United States History Since 1865
United States History Since 1865 HIST 2620
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Henriette McClure on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2620 at University of North Texas taught by Joshua Montandon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/229095/hist-2620-university-of-north-texas in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
the populist party was formed in 1892 in Omaha Nebraska the people s party platform a definitive stance of political issues taken by a party a plank in a platform is a specific issue abortion immigration 3 groups of planks in the populist platform in 1892 llPopulist Platform 1 Farmers 1 Federal ownership of railroad telegraph and telephone industries Thought that if the government owned these industries then they wouldn t be taken advantage of 2 Graduated income tax They want to have an amendment to be passed that doesn t prohibit a graduated income tax 3 Free silver At this time the economy is on the gold standard only gold is considered real money paper money is backed by gold This would cause inflation This would make the debt that farmers owe worth less inflation would help them 2 Urban Laborers 1 40 hour workweek Used to attract urban laborers 2 Restrictions on immigration New laborers were willing to work less than workers in the United States Immigration causes wages to be driven down 3 Political Reform designed to get rid of political corruption Pendleton Act Government employees must be more competent the have to take competency exams prove that they are the best person for the job Limits the amount of appointed offices They believe that government is no longer representative of the people 1 Direct election of Senators At the time the Senate was elected by the State Legislature This was done to make the federal government responsive to the state governments In the populist opinion the Senators didn t care what the population thought Seen as a way to break the hold of corruption on the Senate 2 Australian Ballot Secret Ballot Used to lessen voter intimidation at the polls The election of 1892 is a presidential election The populist get support in the midWest and in the South It makes the 2 main political parties notice the populist s platform and they take some of the populist planks Democratic The democratic convention of 1896 is the first convention that meets that year Important because today the parties have primary elections in 1896 the parties did not have primary elections the conventions were when the parties chose a candidate The democrats hold their convention first when they do they also coopt a lot of the ideas of the populist party like free silver graduated income tax the 40hour workweek It is important because it makes them seem like these ideas were originally their ideas because the Populist Party hasn t had a convention yet Spent 300000 on Bryan s candidacy Populist The populist convention comes next they nominate the same guy that the democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan because they don t want to split the vote with the democrats and commit political suicide This makes the populist party merge with the democratic party Bryan is a preacher from Nebraska excellent orator Republican They llweighted the bloody shirtquot or kept reminding people that they were Lincoln s party ended slavery etc William McKinley is the Republican candidate No campaign up to this time had spent as much money as what was spent on McKinley s candidacy 5 Million Republican Platform For the Gold Standard Bryan was the first candidate that ever actively campaigned around the country Mcinley stuck to more traditional campaigning standards by being withdrawn Bryan s style of campaigning picked up steam for later candidates because it was effective Many of the Populist planks were achieved except for free silver Americans stick to themselves after the Civil War to focus on reconstructions and economy The US ignores larger issues in the world and focuses on domestic matters don t worry about foreign policies or expanding the border mperialism The policy of extending a nation by territorial acquisition or by political hegemony against the people who live there or the people who own it The Russians offer to sell Alaska to the US because he knows what it is worth so America buys Alaska for 72 Million This is called llSeward s follyquot because people don t realize that Alaska is abundant in gold and other resources The acquisition of Alaska is not considered imperialism because it was purchased Ludlow massacre of 1913 people were at a union party and somebody yelled fire when there wasn t and some people got stampeded to death By Woody Guthrie Midway island a tiny island in the Hawaiian chain Seward claimed midway island because nobody owned it also not imperialism Seward also wants to expand in the Caribbean by Cuba but congress decides to not stick by him because all of the islands in the Caribbean were already claimed and nobody there wanted to seel or become part of the United States Why expansion 1 It is the end of the frontier as stated by the census of 1890 This means that the traditional role of the frontier is no longer there The traditional role was to let off pressure in the society to give people a second chance in the frontier This concerns some Americans like Frederick Jackson Turner According to the Gospel of Democracy Americans believe that it is their duty to expand into other countries Alfred Thayer Mahan a nonhighranking naval officer writes a book called The Influence ofSea Power Upon History 1890 It is one of the most influential books written in the last 200 years Makes many nations change their foreign policy based on this book It was about the English Navy and says that the reason why Britain became a major power was through sea power not just navies but also the merchant marines Merchant marines are civilian trading ships that engage in trade all around the world This means that a country has to have a big Navy to protect the merchant marines which allows them to extend their economic reach throughout the world He compares Britain s situation to that of the United States He says that for the United States to become a major power they need a large Merchant Marine and a large Navy He also advocates for the Untied States to have overseas colonies The Unites States also need coaling stations or stops across the Pacific where ships can resupply with coal and goods because it is a bad idea for a country to use another country s coaling station in a time of war He also believes that you want to own your own port of destination At this time the United States is looking at China At this time China is a nation with an Emperor The Unites States exploit China using Spheres of Influence China doesn t have a large military Sphere of Influence A country controls a port in a country and their sphere is a circle around that port Mahan looks at how Eurpoe uses spheres of influence in China and Africa and say that the US needs to do the same and acquire colonies At the time America didn t have any colonies except for midway island and Alaska He also advocates building the Panama Canal The canal would be useful for trade and military reasons The Canal is built by Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt wants to expand for many reasons but primarily for llnational gloryquot Henry Cabot Lodge Leader of the Senate America looks at China as a very lucrative market Rationalizing Expansionism Social Darwinism plays in justifying expansion in the 1890s White Man s Burden duty of the superior race to look out for the inferior races paternalism Racial theorists for the White Man s Burden include Josiah Strong and John Fisk Fisk believes it is a Godly calling to take care of other races Places the US expands in the 18905 Hawaii Was an independent monarchy under Queen Liliuokalani The first Americans to go there were missionaries and their purpose was to convert the natives to Christianity People also went there to grow sugar The best places to grow it was Louisiana Hawaii and Cuba but the US didn t want to colonize Cuba yet The Queen gets worried about the influx of Americans and starts to limit the amount of people that go there and starts to cut off businesses from their investments So the businessmen start to make political moves that would allow them to access Hawaii without being hindered Democrats tend to be antiexpansionalist and Republicans tend to be proexpansionalist Grover Cleveland is on his way into office and sets up a commission to investigate on whether or not to annex Hawaii They uncover all of the military involvement and Cleveland decides to not annex Hawaii However in 1898 when McKinley proexpansionalist and proCuban comes into office he convinces congress to annex Hawaii because Japan wanted to take Hawaii by force So a simple majority in both houses of congress decide to annex Hawaii The annexation of Hawaii was imperialism SamoaSamoa is interesting to the United States because of its location and because it has a deepwater port The Samoan government allows America and Germany to install Naval bases in Samoa During the war Germany lost Samoa so America was the only government in Samoa Samoa becomes an American Protectorship Samoa is not considered imperialism Yellow 39ournalism exaggerating the facts to make it more exciting so they can sell more newspapers Grover Cleveland is the President at the beginning of the Cuban Revolution he is proSpanish Mcinley comes in office in March of 1897 he is proCuban and Bryan is too Cuba has been a Spanish Colony since Columbus During the late 1800s the Cubans started revolting because they didn t want to be under Spain s control anymore Each time the Cuban s rebelled Spain put it down ruthlessly The Cubans are worried about the Panic of 1893 and the McKinley Tariffon Sugar that favors American sugar production and hinders Cuban sugar production Cuba s main export is sugar and this tariff hurts their economy The Cubans begin to become impoverished and rebel against their Spanish overlords with Guerilla Warfare The Spanish start using concentration camps in Cuba to put down the revolt The population gets diseases and start to die off because of harsh and unsanitary conditions You can t blame Spain for this first wave of deaths because they didn t mean for it to happen but you can blame them for continuing on Over 20000 people die in these concentration camps The tragedy in Cuba is published by yellow 39ournalists Hearst and Pulitzer Americans sympathize with the Cuban revolution because it reminds them of the American revolution Yellow journalism is a contributing factor in the war but it is not the only factor The Cubans want the United States to become involved in the war By 1900 there is an antiimperialism league in the United States even they were for American intervention in Cuba Why the US goes to war 1 A letter is written to the Spanish ambassador to a friend of his in Cuba It is called the Delome letter In this letter he gives his honest assessment of McKinley He says that McKinley is a crowdpleaser and that he really doesn t have any principles A Cuban spy steals this letter from the post office in Cuba and gives it to the Hearst chain of newspapers The newspapers publish it and say that the Spanish have insulted the President 2 The sinking of the USS Maine It goes to the Havana harbor in Cuba to protect American property While it s there it mysteriously explodes Over 200 sailors die No one knows who is to blame but Roosevelt says that it is the Spanish that did this The newspapers take Roosevelt s words and publish it A slogan is coined llremember the Maine to hell with Spainquot McKinley says that the Spanish have to pay for the ship the Spanish have to stop the war with the Cubans and also wants the Cubans granted independence The Spanish are willing to pay for the ship and stop the war but they don t want to give Cuba independence Spain then declares war on the US The US says that they had declared war quotretroactivelyquot on the Spanish Fighting mostly takes place in Cuba and in the Philippines and it is small in scale only 400 American casualties more Americans are killed by disease but only 400 die from being killed Teller Amendment The Americans say that they have no interest in acquiring Cuba or annexing Cuba they are in the war for the sake of Cuba only Before war is declared he end word to Commodore Dewey in the pacific and tells him to gather his troops in Hong Kong Once war begins he tells him to attack the Spanish in Manila Bay in the Philippines The US have steel ships the Spanish have wood ships with iron plating The Americans get help occupying Manila from a Filipino freedom fighter Emilio Aguinaldo America wants to occupy the Philippines and Aguinaldo gets mad From 18991902 America fights the Filipino in the Philippines The Americans base themselves in Florida and land them in Santiago de Cuba and the Marines take Guantanamo Bay The war begins and ends in 1898 Most of the Fighting takes place at Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill The Ruff Riders are one of the most celebrated units in the war It is headed by Roosevelt Roosevelt becomes a war hero Roosevelt would not have president if he had not been part of the Ruff Riders The Ruff Riders were successful because of a black cavalry unit that s fighting on San Juan hill The Treaty of Paris 1898 Significance 1 US has now become a major world military power 2 Even though the US went to war for Cuban independence the US does acquire some territory in the war which shows that the US is now an empire Territory the US acquires Guam Philippines Puerto Rico Guam President McKinley says that he couldn t sleep at night because he was worried about what to do with the Philippines 1 Can t sell them 2 Dishonorable to give it back to Spain 3 Can t make the Philippines independent because he says they re not ready for independence Foraker Act There is an American Governor in the Philippines and let s people under him be Filipinos Jones Act Allows the Filipinos to have their own legislature CubaAmericans pass the Platt Amendment an amendment to an Army Appropriations bill They want this amendment to be put into the Cuban Constitution t specifies that 1 Cuba should never come under some undue foreign influence If they don t then the United States can use military force to remove the foreign influence 2 Cuba cannot go deeply into debt beyond its budget 3 Right for the US to intervene if Cuba violates any of these provisions 4 It gives the United States Guantanamo Bay a section of land for use as a naval base Roosevelt Panama Canal 19031914 Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine states that European powers should not colonize in the west or reclaim old colonies in the west Corollaryan quotamendmentquot or quotadditionquot Roosevelt reiterated what Monroe said and furthermore if a small latin or centralamerican goes bankrupt then Europeans are forbidden to send in a military to collect on loans Roosevelt says that the US will do that and collect loans for European powers so that European powers don t send in militaries This keeps other powers form getting involved in the governments of latinAmerican countries Significance of TR s foreign policy He has a very aggressive nationalistic foreign policy He is not afraid to extend the reach of US power overseas An example of this is the Panama Canal Secretary of State John Hay is the author of the quotopen door policyquot He was McKinley s Secretary of State T Roosevelt was McKinley s VP and when McKinley is shot Roosevelt takes over There are treaties forced upon the Chinese that allow America s Spheres of Influence to exist Europe has taken all of the good SOIs by the close so Hay comes up with the open door policy The open door policy states that China is a sovereign nation and that all spheres of influence should be open so that all nations can trade with China at all the SOIs and taxes collected at these SOIs should go to the Chinese government So the US uses China s sovereignty as a means of justifying why other nations should open their SOIs so the US can trade with China Britain acknowledges the open door notes because they have the largest navy and because they like the idea of being able to trade at any port in China This makes other nations follow Britain s decision The respect of the sovereignty of China makes implies that other nations cannot quotbiteoff pieces of China and make parts of China colonies of other nations Plessy vs ferguson pbsorgwnetjimcrowstorieseventsplessyhtml bgsuedudepa rtmentsacs1890splessyplessyhtml SpanishAmerican War terms Teller Amendment DeLone Letter Sinking of the USS Maine Platt Amendment Significance of SpanishAmerican war 1 US has now become a major world military power 2 Even though the US went to war for Cuban independence the US does acquire some territory in the war which shows that the US is now an empire Since the US now has colonies it is now an empire Yellow Journalism and how it was used in the SpanishAmerican War Hearst and Pulitzer Reasons why the US resumed expansion except of Alaska the US was for the most part uninterested in expanding Samoa Hawaii Mahan Influence of Sea Power Upon History If you have a large fleet of private ships you also need a large navy 2 rationalizations for expanding Social Darwinism White man s burden Definition of imperialism Election or 1896 significance McKinley won Bryan lost Platform of the populists 3 groups of planks Farmers alliance grangers patrons of husbandry 5 Farm problems Overproduction and falling prices Railroads and large corporations Credit Loss of status Farmers aren t organized because it s hard to unite people who live far apart Pullman Strike haymarket riot in Chicago Samuel Gompers of the AFL American federation of labor Unions joined the AFL not individuals Advocated short term goals AFL is mostly skilled laborers not just anybody could join the AFL Shorter workweek higher wages nights of Labor Goals some similar to the populists Look at a lot of political stuff Longterm goals Causes of the industrial boom in the north Wounded knee Dawesseveralty act Civil War Rockefellr Carnegie Vanderbilt Railroads First Kodiak camera Typewriter telephone 2quotd industrial revolution electric power research and development communications
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