 In response to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed several acts to punish Massachusetts 1 The Boston Port Bill banned the loading or unloading of ant ship in Boston harbor 2 The Administration of Justice Act offered protection to royal officials in Massachusetts allowing them to transfer to England all court cases against them involving riot suppression or revenue collection 3 The Massachusetts Government Act put the election of most government officials under the control of the Crown essentially eliminating the Massachusetts charter of government 4 Quartering Act Parliament broadened its previous Quartering Act 1765 British troops could now be quartered in any occupied dwelling The Quebec Act 1 774 o It provided a permanent civil government for Canada 1 Legislature appointed by the King 2 All but purely local taxation was specifically reserved for the King 3 Civil trials tried without jury 4 Catholics granted religious toleration and civil rights General Thomas Gage 0 He will become the military governor of Massachusetts The First Continental Congress September 5 to October 26 o 12 colonies send 56 delegates to the First Continental Congress Only Georgia is not represented 0 Two groups present 1 Radicals PICTURE 0 Most colonists are not ready for independence 1 Fear of the British military and 2 Not sure what would follow a revolution The First Continental Congress will 1 Endorse the Suffolk Resolves drafted by Joseph Warren declared the Coercive Acts null and void urged Massachusetts to arm for defense and called for economic sanctions against British commerce 2 Establish a Continental Association essentially a nonimportation agreement 0 Note It establishes an extralegal enforcement mechanism establishing committees at the county town and citylevels and instructing them to enforce association bypublicity and boycott 3 Issue a Declaration of American Rights reiterates stand on Americans rights as Englishmen and Brain s imperial rights Declared that 13 parliamentary acts since 1763 had violated American rights 4 Agree to meet neXt year if grievances not resolved 0 Point They do not do anything hinting of war 0 By early 1775 Gen Thomas Gage is under pressure from London to act 0 King George had declared the colonies in rebellion 0 Lord North wanted Gen Gage to demonstrate British authority 0 Gen Gage knows that the first clash with the Americans must be an overwhelming victory April 19 1775 Lexington and Concord 0 British troops plan to destroy American ammunition at Concord and of lucky arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock 0 When the Boston Committee of Safety learns of this plan it will send Paul Revere and William Dawes to alert the countryside and gather the Minute Men Lexington o Americans 8 dead 10 wounded Under the command of Captain John Parker British are under the command of Major Iohn Pitcairn Retreat from Concord 0 For the day 1 British 73 killed 174 wounded 2 Americans 49 killed 41 wounded 1775 The Second Continental Congress 0 The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia on May 1 John Hancock is elected president of Congress 1 Most of the members still do not want independence but outside events are forcing their hand 2 They will reluctantly begin guiding the war becoming in the process a de facto government George Washington is named commanderinChief o On June 10 John Adams proposes that Congress consider the forces in Boston a Continental army and suggests the need for a general He recommends George Washington for the position 0 On June 15 Washington is nominated to lead the army he accepts the next day Battle ofBunker Breed s Hill june 1 7 1 775 o It will be the last good chance for the British to crush the revolt 0 General William Howe newly arrived will plan the assault Frontal assault with full packs up the hill 0 British will assault the Americans positions three times Third time Americans run out of ammunition o British 1054 casualties 2 26 killed a high proportion of them officers 0 Americans 100 dead 267 wounded and 30 taken prisoners By the end of 775 0 Continental congress still unwilling to accept independence 0 Washington and his army seek independence They want Congress either to fight or quit 0 Point the dispute illustrates how divided the American people remained Idea of Represen tation Evolving 1774 0 Some Americans begin arguing that sovereignty resides in the separate American legislatures Parliament has no authority over the Americans They are connected to the empire solely through the King Problem Dual sovereignty violated the most important concept of English political theory in the eighteenth century a country can only have one supreme authority What to do Thomas Paine author ofCommon Sense First appears on January 9 1776 Its call for independence will change the tone of the debate Paine argues that the idea ofa monarchy is wrong No family has a divine right to rule The blood of the slain the weeping voice of nature cries Tis time to part June 7 1776 Lee Virginian will move that Congress declare independence Moving toward Independence June 7 1776 Six colonies atly refuse to endorse Lee s resolution The issue is postponed until July 1 July 1 1776 Nine colonies are prepared to declare independence Congress postpones the vote by 24 hours uly 2 1776 South Carolina Pennsylvania and Delaware come around and vote for independence New York will abstain Thus the vote is 12 to 0 John Adams declares that this is the greatest day in American history and will be celebrated for generations July 4 1776 The Declaration ofIndependence is adopted Only John Hancock signs it Most of the other members except 6 will sign it August 2 Its original title was quotA Declaration by the Representatives of the United States ofAmerican in General Assembly but when the New York assembly endorsed independence on July 9 the title was changed to quotUnanimous Declaration of 13 United States The Conduct of the War 1 During 8 years ofwar very few formal battles occurred 2 British problems a Large supply line b They fought by European standards thus they held all the major cities c For the most part they ignored the help ofTories because of their general low opinion of all colonists 3 American problems a Small continental army b Fewsupplies c Low pay d High turnover of officers often jealous ofmen who were promoted above them Most Important battle ofthe War 0 Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown VA October 19 1781 by which over 7000 British and Hessians became prisoners American Peace Commissioners at Paris 1 783 0 John Jay John Adams Ben Franklin Henry Laurens William T Franklin Treaty of Paris 1 Independence 2 Boundary 3 Newfoundland fishing 4 All debts valid 5 Congress to urge states to restore rights of Loyalists 6 British to evacuate Lecture 10 Nationalism Federalism and Two Constitutions 1 The first constitution the Articles of Confederation 2 Growing unhappiness with the national government leads to a demand for change 3 The Constitutional Convention convenes to deal with national problems 4 Not everyone is happy with the new Constitution Americans will emerge from the American Revolution with desire to create a government that is different from the British model Unfortunately the Articles of Confederation will have problems which will cause Nationalists to try to fiX them The new Constitution however does not make everyone happy REVIEW SESSION Monday October 18 2010 67 pm Wooten Hall 114 IT WILL HELP FOR TEST In the midst ofwar the Americans aregoing to have to establish new governments o All states except Rhode Island and Connecticut will create new state governments 0 Some will experiment Pennsylvania No governor and no senate with a one house legislature no real checks on the will of the majority exist Articles of Confederation 0 States are not in unison disagreements over taxation slavery and western lands and rivalry between large and small states 0 Provisions One state one vote No executive Unicameral legislature a committee of Congress governs when the legislature not in session headed by the President of the United States in Congress Assembled All 13 states must agree on amendments5 No power to tax only request Point They attempt to solve all the problems they had with Britain They do not fix the problems they have with each other WN 1 Ratification Timeline 0 November 15 1777 Articles are finished 0 July 8 1778 8 states have ratified 2 more will soon follow Problem 0 MD N DE refuse to sign unless Congress lays down the western boundaries of the landed states Remember All 13 states must ratify 0 Winter 1778 N and DE sign Timeline 0 Spring 1779 VA proposes union without MD states argue incomplete union just as dangerous as none 0 February 1780 NY announces willingness to give up land 0 January 2 1781 VA announces its willingness to give up its land north of the Ohio River 0 February 27 1781 MD signs the Articles 0 March 1 1781 Ratification declared final Northwest Ordinance 1 787 0 Established path to statehood 0 New states equal to old states 0 Involuntary servitude prohibited The Nationalist Movement 0 Desire increase the power of the national government at the expense of the states 0 Origins 1 Continental Army Officers a Promised half pay for life they want the national government to have an independent income and the power to taX b Want a strong government for defense 2 Holders of the National Debt they want their money so they want Congress to have to power to tax 0 Beginning in 1782 the British impose harsh commercial restrictions on the United States that create an economic downturn that lasts most of the decade 0 States react to economic downturn by printing money taxing goods that cross state lines 3 Merchants realize that they no longer have the British navy to protect their commerce and that they need a strong navy to open new commercial outlets thus they want a Strong national government to make and enforce treaties b A protective tariff to help new industries Nationalists on Principle A strong central government is needed if the United States is to survive in a world filled with monarchies F Tactic One 0 Try to amend the Articles of Confederation to increase the power of the national government 0 Problem Rhode Island consistently refuses because its import tax helps to keep other taxes low which makes the people of the state happy Tactic two Use force 0 The Newburgh Conspiracy March 1783 o Plan Use the military to force the states to take needed reforms to the national government especially Congress 0 Perp etrators Majors John Armstrong Ir one of the leaders Public Creditors Nationalists in Congress Washington resigns his commission on December 23 1783 Tactic Three Constitutional Convention 0 A constitutional convention is a new idea to emerge from the American Revolution It is simply a convention to draft a constitution 0 Massachusetts holds the first constitutional convention 1779 Argument for such a convention No legislature can write a constitution because the legislature would be above the constitution It would be just a mere law and could be changed at will Constitutional conventions gather the sovereignty of the People Equot 3 It ceases to exist once work is done and the new legislature and government then come into existence Annapolis Convention September 11 to September 14 1786 0 Original purpose Navigational issues on Chesapeake Bay But James Madison will invite all 13 states to discuss commercial problems Nine states accept but only 5 attend 12 delegates Alexander Hamilton report calling on all states to send commissioners to a convention at Philadelphia in May 1787 to discuss all matters necessary quotto render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the needs of the union The Confederation Congress will cautiously endorse the ideaK Shays rebellion in early 1787 alarmed men ofproperty and creditors across the land Washington is reported to have states Good G Who but a Tory could have foreseen or Britain predicted them FML Constitutional Convention Opened on May 25 1787 Met in secret and the official notes burned at conclusion Authorized by the Confederation Congress only to amend the Articles Members overwhelmingly Nationalists and members of the social elite 55 attend but only 39 sign Most prestigious delegation is from Virginia Washington Madison and Mason Most worrisome member Franklin loose tongue when drinking 0 CLONE Three Groups at the Convention Extreme Nationalists 0 Led by Alexander Hamilton of New York 0 Wanted to locate all power in the hands of the national government 0 Senate and president for life 0 No state governments with the president appointing the governor AntiNationalists 0 Led by Robert Yates and John Lansing both of New York 0 Desired little change 0 Likes power in the hands of the states Moderate Nationalists 0 Led by James Madison of Virginia 0 Wanted increased power of the national government while retaining significant power in the hands of the stateFML Constitution will be the result of Com prom ise Great Compromise 2 houses of Congress Threefifths compromise35 of the slave population would be counted for purposes of taxation and representation Slavery importation permitted until 1808 What it created Only national elected office is the House of Representatives Senators elected by state legislatures President elected by state legislatures Places most of the power in Congress Establishes the courts with the Senate approving all judges Power to taX Power to coin money Make laws federal laws supersede state laws Power to regulate commerce Power to declare war Granted limited power to the President Commanderinchief of the military Veto power Make treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate Give to Congress from time to time information on the State of the Union The AntiFederalist Critic FWN gt195 United States too large to be governed by one central capital Worried over Congress s power to taX and create an army Worried over vague parts of the Constitution such quotnecessary and proper Argued that it was an aristocratic document since only the rich could run for office Upset over the lack of religious qualifications for office Worried that it contained no quotBill of Rights Worried that it had no term limits Ratification Nine states needed Needed three critical states VA NY and MA Confederation Congress will pass into history on October 10 1788 Lecture 11 WashingtonI HamiltonI MadisonI and Trouble 1 The nation elects its first federal government 2 Washington the person 3 Congress begins to instill respect in the new federal government 4 Iudiciary Act of 1789 5 The tariff and tonnage debate 6 Hamilton s Report on Public Credit Finding and Assumption and the debate over the location of the national capital 7 The Compromise of 1790 8 Bank of the United States Establishing the New Government 0 Feb 4 1789 Electors vote for president 0 March 4 1789 The First Congress meets but no quorum 0 April 1 1789 The house of Representatives organizes 0 April 6 1789 The Senate organizes 0 April 30 1789 Washington is inaugurated Two candidates were George Washington of Virginia and John Adams of Massachusetts All electors cast one vote for Washington thus he is said to have been unanimously elected Washington sets out for New York City from Mount Vernon in April For generations ofAmericans Parson Weems cherry tree legend has colored the population image ofWashington and made him seem not quite human The Death UfWashington 0 November 1799 0 Modern medical opinion speculates that Washington died of acute laryngitis john Adams The First Congress will be the Second Constitutional Convention as it will have to deal with many things that the federal convention avoided It sets the precedents for the Congresses that follow Issue 0 Increasing the respect of the American people for their new government 0 Not everyone willing to show the new government respect 0 Example Governor Hancock of Massachusetts believes within borders of state the governor is supreme 0 Some Americans believed that respect for government officials could be achieved by fancy titles 0 Example John Adams wants to call the president quotHis Highness the President of the US and protector of the Rights of the same judiciary Act of 789 o Creates the federal court system 0 Establishes district and circuit courts 0 Establishes the Office ofAttorney General Money for the Federal Government 1 General agreement that money must not come from taxes 2 Therefore only three sources ofmoney a Sale of western lands b Tariffs c Tonnage fees Tari f 1 Quickly becomes a sectional issue not a constitutional issue Southern states want a low tariffin order to keep prices low on the things that farmers buy Northerners want a protective tariffin order to help edgling industries survive 2 A compromise is reached on July 4 19789 Congress imposes a 5 to 15 tariff on various imported items The Tonnage Debate 1 Creates first split between Hamilton and Madison Madison wants special rates for favored nations and high rates for non favored nations Hamilton wants equal rates 0 Madison wants an economic war against Britain which does not have a commercial treaty with the United States 0 Hamilton believes that for the US to develop economically the country must draw closer to Britain 0 Both men are debating whether the USgt should be an economic satellite of Great Britain or France Hamilton wins Tonnage Act of 1789 little discrimination in it American Ships 6 cents per ton American built but foreign owned 30 cents per ton Totally foreign owned 50 cents per ton Hamilton s report on Public Credit january 9 1790 Hamilton 5 Finding Plan Point 1 Give people a stake in the government 2 National honor will require paying off the debt 3 Instill respect for authority in the American people for the federal government 0 United States must pay 100 of the national debt Foreign debt 11710379 Domestic debt 40414068 mainly in certificates 0 All members agree on the need to pay the foreign debt but some disagree about the domestic debt 0 Madison wants discrimination between original holders and speculators Most people sold their papers Hamilton s Assumption Plan 1 Hamilton wants the federal government to assume all the debts of the states estimated at 25 million Why To gain the support for the national government over the states governments 2 Problem Most of the southern states except South Carolina had already paid off their debts 3 Madison proposes that the federal government assume the debt as it stood on 1783 4 Hamilton refuses to compromise on 100 Compromise of1790 Meetingune 20 7 The bargain 0 Hamilton would keep northerners from interfering with an existing arrangement between Pennsylvania and the South 0 Madison agreed to tone down his opposition Compromise of 1790 Results 0 July 1 1790 The Residence Bill passes 0 July 26 1790 The Assumption Bill passes 0 August 4 1790 The Finding Bill passes Virginia will send a message to Congress declaring that Jnding and assumption was repugnant and violated the Constitution Note Sectionalism is creeping in The First Bank of the United States 1 Hamilton submits report to Congress on Dec 13 1790 2 President Washington signs bill into law on Feb 25 1791 3 The Act Private investors own 45 of stock the federal government 15 Chartered at 10 Million federal government responsible for 2 million Private investors elect 20 directors the federal government elects 5 Charter for 2 years Hamilton 5 Arg amen tsfor Bank 1 Its notes would become stable circulating currency uniform in value because they are redeemable in gold and silver upon demand 2 It would provide a source of capital for loans to fund the development of business and commerce 3 The bank would also serve certain needs of the government A place to put its funds A source of money in case of emergency Funds gold and silver could be transferred from place to place by bookkeeping methods rather than by carrying it around the country Madison 5 Opposition 1 Nowhere in the Constitution does it say that the national bank can be created Strict interpretation Position ofAmericans New Englanders favor it because it would aid commerce 2 Southerners not in favor because It was modeled in the quotcorruptquot Bank of England Farmers generally are distrustful of banks and bankers they make a living by taking other people s money To Sign or Not to Sign 0 Washington unsure what to do 0 Congress had right to create bank due to the quotnecessary and proper clause 0 quotNecessary and proper clause only if federal government cannot meet its responsibilities Right now it is not necessary Hamilton 5 View 1 The future of the United States is not in agriculture but in rapid industrialization The federal government must help business through protective tariffs taX rebates rewards and bounties 2 Envisioned an industrial North trading with an agricultural South to the benefit of all 3 Iustified by the quotGeneral Welfare clause Hamilton sees ve advantages owingfrom manufacturing 1 Diversification oflaborand dependence on agriculture 2 Work for those people not ordinarily employees such as women and children 3 Promotes immigration 4 Greater opportunity in business for people with talent 5 Creates a better domestic market for agricultural products Two visions of Am erl39ca 0 Hamilton and the Federalist Party Belief on Positive Government strong and active Make people support the federal government Funding and Assumption Attaching country to Great Britain Future of the United States lies in commerce thus business needs protection Don t trust Americans 0 Madison and the DemocraticRepublicans Belief in Negative Government Belief that government should not favor one group over another Thus opposed to funding and Assumption Future of the United States lies with small farmers Battleground The Constitution
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