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Art Appreciation

by: Mariah Rau

Art Appreciation ART 1200

Mariah Rau
GPA 3.57

Lisa Owen

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Lisa Owen
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariah Rau on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 1200 at University of North Texas taught by Lisa Owen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/229152/art-1200-university-of-north-texas in Art at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
ART HISTORY SURVEY 1 EXAM 2 REVIEW NOTES 1426 Apotheosis of Titus Arch of Titus Found in the Roman Forum Oldest surviving arch in Rome It was built to commemorate the immensely popular emperor Titus who died suddenly during a plague AD 81 after only a two year reign and to celebrate his victory in Jerusalem Detail from the Arch of Titus showing spoils from the Sack of Jerusalem Apotheosis of Titua him attaining godhood by being carried by an eagle to heaven Plan of Trajan39s Forum and Markets This forum was constructed on the order of Emperor Trajan with the spoils of war from the conquest of Dacia which ended in 106 1 The Fasti 0stienses states that the Forum was inaugurated in 112 while Trajan39s Column was inaugurated in 113 To build this monumental complex extensive excavations were required workers eliminated the sides of the Quirinal and Capitoline Campidoglio Hills which closed the valley occupied by the Imperial forums toward the Campus Martius it is possible that the excavations were initiated under Emperor Domitian while the project ofthe Forum was completely attributed to the architect Apollodorus of Damascusm who also accompanied Emperor Trajan in the Dacian campaign During the time of the construction several other projects took place The Markets of Trajan were constructed1 Caesar39s Forum where the Basilica Argentaria was built and the Temple of Venus Genetrix were renovated The Forum was built from a vast stoalined piazza measuring 660 by 390 feet 200 X 120 m with exedrae on two sides The main entrance to the forum is on the southern side a triumphal arch surmounted by a statue of Trajan in a sixhorse chariot The Basilica Ulpia lies at the north end of the piazza which was cobbled with rectangular blocks of white marble and decorated by a large equestrian statue of Trajan On either side of the piazza are markets also housed by the exedrae North of the Basilica was a smaller piazza with a temple dedicated to the deified Trajan on the far north side facing inwards Directly north ofthe Basilica Ulpia on either side of the forum were two libraries one housing Latin documents and the other Greek documents Between the libraries was the 125foot 38 m Trajan39s Column Column of Trajan a Roman triumphal column in Rome Italy which commemorates Roman emperor Trajan39s Victory in the Dacian Wars It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate It is located in Trajan39s Forum built near the Quirinal Hill north of the Roman Forum the freestanding column is most famous for its spiral bas relief that artistically describes the epic wars between the Romans and Dacians 98ft in height 125 ft including the pedestal it sits on a spiral staircase of 185 stairs provides access to a Viewing platform at the top A statue of St Peter sits on top there once was a statue of an eagle up there but it disappeared in the Middle Ages Sanchi O Stupa 1 Madhya Pradesh Rome It is part of an entire complex of structures mostly stupas built between the 3rd Century BCE and the 12th Century AD The stupa is not a building in any traditional sense Once a burial or reliquary mound the stupa has become a purely symbolic object A nearly perfect hemispherical dome the Great Stupa is topped by a triple quotparasolquot set within a square railing or harmika A third of the way up from its base a raised terrace enclosed by a fence is meant for ritual circumambulation of the monument A second stonepaved processionpath at groundlevel is enclosed by an encircling stone balustrade This path is accessed from the cardinal directions through four exquisitely carved gateways Stupas may be made of brick brick and rubble or encased in masonry The present stupa encases an earlier one of about half its present dimensions The earlier one built of large burnt bricks and mud has been attributed to the Emperor Ashoka the main reasons being that the level of its oor is the same and that the bricks used in it resemble those in other Ashokan structures Ashoka Maurya 273 236 BCE was the most famous of the Buddhist rulers of India A dozen years or so after he began his reign about 258 BCE he became a convert to Buddhism He was a great administrator and a great builder His empire encompassed the whole of India and Afghanistan he stupa is the most characteristic monument of Buddhist India Originally stupas were mounds covering the relics of the Buddha or his followers In its earliest stages Buddhist art didn39t represent the Buddha directly Instead his presence was alluded to through symbols such as the bo tree the wheel of law or his footprint The stupa also became a symbol of the Buddha More exactly it became a symbol of his nal release from the cycle of birth and rebirth the Parinirvana or the quotFinal Dyingquot In a larger sense the stupa is also a cosmic symbol Its hemispherical shape represents the world egg Stupas commonly rest on a square pedestal and are carefully aligned with the four cardinal points of the compass This is a recurrence of the symbolism of the dome whereby Earth supports Heaven and Heaven covers Earth The axis of the world is always represented in the stupa rising above its summit The socalled quotparasolsquot set one above the other along the shaft emerging from its uppermost region represent a heavenly hierarchy The cosmic symbolism is completed by a ritual circumambulatory path around the monument Carved reliefs on stupas typically include o Jataka tales stories of the Buddha s former lives prior to being born as Shakyamuni 0 Events of the Buddha s final lifetime aniconic images of the Buddha o Representations of nature including nature deities yaksha and yakshi When walking around stupa you keep your right side facing it because Indians believe that your right side is more pure than your left side You cannot go inside Aniconic relief or scene of contemporary worship at the site of Enlightenment Bodhgaya 0 Buddha is not represented in human for in this piece Has an elevated alter with the symbol showing 3 jewwls of Buddhism Buddha his community his teachings Suggestive perhaps of the temple or shrine where Buddha sat under a tree and became one o Winged ppl are garlanding the tree itself supposed to be a recreation ofactual contemporary worship so what s up with the celestial flying ppl Detail of Yakshi Stupa 1 o Yakshis on toranas o uSusally carved on the inside faces of the posts 0 yakshi are erected in the gateways 6 images of these per gateway 0 Associated with trees and nature 0 A yakshini is the female counterpart of the male yaksha and they both attend on Kubera also called Kuber the Hindu god of wealth who rules in the mythical Himalayan kingdom of Alaka They both look after treasure hidden in the earth and resemble that of fairies Yakshinis are often depicted as beautiful and voluptuous with wide hips narrow waists broad shoulders and exaggerated spherical breasts Seated Buddha Gandhara o The carving on this statue made from a stone called schist is incredibly detailed as can be seen in the Buddha s delicate fingernails the folds in his robe or the wavy lines in his hair 0 The posture in this gure aims to show him in this manner setting in motion the Wheel of Law39 to his followers 0 he Wheel of law in Buddhism explains the real nature of life and existence At the base of the Buddha39s throne is an image of a bodhisattva a highly spiritual person who is also destined for enlightenment He39s wearing a turban and a halo and is anked by worshippers 0 an early statue of the Buddha made in Gandhara in modern Pakistan Seated Buddha Mathura 0 has several of the thirtytwo marks of a great being including a tuft of hair between the eyebrows urna wheels on the soles of the feet folds of esh at the neck elongated earlobes and the chest of a lion 0 Each of the Buddha s toes is carved with a small swastika another recurring symbol of Buddhism The cranial bump ushnisha signi es spiritual advancement The Buddha dressed in sheer robes is shown seated with legs crossed in the pose of meditation He holds one hand now missing aloft in what would have been the feardispelling gesture 0 Characteristic of Kushan dynasty sculpture from Mathura the Buddha is depicted with a robust torso a plump gently smiling face and wide open eyes Dura Europos interior wall of housesynagogue with torah niche 0 Because of the paintings adorning the walls the synagogue was at first mistaken for a Greek temple 0 painted walls depicting people and animals and a Torah shrine in the western wall facing Jerusalem o The scenes depicted are drawn from the Hebrew Bible and include many narrative scenes and some single figure quotportraitsquot 0 hey include the Sacri ce of Isaac and other Genesis stories Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law Moses leading the Hebrewsout of Egypt the visions of Ezekiel and many others The Hand of God motif is used to represent divine intervention in a scene Scholars cannot agree on the subjects of some scenes because of damage or the lack of comparative examples stylistically they are provincial versions of contemporary GraecoRoman style and technique several different artists seem to have worked on them Technically they are not fresco paint fused into wet plaster but tempera over plaster Earlier parts of the building have decorative painting with no figures Some of the paintings have figures whose eyes have been scratched out especially those in Persian costume o Scholars think the paintings were used as an instructional display to educate and teach the history and laws of the religion Some think that this synagogue was painted in order to compete with the many other religions practiced in Dura Europos the new and considerably smaller Christian church DuraEuropos church appears to have opened shortly before the surviving paintings were begun in the synagogue Good Shepherd Grants and Story of Jonah o


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