Human Behavior and the Social Environment I
Human Behavior and the Social Environment I SOWK 3500
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haven Hoeger on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOWK 3500 at University of North Texas taught by Brenda Sweeten in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/229128/sowk-3500-university-of-north-texas in Social Work at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Chapter 2 The Biophysical Dimension Brenda Sweeten MSSW LMSW IPR The Biohsical Dimension Why is having knowledge of biology important to social work practice 0 May make bad referrals 0 Engage in appropriate screening 0 Biology my affect behavior Bioloical Theories Evolution tries to identify how much a species has changed over time and explain why changes have occurred We look at variations which are differences between individual organisms that affect their functioning 5M1 ll Bioloical Theories Lamarkism JeanBaptiste Lamark early evolutionary psychologist believed acquired traits could be passed from generation to generation Eat plant tastes good knowledge to eat this food is inherited Darwin Charles Darwin asserted that acquired developmental characteristics can t be inherited He coined natural selection which is a mechanism that selects traits that are useful to survival of the species Eat plant Egt we possess an enzyme to digest 29 and digestive ability is inherited Q greater chance of survival than someone not having the enzyme m H A513 7 5 rltf 39 quot i 9 r ziw9 quot 39 a ltgt v1 7quot Mendel Gregor Mendel asserted that not until we understood genes could we better explain variations in individuals Tribe chose food I29 because they have a particular gene Igt that produces an enzyme gt that allows digestion 12gt we pass this gene to offspring giving them a survival advantage Sociobiolo g g 317 755 Studying biology contributions to the social aspects of beh 7 lt observed in animals 1975 E O Wilson Altruism is really not performed for the benefit of others it is performed for the good of the gene that selfishly wants to be included in future generations 0 Example A mother funs into a burning house to save her children Wilson contends that her running back into the house is compelled at a biological level Svocial Darwini he 7UT a H A a r figk V 0 Survival of the Fittest Caused the exploration of genes vs culture coevolution Tried to understand crosscultural universal observed in behavior and why we do same things or have similar behavior across cultures Too simplistic genes don t plan and scheme on their own Others argue people learn new ways to behave in response to situations and teach offspring learned behaviors Social Darwinism Brings nature vs nurture into perspective People are more than genes Genes influence behavior but do not directly control it In the end behavior is a combination of genes culture and environment although their proportional influence is still under debate Social Neuroscience Links brain functions with social behavior by using advanced imaging technology Studies areas such as aggressiveness attachment altruism and attitudes empathy Biohsical Growth and Develoment gtxlt Growth refers to the addition of new cells or increaselin body size lt 7 Hyperplasia growth in fetal and early phases of development which involved increasing the number of cells Hypertrophic growth involving an increase in the m of cells growth after adolescence Development refers to changes and refinement or improvement in body components Canalization general pathways that constrain growth and development so some human development is genetically determined and regardless of environmental conditions these predetermined pathways limit degree of variation observed in a species infant walking Ce ls smallest unit of living matter Tissues cells grouped together which have varying characteristics according to function Organs tissues combine to form organs which serve a specific function in the body s system but don t work independently of one another Ex interconnection between heart lungs Systems organs combine to form systems Ex endocrine and nervous systems The body is most sensitive to permanent damage when in periods of rapid growth mW ca 39l i I C Cells gtllt Nucleus key structure in the cell that contains genetic information in the form of nucleic acids DNA deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid Coded strings of DNA and RNA are located on chromosomes which are threadlike structures found in the nucleus of the cell Cells contain 23 pair of chromosomes Exceptions to this are the ova and sperm which contain 23 unpaired chromosomes w Cal midi v 11C Lgil N UN tii Mitosis process in which a body cell reproduces itself by dividing and producing two new daughter cells each with 46 chromosomes Meiosis cell division that creates reproductive or sex cells Sperm and egg are gametes Gametes have halfthe parent cells makeup or 23 chromosomes not 23 pairs At conception the mother and father each provide 23 chromosomes to make 46 total A single cell is formed from the gametes sperm and egg 22 are autosomes chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes combine X X is a female or X and Y which is a male 39 iii l m V v 0 Hi i m j rv x Genetics in Human Behavior Recombination Our genes are different from our parents because we are genetically part of each parent Variations are caused as genes combine Ex Hair color and texture Variations can also be caused by changes in the gene This gives us mutations Mutations are rarely helpful Most produce recessive genes that don t show themselves unless both parents have the same harmful gene Three Tes of Genetic Disorders 1 Singlegene disorders 7 r 39 iv A Dominant Single Gene Disorders Hh Huntington s Chorea Purposeless motion arm jerks facial twitches development of dementia manifests in 4th decade of life so affected person likely has already had children and passed on this gene before they know it B Incomplete dominance Sickle Cell Disease 1 in 12 African Americans carry the gene 8 to 10 ofthe population has the disease Causes pain from clumping red blood cells Manifested by stress Anemia No cure Social workers seek to reduce stress that puts these persons at risk for serious health complications Three Tes of G netic Disorders C Recessive Single Gene DisorderslftWo eo they have a 1 in 4 chance their offspring will inherit Cystic Fibrosis 1 in 20 African Americans1 in 30 Caucasians Causes excessiver thick body fluids Difficulty with lung function and digestion 1993 294 years 1998 40 years seasx Cc Cc no CF CC25 Cc50 cc25 Tay Sachs Disease Mental and physical retardation Death by 2 to 4 years ofage AshkenzaiJews 1 in 30 chance of beinga carrier Three Tes of Genetic Disorders D X Ch romosome Linked Diseases Colorblindness Hemophilia problem with blood coagulation No corresponding gene on Y chromosome to overcome effects Three Tes of Genetic Disorders 2 Multifactorial Disorders These disorders have a genetic component but this component is dependent on the environment for its presentation The interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors 0 Cancer 0 Depression 0 Neuraltube defects spina bifida lack of folic acid 3 Chromosomal Disorders Cause by a variety of problems in cell division Often the result of too many or two few chromosomes Down Syndrome akaTrisomy21 0 Risk with advanced maternal age increases at 35 dramatically at 40 Fragile X Serious mental retardation 2nd only to Down Syndrome as genetic contributor to MR Males Large testes Speech deficits Large protruding ears OOOOOO Genetic and Environmental Effects on Human Behavior Genes can affect personality characteristics Mental health Delinquent and criminal activity Recent research shows for many characteristics there is a 13 to 12 contribution from genetics This means that most differences in human behavior are the result of environment Don t forget about nonshared environments away from family membersnit counts too Also must consider the way parents treat different children and sibling interaction Central Nervous Systemzneural cells and their chemical processes within the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous Systemzinvolves all neural cells and cell process that lie outside the brain and spinal cord Neurons Cells involved in conveying information from one cell to another Only cells in the human body that are separate from one another so they have to communicate This is done across synapses Use chemicals substances neurotransmitters to signal information from one cell to another Neurotransmitters play a critical role in the treatment of mental disorders Growth and Develoment of Neurons When born we have a full compliment of neurons almost 2X as many as we actually need Like a bunch of unconnected electrical wires Connections are made between neurons every time an infant is touched held spoken to or otherwise stimulated Nurturance plays an important role in how our brains are organized and wired Infants brains are pure infinite potential Serious consequences if deprived in first three years of life Bio h isical Hazards V c 39 ltr Deficits and dysfunction in physiological structures will have some bearing on a person s social functioning o Cancer rapid and rampant cell growth 0 Cardiovascular disease some conditions may be confused with anxiety or other psychological distress 0 Respiratory System Problems 0 Endocrine System hormones thyroid diabetes
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