United States History to 1865
United States History to 1865 HIST 2610
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Farrell on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2610 at University of North Texas taught by Joshua Montandon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/229096/hist-2610-university-of-north-texas in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
StrictLoose Construction SC enumerated powers ifX isn t listed in plain language in the Constitution as a power of the government then the government does not have the power to do X LC Broadimpeded government has power if X isn t prohibited in the constitution X helps government carry out its listed powers Democratic Republican Jefferson Federalist Hamilton 0 Democratic agrarian ruralfarming o Balanced economy society 0 Federal aid to industry commerce 0 Broad diffusion of wealth o Sympathies for debtors Sympathies to creditors Centralized power 0 Feared centralized powers 0 Distrusted people of being able to 0 Trusted peoples abilities to govern govern selves selves Hamiltons Fiscal Plan 1 Pay off entire debt federal and state 80 mil 2 Raise revenue with high tariffs and new taxes 3 Create a national bank Alien and Sedition Acts 1789 a Naturalization Act Extended from 5 to 14 yr b Alien Act empowered president to expel quotdangerousquot aliens suspected of treasonable or secret intention whenever deemed necessary c Alien Enemies Act gave president authority in time of declared war to expel or banish any citizen of an enemy country d Sedition Act aimed at American citizens demo repubs Significances of election of 1800 0 1st of 2 times that election went to HOR because there was no majority o Leads to the passage of the 12 h amendment 0 1st time government changed party peaceably Causes of War of 1812 1 Violation of American Neutral Rights on the high seas 2 British Incitement of Indian gtdepredations in the south and west 3 Some americans see war as an opportunity to take Canada and Florida uan l 4 National Honor vindication of national sovereignty and war of independence Advantage of US in war 1 Britain already involved in a war in Europe 2 War is in north America shorter supply lines 3 Outnumber british in America 4 Navy not large but professional and well trained Disadvantages 1 US army is small and poorly trainedequipped 2 Lack of unity among American ppl 3 New England is trading with enemy and giving supplies 4 Poor financing Bank of US has expired Significance of War of 1812 o Ended indian power and resistance 0 Resulted in western exploration 0 Won international respect for us 0 Confidence patriotism o Ended federalist party Hartford convention StrictLoose Construction SC enumerated powers ifX isn t listed in plain language in the Constitution as a power of the government then the government does not have the power to do X LC Broadimpeded government has power if X isn t prohibited in the constitution X helps government carry out its listed powers Democratic Republican Jefferson Federalist Hamilton 0 Democratic agrarian ruralfarming o Balanced economy society 0 Federal aid to industry commerce 0 Broad diffusion of wealth o Sympathies for debtors Sympathies to creditors Centralized power 0 Feared centralized powers 0 Distrusted people of being able to 0 Trusted peoples abilities to govern govern selves selves Hamiltons Fiscal Plan 1 Pay off entire debt federal and state 80 mil 2 Raise revenue with high tariffs and new taxes 3 Create a national bank Alien and Sedition Acts 1789 a Naturalization Act Extended from 5 to 14 yr b Alien Act empowered president to expel quotdangerousquot aliens suspected of treasonable or secret intention whenever deemed necessary c Alien Enemies Act gave president authority in time of declared war to expel or banish any citizen of an enemy country d Sedition Act aimed at American citizens demo repubs Significances of election of 1800 0 1st of 2 times that election went to HOR because there was no majority o Leads to the passage of the 12 h amendment 0 1st time government changed party peaceably Causes of War of 1812 1 Violation of American Neutral Rights on the high seas 2 British Incitement of Indian gtdepredations in the south and west 3 Some americans see war as an opportunity to take Canada and Florida uan l 4 National Honor vindication of national sovereignty and war of independence Advantage of US in war 1 Britain already involved in a war in Europe 2 War is in north America shorter supply lines 3 Outnumber british in America 4 Navy not large but professional and well trained Disadvantages 1 US army is small and poorly trainedequipped 2 Lack of unity among American ppl 3 New England is trading with enemy and giving supplies 4 Poor financing Bank of US has expired Significance of War of 1812 o Ended indian power and resistance 0 Resulted in western exploration 0 Won international respect for us 0 Confidence patriotism o Ended federalist party Hartford convention llNow last time we left off we were talking about Roanoke Roanoke was the first colony of which nationquot llGood now Virginia Dare was the first English child to be born in the New World John White had landed at roanoke We saw the first attempt had failed when they sent soldiers that angered and got in a fight with the Indians and they got wiped out John White is sent instead and he makes peace with the Indians and his daughter is born when they arrive Virginia Dare Well a few months after they arrive they start running low on supplies and it s not like today where if your pickaxe breaks you can just go to walmart and buy a new one so he s gonna have to go back to England to get more supplies So John White leaves he takes his little daughter and his wife and intends to go straight back to England and then come right back with the supplies It should be just a few months This is where Murphy s Law takes hold a little bit and something is going to prevent his return llBack here to a map of Europe Spain is right here Britain is right here and Spain is the lbig dog on the block at this time They have the biggest colonies over here in the New World they have the most wealth and all kinds of gold that they are getting from the New World and their shipping it back to the old world on spanish galleys Well the English see all this and want to be a part of it so Queen Elizabeth has Sir Frances Drake Sir Walter Ralegh and a couple of other enterprising fellows start raiding these gold shipments on the way back to Spain Now if this was done by a person just on their own initiative this would be called piracy But because it s done under the crown of England it s not a criminal act technically it s an act of war It is called lprivateering and privateering is simply piracy under the auspices of a crown who generally give them what s called a lletter of mark which if you were captured meant that you had to be held a prisoner of war rather than hanged summarily as a pirate llIn any case the English are raiding Spanish gold shipments and the Spanish are not happy about this They build a big fleet of ships called the Spanish Armada They send this up to England to try to teach them a lesson Some things are gonna go wrong with the Spanish Armada for one thing a storm is gonna destroy many of their ships Of course England will interpret this as a divine omen from God that they have His favor Some more practical things were involved however It takes a lot of water to provide for these sailors and the drinking water on these ships had been packed in barrels made out of raw green wood and many of the sailors and soldiers get sick This allows the storms to sink the ships that are unmanned But there are a few ships that make it to the British coast England decided that they were going to comandeer ANY ship that floats on British waters to use against the Armada llThis is what happens to John White s ship His ship was comandeerd So instead of coming back in late 1588 like White had expected he does not actually arrive back in roanoke until 1590 So these colonists had been on their own for three years now He goes into where the colony had been and it turns out it was deserted It s somewhat of a mystery as to what happened to the colony Now there weren t a lot of graves like there would have been if there was a rampant disease that had killed the colonists And there wren t a lot of bones like if the Indians had massacred them So there was really no indication as to what had happened to them except for a cross carved into a tree as well as the word lcroatoan The croatoans are an indian tribe that lives on the mainland and White surmises that since they were starving the colonists went there to join the natives Now his next step logically would have been to check that out but there is a storm coming and the ship captain says they have to leave or he leaves without White so we will never know what happened to the colony of Roanoke quotSo that was England s first colony in the New World It failed Jamestown was the first SUCESSFUL English colony Now The year Roanoke failed was 1590 There were 17 years in which england wasn t trying to colonize in the new world England was focusing on the Spanish Armada After this point Spain is going to begin her decline as a world power and England is going to ascend The biggest powers in the world by the 1750s will be france and england and then they fight for the top In 1607 we see another attempt to colonize This time instead of Ralegh under the auspices of Queen Elizabeth we have a new king king james the first He was king of scotland before this but he is still King James the First to England He was the king that the bible was named after Also they named jamestown the james river and the kingjames bible after him This is because all land under one flag is seen as being granted by the king and the king can take it away on his own accord so they tried to please him as much as possible The only excepction would be land that belongs to the church Jamestown was founded by a company not an individual a joint stock company called the Virginia or London Company This was to split the risk among many people so no one person looses their whole fortune if it goes under They were hoping to make a profit The first group that comes to Jamestown was 100 men All men They had heard stories from the spanish that gold was just laying around and they waste the whole summer running aroud the woods searching for this gold instead of doing something to prepare for winter like planting or building permanent structures They don t find any so when winter comes it is very hard on them We see that Jamestown has a fairly shaky start and it hangs on by its fingernails for its first 50 years This contrasts Mass Bay and the puritans and the pilgrims who are more organized and have a much better time of it Jamestown was so fragile and it doesn t seem likely to survive much less become the biggest and richest of the colonies llThe settlers make several mistakes First they send over the wrong kind of people They needed people who know a trade and have a skill they can contribute to the community like hunters or soldiers Instead they sent the sons of noblemen who have never worked a day and their lives and weren t about to start Because of premageniter the first son got everything so the second and third sons went to the new world to try and make their own fortune or the military or clergy Instead of sending people with skills they sent divas and premadonnas Basically selfish bastards They don t wanna work it is beneath them llSecond they build their village in a very unhealthy place It is in a swampy buggy and humid area that floods Malaria is common because ofall the mosquitoes and is a breeding ground for all kinds of diseases Third they send too many people and not enough supplies When a new ship would come in not supplies but just more people would come out llFourth there is no clear leader in charge You technically had a committee that was appointed by the Virginia Company but committees are very good at talking about things and never actually acting just look at congress So they don t really get anything done and they certainly cant make the rich noblemen work For the first several years life expectancy was 6 months When things finally start to look good forJamestown is when they finally get a leader John Smith Smith set down the rule that if you don t wor you don t eat He made them all work That helped Jamestown actually begin to progress a little bit Now John Smith is a very interesting guy He actually came over to the new world in chains At some point on the journey he had some kind ofaltercation he gets there in chains and soon after hes the leader ofjamestown The reason I call him the James Bond of the 1600s is because he does all kinds of crazy stuff that no one believes he actually does until recently For instance pocahontas throws herself across smith to save him Similar thingsg happened to him when fighting the Turks He had been captured he escaped by killing his guard and he hid himselfand was protected by the sultan s beautiful half naked women It sounds like a boast of course but it was true llJohn Smith would have helped a lot more but he had a little accident They kept gun powder in a magazin an underground room to protect it from electric sparks Somehow it sparked while he was inspecting the magazine and he is burned badly on the face He goes back to England to recuperate and doesn t come back llThe next thing we are going to talk about is the winter of 1609 to 10 There are five hundred people in jamestown at the start of this winter but come spring there are only sixty left One man was executed for cannibalism of his dead wife Cannibalism was pretty common These sixty people were about to up and leave but on their way out they met by incredible chance the first real supply ship coming up the river So the suppliers convice them to try it again The ship also brought more people so the popn goes back up llThen we get another problem In 1611 and 1622 there are indian massacres Both of which kill half the popn So the colony is barely surviving people are dying faster than they bring more In 1622 there are only 1000 of the 14000 total people to visit jamestown It looks like they are failing at this point Three things that turn it around One somebody found a way for jamestown to actually make money If the sttlers are just growing food they are only feeding themselves not making a profit for the va co This is where John Rolfe comes in He experimented with tobacco and marries pocahontas which makes peace with the indians so they actually get their help pohatan tribechief But the main thing is tobacco He hybridizes it to make it less strong and more palletable to the europeans So this starts a huge fad in europe despite james the first calling it a noxious weed Everybody starts smoking and this makes jamestown very profitable and attracts settlers to jamestown in rivers instead of trickles The money was worth the risk to them This huge profit makes them neglect their food sources again which has bad consequences later Second 1619 the first representative legislature in the new world England was different than spain or the dutch or french by giving the subjects more say in govnt This first rep govent Was called the House of Burgessses There is a legislative bosy in VA today that ttraces its history cear back to the H03 This helped change the colony into a success because this meant that it was simply more attractive to settlers If you were in England looking at where to settle somewhere that let you make decisions would be highly attractive Last The colony becomes a royal colony in 1624 People there were making a lot of money but the VA company wasn t They had to invest too much into protection and shipping etc They wree not a big business with huge resource supplies So the crown came in and it became a British colony officially so its success became a matter of pride to the mother country The king could not let this fail because it would reflect badly upon him Speakiing of royal colonies there are three types of colonial government royal corporate and proprietary Royal obviously contrlled by the king or queen Corporate owned by settlers in a co like the joint stock co Proprietary owned by individual or small group with charter Jamestown was co Of the nine or so colonies we are going to talk about in class make sure which of the three g s and of these govnt apply ORIGINALLY Example of proprietary wold be pennsylvania Because VA is the first colony it gets the nickname lthe old dominion The next subject before we move away is the birth of slavery in the english colonies Slavery in the colonies starts in jamestown Slavery is one of the most important things Slavery in jamestown was the first in ENGLISH north america not the first in north america period Spanish dutch etc had already done it england was just late as usual Slavery in general is as old as mankind It really has existed forever But the time that the idea of freedom is tiny and very very short There is a big difference in the old and new styles of slavery The new way was based on race It had generally been related to war before this It was seen as an alternative to execution and was not generally permanent This new type was based on race and was generally permanent Some masters allowed certain rights but not usually Philip Curtin historian wrote a book in which he tried to count just how many slaves were taken from africa and transported to the new world He came up with 10 million that actaully made it to the new world More than that were taken but many died in whats called the middle passage the water part of that journey 20 of slaves died en route Even more died in wars that were in africa to capture more slaves Europeans got tribes in africa to fight eachother so that they could take advantage of the chaos and get more slaves Slavery was not new at this time but the scale of slavery exploded
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