Introduction to Archaeology
Introduction to Archaeology ARCH 2500
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nayeli Torphy DVM on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2500 at University of North Texas taught by Lisa Nagaoka in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/229129/arch-2500-university-of-north-texas in Archaeology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
GLOSSARY OF POSTMODERN TERMS agent or agency someone assumed to have authority and power causal force author person who writes or creates a text or one who is responsible for an outcome celebrate approve of something applaud a point of view chrortophonitm the modern assumption that time is chronological or lin ear Postmodernism are opposed to chronophonism Derrida 1981 countmnemorializing analysir an analysis that denies a referent reality rejects foundations and ignores origins Ashley and Walker 1990b 400 alecentering absence of anything at the center or any overriding truth This means concentrating attention on the margins deconstmmon a postmodem method of analysis Its goal is to undo all constructions Deconstruction tears a text apart reveals its contradic tions and assumptions its intent however is not to improve revise or o er a better version of the text dg39 erend difference in the sense of dispute con ict or disagreement about the meaning of language Lyotard 1988b 193 94 dtfergnce a structuring principle that suggests de nition rests not on the entity itself but in its positive and negative references to other texts Meaning changes over time and ultimately the attribution of meanin is put off postponed deferred forever Derrida 1972 1981 39 40 direoune all that is written and spoken and all that invites dialogue or conversation Discourse even promotes its own reformulation Agger 1990 37 evoking acceptable postmodem alternative to representing or repre senting It is assumed to free one s analysis of objects facts descriptions generalizations experiments and truth claims Tyler 1986 12930 foundationalirm 39 an attempt to ground inquiry or thought on pregiven principles assumed true beyond mere belief or unexamined practice Fish 1989 342 Bernstein 1986 8 12 Postmodernists are anti foundational They contend that questions of fact truth correctness validity and clarity can neither be posed nor answered Fish 1989 344 genealogy history of the present that looks to the past for insight into today It focuses on local discontinuous disquali ed illegitimate knowledges Genealogy dismisses the possibility of any view of history as a unitary body of theory which would lter hierarchise and order xii GLOSSARY in the name of some true knowledge and some arbitrary idea of what constitutes a science and its objects Foucault 1980 83 heroic modern social scientists sometimes focus on one event or person and in so doing postmodemists argue they create heroes attach exces sive importance to the capacities of a single individual to e 39ect change or in uence speci c dramatic events Postmodernists rejecting this ap proach heroic analysis neither focus on individuals nor construct he roes Many postmodernists call for the end of the subject the death of the author inferreality reality has collapsed and today it is exclusively image illu sion or simulation The model is more real than the reality it supposedly represents The hyperreal is that which is already reproduced Bau drillard 1983c 146 It is a model of a real without origin or reality Baudrillard 1983c 2 layerspace postmodem term referring to the fact that our modern con cepts of space are meaningless Space doesn t act according to modern assumptions It has been annihilated and spatial barriers have disap peared Everything is in geographical ux constantly and unpredictany shifting in space imploding implosion tendency for phenomena in a postmodem world to explode inwardly thus destroying themselves and one s assumptions about them Baudrillard 1983a Meaning disappears altogether Bau drillard 1983c 57 inte extuul in nitely complex interwoven interrelationships an end less conversation between the texts with no prospect of ever arriving at or being halted at an agreed point Bauman 1990 427 Absolute in tertextuality assumes that everything is related to everything else logocenm39c an adjective used to describe systems of thought that claim legitimacy by reference to external universally truthful propositions Postmodernists are opposed to logocentric thought They say such sys tems are really grounded in selfconstituted logic They consider them circular selfreferential and selfsatisfying As postmodernists see it no grounds exist for defensible external validation or substantiation Der rida 1976 49 moment inde nite point in time with undetermined duration or nonspe ci c geographical location or place Postmodernists also use this term to refer to the stages or steps of social analysis move as in chess it is strategic To move means to defend a position or take the discussion or analysis in a certain direction narrative postmodem opinion of this concept varies depending on the type of narrative under discussion Postmodernism severely criticize metanarratives global world views mastercodes Metanarratives are modern and assume the validity of their own truth claims however GLOSSARY mmnarratives micronarratives local narratives traditional narratives are just stories that make no truth claims and are therefore more acce t able to postmodernism p pardogirm parabgical refers to the unknown what is admittedly false knovzledgc But for postmodernism it can also refer to those practices that CXplOlt the destabilization of the language games of Truth in or der to phplmtto how little we really know how much what we do know is pure ngtic convention of an arbitr charact 39 Lyotard 1984 60 y er smith 198839 mu Partiche a free oating crazyquilt collage hod e e atch k f ideas or VICWS It includes elements of opposites sguc39lfig 015 andvi ic iav it 2111165 regularity logic or symmetry it glories in contradiction and con ion pej ommivity modem criteria by which judgment is made on the basis of pragmatic performance or outcome capacity e iciency control according to Benhabib 1984 105 It is not acceptable to most posi moderrusts Lyotard 1984 who understand it as an extension of mod em faith reason Postmodemists argue that performativity discour ages diverSity andautonomy exibility and openness phonocentnc Derrida a postmodernist argues that modern analysis fo cuses on speaking and the oral text He criticizes this tendency to attri bute speual status to the spoken word and labels it phonocentric Der rida contends that the written word is superior to the spoken Derrida 181 24 Postmodernists are antiphonologocentrist Berman 1990 pn39pileged to give special attention or attribute priority to an argument a person an event or a text Postmodem39 ts 39 39 39 SPCCi C Perspective 13 oppose priVilegmg any project organized formal modern ventures or activities It implies hav inng strategy 1 game plap a design a selfjustifying often hidden goal I em po tic parties or exam le have ro39 cts F ists this is a term of criticism P P It or Po mOdcm le quottdien 39 daily life analysis or everyday life focus Postmodernists see it as a positive alternative to global theory reuder observer Postmodemism is readeroriented and gives readers the power of interpreting a text that in modern terms belonged to the author Postmodem readers are dramatically empowered reader text lmble French term a modern text that is written with the intention of communicating a speci c precise message It assumes a 73322 reader that merely takes in the message Barthes 197039 197939 e writer s role is one of representation that is 39 ity Compare writerly text rcprcscnmg real xiv GLOSSARY reading understanding interpretation In postmodem terms one speaks of my reading jlour reading or a reading without re ect ing on the adequacy the validity of said reading represent the underlying assumption of modern representation that it is possible to present something over again to replace one object concept person place or time with another without loss of content or violation of intention The postmodernism say this is impossible rhetoric in the modern sense denotes arti cial eloquence as opposed to serious rigorous scienti c discourse But for postmodernism it is taken in its more classical de nition to mean oratory the artful presen tation of ideas that play with symbols and the construction of meaning in an open text that has no design or intention of imposing a hegemonic view or of insisting on its own superiority imulaerum a copy of a copy for which there is no original Baudrillard 1983c Elgin 1984 877 79 No distinction can remain between the real and the model site or space not merely geographic location places that cannot be de nitely determined It may also refer to opportunities Sometimes it al ludes to the topic or problem being studied story storytelling see narrative an explanation that makes no truth claims but admits to being the tellei s point of view based only on his or her experience Traditional local narratives are stories subjectivity postmodemists use this term to refer to an emphasis on the subject as a focus of social analysis The postmodernism criticize subjec tivity Postmodernists do not employ this word in its modern sense of philosophical relativism or tentativeness or the opposite of objectivity text all phenomenon all events Postmodernists consider everything a text totalizing assumes a totality a total view By extension this rejects other perspectives Postmodernism criticize totalizing theories voice the modern conception of the author s perspective Postmodem ists question the attribution of privilege or special status to any voice authors or a speci c person or perspectives The public voice how ever is more acceptable to postmodernism because it democratizes rhet oric makes discourse broadly understandable and at the same time sub verts its own expert culture Agger 1990 214 writerly text sm39ptible French term a postmodem text that is written to be rewritten by the reader with every reading This open text invites interpretation and reinterpretation Barthes 1970 1979 77 Jefferson 1982 100 101 The reader s role is that of production construction Compare readerly text
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