Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology SOCI 1510
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Elwin Parisian on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1510 at University of North Texas taught by Dale Yeatts in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/229119/soci-1510-university-of-north-texas in Sociology at University of North Texas.
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1 Social Structure 7 the typical patterns of a group a Macro 7 it is created by a large group Not individuals 2 Social Status 7the position someone occupies in society a Ascribed Status 7 involuntary b Achieved Status 7 earned or accomplished 0 Status Symbols 7 signs that identify status Master Status 7 a status that cuts across other statuses 3 1 3 Transformational Stages a Hunting and Gathering Societies 7few social divisions and little inequality b Pastoral herding and Horticultural Societies 7 permanent settlement led to classes and family roles c Agricultural Societies 7 cultures began to develop philosophy law art literature d Industrial Societies 7 greater class separation money becomes more important e Post Industrial information Societies 7 based on transmission of information and not production 4 Durkheim believed society was held together by Shared Consciousness a Mechanical Solidarity 7 members of society are unity by shared values and bonds b Organic Solidarity 7 labor division make groups depend on one another 5 Tonnies shifts in relationships a Gemienschaft 7 an intimate community where everyone knows everyone b Gesselschaft 7 community based on impersonal associations our lives no longer depend on family and friends 6 Stereotype 7 our assumption of what people are like a Dramaturgy 7 social life is like a drama or stage play b Impression Management 7 managing the impressions that others see of us c Role Con ict 7 incompatibility among social roles i Role Strain 7 incompatibility within one role gt1 Ethnomethodology 7the study of how people use commonsense understanding to make sense oflife a Background assumptions 7 ideas about the way life is and the way things ought to work 9 Social construction of reality 7the social groups to which we belong hold particular Views of life a Examples In a gyno exam doctors create a comfortable social reality 50 Social Group 7 people who think of themselves as belonging together and interacting with each other E Aggregate 7 people who for a time share the same physical space but do not feel they belong to each other Fquot Category 7 a statistic that links people in a group 0 Primary groups 7 groups where one feels intimacy and an expanded sense of belonging 3 1 Secondary groups 7 larger more more formal more anonymous and more impersonal groups 10 Iron Law of Oligarchy 7 how organization come to be dominated by a small self perpetuating elite a Thomas theorem 7 If people de ne situations as real they are real in their consequences 11 Reference groups 7the groups we refer top when we evaluate ourselves a Examples Family neighbors teachers classmates coworkers scouts members of church cliques teams etc 12 Small world phenomena 7 thought that everyone in the world knows everyone else through some shared relationship friend of friend of friend a Kleinfeld s testing of SWP 7 found that surveys only reached part of target demographic and the sample was biased for the upper class 13 Facebooking 7 interacting in an online electronic community 14 Characteristics of bureaucracies 7 clear levels with assignments owing downward and accountability owing upward a division of labor written rules written communication and records impersonality and replaceability a Red tape 7 illogical rules in bureaucracies b Work alienation 7 workers feel they are objects not people it is caused by workers being cut off from their final product 15 Leaders are group members that strongly represent the group s core values a Instrumental leader 7 tries to keep the group moving toward the goals b Expressive leader 7 not often recognized as leader but is one because they keep the group motivated by dictating moral c Authoritarian leader 7 gives orders d Democratic leader 7 gains consensus e Laissezfaire 7 highly permissive 16 Asch Experiment of Conformity 7 people in a group were shown cards with diagrams on them and asked questions about the cards People in a group give the wrong answers to questions because the others in the group answered wrong a The Miligram Experiment 7 Experiment designed to see how much pain a person will knowingly in ict pain on another person Often subject protested on in icting pain until they received assurance from authority that it was okay l7 McDonaldization of Society 7 George Ritzer s book that describes the idea that society is jm uij rtr Halal MM hwy 20 Groupthink 7 collective tunnel vision among members of a group a Implications 7 people see suggestions to group actions as a sign of disloyalty b Giving free reign to ideas can prevent group think 21 Deviance 7 violations of social norms a Relativity of Deviance 7 what is really deviant is relative to the culture one is in 22 Three explanations for social deviance a Sociological 7 Social in uence push people to violate norms b Sociobiological 7 genetic predisposition leads to deviance c Psychology 7 Abnormalities within the individual lead to deviance 23 Functional Perspective of Deviance 7 Durkheim said deviance was functional for society and contributes to social order a Strain Theory 7 deviance is caused by strain in society over opportunities to reach cultural norms b Street crime is a way for the lower class to attain the material things which show success in a culture c Whitecollar crime is a way for those in power to gain more power through functional but socially deviant means 24 Con ict perspective of crime 7 the powerful elite us the justice system to keep themselves in power 25 Prison growth vs US population 7 US has largest percentage of population in prison of all countries 26 Recidivism 7 being rearrested after releases from prison a The US has a relatively high recidivism rate 27 The death penalty is highly used in some states Texas has the most and unheard of in other states a Serialmass Murder 7 killing of several people in at least three or more events b Hate Crime 7 a crime motivated by bias or hatred for a group 28 Medicalization of Deviance 7 deviance is a sign of mental sickness a Sociologists believe mental illness and homelessness are reciprocal and can be caused by one another STudy Guide QuesTions for TesT 3 reviews ChapTers 7 8 and 9 ChapTer 7 U1 0 9 WhaT are causes of slavery Does slavery exisT Today Is so explain WhaT is meanT by The casTe sysTem Where does iT exisT and how does iT work WhaT is meanT by The social class sysTem WhaT is iT based on WhaT is social sTraTificaTion and iTs Types How did Marx define social class According To Marx whaT caused iT WhaT is class consciousness False class consciousness How did Weber define social class According To Weber whaT caused iT How do funcTionalisT and conflicT TheorisTs view sTraTificaTion Why do They Think iT is ineviTable Compare social sTraTificaTion in GreaT BriTain To ThaT of The former SovieT Union WhaT are The characTerisTics of social sTraTificaTion in each Describe The explanaTions for sTraTificaTion among naTions 10 Describe The facTors ThaT mainTain global sTraTificaTion ChapTer 8 A WhaT are The componenTs of social class Describe each Is wealTh The same as income Why do people give more presTige To some Jobs Than oThers WhaT causes one To be in a parTicular social class WhaT is sTaTus inconsisTency WhaT can iT cause someone To feel WhaT are The consequences of social class 5 WhaT are Three Types of social mobiliTy Describe each 6 How do governmenT officials decide who is in poverTy ie The poverTy line WhaT The demographic characTerisTics of Those in poverTy Children 7 WhaT are The myThs abouT The poor Why is each a myTh 8 WhaT facTors conTribuTe To people being poor in The US ChapTer 9 1 WhaT is The difference beTween race and eThniciTy 2 Can a plane ride change your race 3 WhaT is a minoriTy group Is iT based on a numerical minoriTy WhaT is iTs opposiTe 4 WhaT is The difference beTween individual and insTiTuTional discriminaTion Provide examples of each How is insTiTuTional discriminaTion pracTiced in home morTgages HealTh care House Police Social SecuriTy 5 WhaT are The characTerisTics of a person who is prejudice 6 How do The Three sociological perspecTives view or explain prejudice 7 There are six global paTTerns of inTergroup relaTions ThaT make up a conTinuum ranging from genocide To mulTiculTuralism Describe each 8 WhaT isThe race vs social class debaTe 9 Who are Asian Americans Why are They so successful in America 10 Who are NaTive Americans Why are They consideredThe invisible minoriTy WhaT are Their social characTerisTics 11 WhaT is AffirmaTive AcTion Why do some like iT and why do oThers noT like iT 12 Who was Thurgood Marshall WhaT were his major accomplishmenTs STudy Guide QuesTions for TesT 4 reviews ChapTers 10 12 and 15 ChapTer 10 H N A 39gt 0 X 9 Provide examples of gender violence WhaT is The difference beTween sex and gender WhaT are The effecTs of TesTosTerone WhaT were The origins of paTriarchy WhaT is feminism The glass ceiling Sexual harassmenT WhaT has conTribuTed To a closing of The gender gap How are women TreaTed differenle Than men when considering educaTion HealTh The workplace Describe each WhaT are The characTerisTics of The Abkhasians The mosT long lived persons in The World WhaT is geronTology An age cohorT Graying of America Agism OASDI When were The baby boomers born 10 WhaT is meanT by a pig in a pyThon 11 How was Social SecuriTy changed so ThaT There would be enough funds available 12 WhaT changes could be made To Social SecuriTy so ThaT iT is more solvenT 13 WhaT are Area Agencies on Aging WhaT do They provide WhaT AcT allows for This 14 WhaT are some funcTionalisT Theories of aging Describe each How do conflicT TheorisTs view aging Explain ChapTer 12 1 WhaT is a family 2 WhaT are common culTur al Themes including endogamyexogamy paTr ilinealmaTr ilineal and paTr39iar39chymaTr39iar39chy A Describe The funcTionalisT conflicT and symbolic inTer39acTionisT per specTive of The family Give an example of each 4 Describe each sTage of The family life cycle 5 WhaT are major causes of divorce The effecTs of childr ear ing on par enT r elaTionships WhaT facTor39s ar e associaTed wiTh high qualiTy day care 6 How do lower39 class par39enTs r aise Their children differ enle Than middle class par enTs 7 WhaT are The differ enT Types of families eg singlepar enT no children blended gaylesbian WhaT ar39e char acTer isTics of each 8 WhaT are The major Trends for US families WhaT is The sandwich gener39aTion 9 WhaT affecTs divor39ce 10 WhaT causes men To be abusive To Their spouses 11 Why do many women noT leave an abusive husband ChapTer 15 1 How did Karl Marx and Max Weber explain why socieTies have changed 2 WhaT is The r elaTionship beTween The 67 naTions 3 Describe each Theory of social change discussed by Henslin 4 WhaT are invenTion discovery diffusion and culTural lag 5 WhaT are proacTive and reacTive social movemenTs 6 WhaT are major Technological changes ThaT have caused social change hinT answer in powerpoinT slides 7 WhaT are Techniques used To manipulaTe oThers 8 WhaT are The 5 sTages of social movemenTs O Typically The lasT sTage of a social movemenT is decline Why haven T The social movemenTs relaTed To aborTion declined 10 WhaT region of The US has The mosT hazardous wasTe siTes 11 WhaT is The difference beTween acid rain and global warming 12 WhaT is ecosaboTage 13 WhaT is The goal of environmenTal sociology A v What is the Sociological perspective How is social location part of the sociological perspective a quot 39 39 a 39lquot quot l39 39 quot a human behavior by placing it in broader human contexts b Social location places members in a group based on their location and history These places influence a person s outlook and appearance to society What are the major components of science a Theories and Systematic research What did each of the following persons contribute to society What were their primary beliefs a August Comte 17981857 coined sociology created positivism the idea of applying the scientific method to the social world Comte believed sociology would discover social principles and apply them to social reform b Karl Marx 18181883 Believed class conflict was the engine that drove social change Marx believed in a classless society where people would work according to their abilities and receive goods based on needs c Max Webster 18641920 Claimed that economics was the central force of Social Change He developed the Protestant Ethic a theory that capitalism would thrive in protestant countries because of uncertain knowledge of salvation and seeing financial success as divine blessing d Herbert Spencer 18201903 Theorized that societies evolve from barbarian to civilized created Social Darwinism more well fit societies will prosper over time while less equipped societies will fail e Emile Durkheim 18581917 Made it his goal to make sociology an academic study and show how social forces affect behavior He created the idea of Social Integration or the degree to which people are tied to their social group f WEB DuBois 18681963 Sociological reformer who studied the relationships between whites and blacks He created the NAACP g Jane Adams 18601935 Work to improve the life of the poorimmigrant class She cofounded the ACLU and received a Nobel peace prize Explain the major differences in the major theoretical perspectives a Symbolic lnteractionism individuals evaluate their own conduct by comparing themselves with others b StructureFunctionalism Society is a living organism where all parts are needed to function properly c Conflict theom society is composed of groups constantly competing for scarce resources Compare Macrolevel and Microlevel analysis a Macro observes large scale patterns in society Structure FunctionalismConflict theory b Micro one on one interactions Symbolic interactionConflict theory What social factors are believed to hold society together a What is the collective conscience Class conflict Social Darwinism Racial Pluralism Social theory a Collective Conscience shared beliefs and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society Class Conflict constant tension between upper and lower classes Social Darwinism belief that more well fit societies will prosper over time while less equipped societies will fail 057 9 Racial Pluralism A condition in which numerous distinct ethnic religious or cultural groups are present and tolerated within a society Social Theom the use of theoretical frameworks to study and interpret social structures and phenomena within a particular school of thought 8 What factors did Emile Durkheim attribute to suicide a Aweak social integration can lead to suicide 9 What is a random sampling a In a random sampling everyone has the same chance of being included in the study They are generally used in surveys 10 What is secondary data analysis Operational definitions Unobtrusive measures a Secondam 213i analysi researchers analyze data others have collected b Operational definitions the demonstration process Unobtrusive Measures Studying those who don t know they are being studied 11 What is the difference between close ended and open ended questions a Close ended list of possible answer b Open ended people are allowed to answer in their own words 12 How did Humphreys research bring attention to ethics What book did he write and why was it condemned a It brought up the question of right and privacy of individuals being studied and deception among the researchers b It was condemned because the researched subjects never knew they were being studied for sociological purposes Humphrey disguised himself as a medical researcher 13 List and describe the major research methods used by sociologists a Archival Research historical method b Content Analysis questionnaires or books and media to figure something out c Experimental Research isolates a single or specific thing and uses the data to connect a theory d Survey Research asking individuals a series of questions e E History study of personal life trajectories A researcher can probe decisive moments in a person s life f Longitudinal Research specific examination of something over a long period of time g Observation sing data from the senses one records information about social phenomenon or behavior 14 What is the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis a A theory is a well tested and accepted belief A hypothesis is an educated guess based on unproven assumptions 15 What are the following and how are they related a Culture the language beliefs values norms behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next b Culture shock disorientation from a new culture c Ethnocentrism tendency to use our group s ways of doing things as a yardstick forjudging others d Cultural relativism try to understand a culture on its own terms e Symbolic culture symbols people use f 9 0 Subculture a world within the larger world of the dominant culture Counterculture values and norms to not fit in with society Culture lag not all parts of a culture change at the same pace 16 What are positive and negative sanctions a Positive sanctions to show approval of those who followtheir norms 3quot b Negative sanctions disapproval of those who do not 17 What are the following and how are they related Values standards that define what is desirable and what is not lorms rules or expectations about behavior anguage allows humans to be goaldirected cooperative and cumulative Folkways norms not strictly enforced Vlores norms to which groups demand conformity because they reflect core values Gestures using body movement to communicate with others 18 What is the SapirWhorf hypothesis a SapirWhorf hypothesis language shapes are thoughts and perception 19 What are examples of material and nonmaterial symbolic culture Prejudice vs discrimination a Material culture consists of objects art buildings clothing weapons tools b Nonmaterial culture a groups way of thinking and its patterns of behavior 20 The study of what types of children have helped sociologists to better understand socialization and its relationship to human nature a Feral children wild animals b lsolated children c Institutionalized children mental health 21 What have the studies of deprived animals found a A mother figure has nothing to do with feeding but cuddling The longer a monkey was isolated the harder it was for it to obtain normal monkey skills 22 What is socialization a Process of learning the characteristics of the group one is associated with 23 What is the main idea behind Cooley s Lookingglass selfquot a The process by which a self develops b We imagine how we appearto others c We interpret other s reactions d We develop a selfconcept 24 What are the stages of human development according to Mead a lmitation under 3 b Play 36 take roles of specific people c Games early school takes multiple roles 25 What are the stages of personality development according to Freud a The lDinborn drives b The EGOthe balancing force c The SUPEREGOthe conscience or culture within us 26 What is the relationship between resocialization and total socialization a Resocialization Learning new norms values attitudes and behaviors b Total institution cut off from society officials take over 27 How are emotions related to socialization 28 What are the agents of socializationpeople or groups that influence our orientations to lifeour self concept emotions attitudes and behavior a Family b Neighborhood c Religion d Day care e f 3999575 v The school and peer groups Workplace