Psych 100s Week 8 Notes
Psych 100s Week 8 Notes PSYX 100S-03
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sturgeon on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S-03 at University of Montana taught by Kali Diane Strickland (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Liberal Arts at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Psychology 1005 Week 8 Chapter 8 Language and Thought Cognitive Psychology Study of mental processes such as attention language memory problem solving and decision making Animals and Language They can communicate but it is mainly thought that language is unique to humans Language Symbols that convey meaning either written or verbal Can be used to generate a variety of meanings How Do We Learn Language Nurture o Conditioning principles I Imitation leads to reinforcement I Shaping Nature 0 Language acquisition device I There is an innate mechanism in each person that facilitates language learning I The ability to learn grammar is hard wired I This was supported by the fact that the learning pace was similar amongst children across the world I Chomsky was a primary figure Interactionist o Believed that language learning was a combination of nurture and nature 0 Both biology and the environment contribute o Believes that humans gradually develop connections but that there is some sort of predisposition Evolution 0 This idea is that humans were prepared for language learning because of natural selection Culture 0 Linguistic relativity hypothesis is the idea that language reflects cultural values and helps determine the way we think Properties of Language Symbolic words represent ideas or objects 0 Denotation the definition of a word Semantic words have meanings and logic 0 Connotation the emotional overtone or feeling the word gives Generative there are infinite combinations Structured there are rules for forming sentences syntax Foundation of Language Phonemes smallest unit of sound 0 About 100 total 40 of which are used in English language Morphemes smallest unit of meaning 0 Examples include prefixes suffixes and words Language Development Less than 6 months 0 Cooing and lithing 3 months 0 Can distinguish phonemes from all languages 618 months 0 Babeng 1013 months 0 First words 18 months 0 Great variance is spoken words 0 One word at a time 1824 months 0 Vocabulary spurt 2 years 0 Sentence formation 0 Telegraph speech 3 years 0 More complicated sentences 0 Verb tenses 6 years 0 Metalinguistic awareness 0 Understand ambiguous sentences 0 Humor with double meaning Common errors 0 Over extension 0 Using words for related objects Over regularization 0 Grammar is misused Types of Problems Problems of introducing structure Problems of arrangement Problems of transformation Problem solving strategies Trial and error trying all possible solutions Algorithm more systematic step by step method that produces the correct solution Heuristic guiding principle used in solving problems shortcut no guaranteed solution Insight suddenly discovering the correct solution to a problem Functional fixedness belief that objects only function in a certain way Unnecessary constraints assume that there are constraints that do not exist Irrelevant information information that leads astray from the solution Mental Set continuing to use problem solving strategies that worked in the past but aren t working now Decision making Identifying and choosing alternatives Sometimes it happens without conscious thought Theories of bounded rationality o Rationality is limited to the information someone has their cognitive ability and their time 0 People tend to make decisions based on a few parts of the overall situation Availability Heuristic Basing your estimate of an outcome on the information that readily comes to mind Representativeness Heuristic estimated the probability of the event depending on how similar the event is to the prototype of that event Problems 0 Framing effects the way in which a problem is framed can have significant effects on how we make decisions 0 Conjunction fallacy the odds of two events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone 0 Gambler s Fallacy belief that the odds of a chance event will increase if it has not happened recently
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