Earth Science GEOG 1710
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Greta Purdy on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1710 at University of North Texas taught by Kenneth Iles in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see /class/229165/geog-1710-university-of-north-texas in Geography at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Barometric Pressure pressure of the atmosphere drops as elevation increases Atmospheric pressure Units of measurement inches of mercury Standard sea level 2992 in or MILIBAR 10132 MB INSTRUMENTS BAROMETER Mercury barometer invented by Torricelli 1643 uses a glass tube lled with mercury The amount of pressure on the cylinder pushes the mercury up Aneroid Barometer has a cylinder that expands and contracts to move a needle not as accurate as mercury Weight of the air at sea level decreases with increasing altitude 147 lbs per sq inch 1 kg per sq cent Coriolis effect Makes wind that is traveling in a straight path appears de ected in relation to earth s rotation Northern counterclockwise de ects right Southern clockwise Frictional Drag Acts to slow down the air s movement but is only important near the surface Pressure gradient Force drives forces within the atmosphere higher to lower pressures without there would be no wind affects wind at any given location Cyclone sucks air in and raises it Center of low pressure Decrease towards the center WINDS Northern inward convergence counterclockwise Southern inward convergence clockwise Anticyclone push air out and down Usually bring fair weather no clouds associated with subsiding air AREAS of HIGH pressure WINDS Northern outward divergence clockwise Southern outward counterclockwise Geostrophic Wind winds balanced by Coriolis effect and pressure gradient forces High level winds high above the surface WIND A horizontal movement of air 1 out of areas with high pressure 2 Into areas of low pressure Isobars lines of equal air pressure Windward direction from which the wind is blowing at the same time in question Leeward direction downhill from the point of reference Prevailing winds Winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the earth s surface Global pressure Belts polar easterlies Westerlies and trade winds Thermally induced change in pressure due to temperature Equatorial lows Trade Winds warmwet air trade winds Polar highs colddry air Dynamically induced areas of low pressure draws air in moves upward Subtropical highs Westerlies Bermuda high Azores high paci c high Sub polar Lows Alvetian low Alaska and Icelandic low Iceland Global Wind Belts Doldrums below the equator light and variable warm humid air Trade Winds above the equator strong prevailing winds air converges near the equator and causes a pull same area all year long Westerlies light winds blown from west to east driven by clockwise rotation around the subtropical highs HORSE LATITUDE area in the subtropics with high pressure and little precipitation and has variable winds Caused voyagers to throw their horses over board Polar easterlies above the polar front air moves east to west clockwise of polar highs and counterclockwise of sub polar low Can cause no visibility due to high wind Polar Front head on collision of cold dense air coming from cell that collides with warmer air from subtropical high The warm air is pushed up and causes strorms WIND TOOLS Wind Rose graphic tool used to measure the direction and velocity whole mark10 half mark 5 Wind Sock conical textile tube to indicate wind direction and relative speed Anemometer cups measures wind speed Wind Vane direction of wind at the highest point of the building Local Winds Sea Land Breeze Day sea the earth heats the air and it rises and heads out towards the ocean where it sinks and cools and is drawn back inland Night Land The land warms and radiates heat that is sucked down in the ocean where its cooled and lifts and travels toward the land MountainValley Breeze 0 Result when mt air cools rapidly at night gt valley air gains heat rapidly during the day gt causing warm air to rise upslope during the clay Katabatic Winds when cold dense air gets pulled down and out towards the coastline South Pole Surface temps 130 degree below 0 100mph wind n0 sunlight North Pole relatively at pole just frozen ice winds light Chinook winds Rocky Mountains There is warm wind on the backside of the mountain range Storms Air ow is interrupted by cyclones move west to eat in N Hemisphere Bermuda High sits over the atlantic during the summer acting as a blockade that hurricanes cannot penetrate The size and location can determine where the hurricanes g0 Monsoon patter in Asia extreme temperature changes between summer and winter Massive amounts of rain JuneSeptember RECORD cherapunji 1036 inches of rain Jet Streams fast owing narrow air currents and brings cold weather Rossby Wave Brings cold air southward and move warmer tropical air northward support cyclonic storm systems Coldest weather in Texas is caused by a dip in the rossby wave Ocean currents 1 El Nino current that ows southward along the coast of peru and Ecuador a During the Christmas season b Blocks upwelling 0f colder nutrientfilled water and anchovies starve from the lack of food 2 La Nina blows colder air over the Paci c Northwest and northern great plains while warming the rest of the US a Triggered by cold surface temp in the eastern pacific b Great precipitation in the northwest wintertime Atmospheric water and weather Humidity warmer air greater maximum water vapor possible MEASUREMENTS Hygrometers two ways use a strip of leather or a stand of hair Psychromter compares temperatures of wet bulb thermometer and dry bulb The greater the difference between the thermometer readings the lower the humidity Condensation water vapor in the air changes to liquid and forms dew fog or clouds DewFrost condenses on solid surfaces Fog l Upslope fog cold dense air that settles into a valley oor the fog gets denser 2 Advection fog horizontal movement of air fog forming over the surface of cold water and drifts over land Radiation fog forms over a cold surface Frontal fog decreasing in elevation compresses the air and warms it up and forms fog on a mountain slope 5 Smog smoke and fog Evaporation fog if the temp is cold enough water evaporation from water surfaces 5 0 Condensation nuclei possible condensation surfaces in the atmosphere Example dust smoke ocean salt crystals Cloud droplets moisture droplets takes a million or more to form one rain drop LCL lifting condensation level the level at which a parcel of moist air becomes saturates when it is lifted dry Clouds Cirrus o wispy filamentous ice crystal clouds that occur above 6000 meters 0 appear in a variety offorms from feathery hair like fibers to veils of fused sheets Stratus o Appear dull gray and featureless 0 When they have precipitation they become nimbostratus Cumulus alto 0 middle level clouds 0 styles patchy rows wave patterns lens shaped 0 Hard to see the sun Nimboprefixes o Denotes stormy or rainy Precipitation two certain things moisture content and lifting mechanism Lifting mechanisms convergence air from north and south meet and rise lots of rain 2 Convection surface heats up the air and rises during the day Thunderstorms orographic wet on the front and dry on the back of the mountain frontal lift Cold front violent clouds and storms Warm front light rainfall 5 FORMS OF PRECIPITAION Rain atleast 5 mm diameter Drizzle less than 5 mm diameter Mist smaller than drizzle Snow ice crystals 10 inchesl in of rain sublimationwater vapor to crystals Graupel snow pellets popcorn snow Sleet small particles of ice frozen raindrop that freezes on its way down Hail biggest form of precipitaiton from big thunderstorms AIR MASSES l mT maritime tropical warm and moist unstable air gulf and atlantic 2 cT Continental tropical hot and dry southwest and meXico 3 mP maritime polar brings precipitation New england 4 cP continental polar winter cold summer cool northem Canada and interior alaska cA continental artic frozen precipitation V39 Mid latitude cyclones form along a front where air masses are moving parallel to the front in opposite direction TYPES OF FRONTS Cold front cold air replaces warm air advances faster then a warm front intensity of precipitation is greater but shorter duriation Warm Front warm air replaces cool air slow rate of advance light 7 moderate precipation Stationary front surface position of the front does not move The ow of air is parallel to the line fo the front Occluded front active cold front overtakes a warm front creates temperature inversion instability Thunderstorms stages 1 cumulus as more water vapor condenses the clouds get darker and darker 2 mature rain begins to fall heaviest rain and lighting 3 dispersal preciption breaks up the clouds and humidity in the air drops cooling effect Lightning Forked 0 Lightning stroke is branched and usually follows a zigzagging pattern 0 Forked lightning can go from cloud to ground cloud to cloud or cloud to air Ball 0 extremely rare form of lightning takes the form of a slow moving sphere St Elmo39s fire 0 An electrical discharge which forms above tall pointy objects above the ground like the masts of ships power poles and airplane wings o This form of lightning gives off a bright bluish greenish glow 0 It s made from tiny sparks Thunder 0 not heard over 15 miles away 0 Travels 15 milesec 0 estimate the distance by counting the seconds in between lightning and thunder 5 secone mile Tornados Formation upper level winds move at higher speed then lower level winds and spins on a horiztonal axis Intensity measured on Fujita scale 1 6 5310 mph Doppler radar helps increase detection Tropical cyclones A orginate within tropical air masses half become hurricanes convert heat energy to mechanical energy in the wind Warmer the ocean and atmosphere more intense the storm COP Saffir Simpson Hurrican Damage scale 1 75 95 mph 96 110 mph 111 130 mph 131 155 mph gt155 mph FTPquot Hurricanes in Atlantic June till November water exceeds 80 degrees wind 74 mph Warm air and upper level support from trade winds Coriolis effect Tropical depression winds do not exceed 38 mph Tropical storm winds between 38 74 Easterly wave level of disturbance in topical origins can cause initial instability for hurricane to form Typhoons once you pass the 180 merdian north pacific greatest number per year Cyclones Indian ocean EYEWALL of a hurricane intense thunderstorms near the center rising air intense activity RECORD STORMS Tropical storm 1979 43 inches of rain Glavin TX DEALIEST hurricane 1900 Galveston island TX 8 10000 people COSTLIEST Katrina 2005 84000000 World s deadliest storm 1970 Bangladesh 750000 EARTH SCIENCE EXAM 3 REVIEW 102610 1 The Science of Geology a The nature of Earth has been a focus of study for centuries NM c U ml and the birth of modern geology d James Hutton 1790 s 7 wrote down his observations 7father of uniforrnitarianism 2 Geologic Time a The magnitude of geologic time i Involves vast times 7 millions or billions of years ii An appreciation for the magnitude of geologic time is important because many processes are very gradual 3 The Nature of Scienti c Inquiry a Science assumes the natural world is consistent and predictable b The goal of science is to discover patterns in nature and use the knowledge to make predictions c Scientists collect facts through observation and measurements 4 Earth as a System a The Earth system is also powered from Earth s interior i Heat remaining from the Earth s formation and heat that is continuously generated by radioactive decay powers the intemal processes that produce volcanoes earthquakes and mountains 5 The Rock Cycle part of the Earth system a The loop that involves the processes by which one rock changes to another b Illustrates the various processes and paths as Earth s materials change both on the surface and inside Earth 6 Earth s Internal Structure a Earth s internal layers can be de ned by i Chemical composition ii Physical properties Layers de ned by composition i 7 Oxygen 466 and Silicon 277 57 c Project Mohole 7 Minerals 7 building blocks ofrocks a De nition of a w v Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure iquot lt De nite chemical composition b De nition of a i A solid aggregate or mass of minerals c Quartz Diamonds hardest rock on Earth 8 Mineral Resources a The endowment of useful minerals ultimately available commercially i Mineral resources include 16 7 already identi ed deposits Known deposits that are not yet economically or technologically recoverable i Useful metallic mineral that can be mined at a pro t ii Must be concentrated above its average crustal abundance iii Pro tability may change because of economic changes 9 Characteristics of magma a Igneous rocks form as molten rock cools and solidi es b General characteristics or m i Parent material of igneous rocks ii Forms from partial melting of rocks inside Earth iii Magma reaches the surface is called m iv Rocks formed from lava at the surface are classi ed as tquot rocks v Rocks formed from magma that crystallizes at depth are termed wtquot or g rocks c Crystallization of magma i Texture in igneous rocks is determined by the size and arrangement of mineral grains ii Igneous rocks are typically classi ed by 1 Texture 2 Mineral composition 10 Igneous Compositions a Naming igneo l Phaneritic 7 bigger than 1mm 2 Over 25 quartz about 65or more feldspar 3 May exhibit a porphyritic texture 4 Very abundant as it is often associated with mountain building 5 The term granite covers a wide range of mineral compositions Extrusive equivalent of granite 2 May contain glass fragments and vesicles 3 Aphanitic texture 4 Less common and less voluminous than granite 1 Dark colored 2 Glassy texture 1 Volcanic 2 Glassy texture 3 Frothy appearance with numerous voids 102810 11 Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering 12 They account for about 5 of Earth s outer crust 13 Types of Sedimentary rocks a Sediment originates from mechanical and or chemical weathering b Rock types are based on the source of the material i itransported sediments as solid particles 7 sediment that was once in solution ii 2 Mam ym l Hugh 14 Detrital sedimentary rocks a Common Detrital sedimentary rocks in order of increasing particle size i 39 Mud sized particles in thin layers that are commonly referred to as N Most common sedimentary rock 15 Composed of sandsized particles 1 2 Forms in a variety of environments 3 Sorting shape and composition of the grains can be used to interpret the rock s history 4 Quartz is the predominant mineral iii Conglomerate and breccia 1 Both are composed of particles greater than 2mm in diameter consists largely of rounded gravels 3 Breccia is composed mainly of large angular particles a 4 15 Chemical sedimentary rocks a Consist of precipitated material that was once in solution b Precipitation of material occurs in two ways i Inorganic processes ii Organic processes biochemical origin c Common chemical sedimentary rocks Most abundant chemical rock N Composed chie y of the mineral calcite 3 Marine biochemical limestones form as coral reefs cwmm broken shells and microscopic organisms 4 Inorganic limestones include travertine and oolitic limestone 5 Calcareous 7 mud that forms limestone 1 Evaporation triggers deposition of chemical precipitates 2 Examples include I 3 WHIP AND SPR 16 Sedimentary environments a Types of sedimentary environments 1 1quot 39 39 ill 1 Dominated by erosion and deposition associated with streams 2 Glacial 3 Wind eolian 1 Shallow to about 200 meters 2 Deep seaward of continental shelves 17 Energy resources from sedimentary rocks a ff 131 i Formed mostly from plant material ii Along with oil and natural gas coal is commonly called a lvi39v iii The major fuel used in power plants to generate electricity iv Potential environmental problems from mining and air pollution v Surface Mining Control Act 1979 Derived from the remains of marine plants and animals ii Both are composed of various hydrocarbon compounds and found in similar environments quot39 7 geologic environment that allows signi cant amounts of oil and gas to accumulate iv Two basic conditions for an oil trap l Porous permeable may 2 Impermeable r such as shale v Cap rock keeps the mobile oil and gas from escaping at the surface 18 Metamorphic textures Parallel alignment of attened mineral grains and pebbles ii Compositional banding iii 3 gt 7 where rocks can be easily split into thin tabular sheets b Slate schist gneiss typically displays a banded appearance 19 Common metamorphic rocks a Nonfoliated rocks Coarse crystalline Parent rock was limestone or dolostone Composed essentially of calcite and dolomite crystals Used as a decorative and monument stone Exhibits a variety of colors Melting magma igneous 1 2 3 4 5 6 CHAPTER 12 l Hydrologic cycle rock cycle BONUS and tectonic cycle 2 Dynamic Earth a Plate boundaries 39r where plates grind past each other wo either generating new quotquot 1 39 or 39 old quotquot J 39 SAN ANDRES FAULT iV Changing boundaries 7 new plate boundaries are created in response to changes in the forces acting on the lithosphere b i Compression ii Tension Shearing c Plasticity ii Elasticity iii Fracture d i Anticline 7forms an upside down u ii Syncline 7forms a U shape e Dip Slip fault 7hanging wall side drops down and footwall side 7 opposite of a normal fault A g San Andreas Fault 7 most active fault in North America h Faulted landscapes i Horst 7 upfaulted block ii Graben 7 downfaulted block Ushape 3 Orogenisis a The Appalachian Mountains 7 folded mountain range 4 Earthquake 7 Byproduct of tectonic activity a Focus 7 center of the earthquake beneath the surface b Epicenter 7 surface center of the earthquake c 1rquot primary d m secondary 1 1 420 10 a Mercalli IXII 7 measures intensity of an earthquake Downside subjective b Triangulation 7 to find the epicenter of the earthquake d Impacts of earthquake predictions chart e Tsunamis 2 Volcanoes 7 deals also with tectonic plates a Volcanic Features i Magma controls the nature of an eruption dealing with size shape etc ii allest mountain below sea level 7 Mount Rainier in Hawaii 32000ft quot6 lava ow and m lava ow b Locations and types of Volcanic activity i Vog 7 volcanic fog vi 7 area surrounding the Pacific Ocean that has the most volcanic activity Composite Volcanoes vii Plutons l Concordant 7 sill 2 Discordant 7 dike c Effusive eruptions d Explosive eruptions e Volcano forecasting and planning 1192010 CHAPTER 14 1 Running Water a Begins as sheet ow i In ltration capacity is controlled by l Intensity and duration of rainfall 2 Prior wetted condition of the soil 3 Soil texture 4 Slope of the land 5 Nature of the vegetative cover ii Sheet ow develops into tiny channels called rills b Loss gt tolerance accelerated soil erosion c Vshaped gullies begin to grow d Contour plowing slows erosion e Terracing slopes slows erosion f Soil conservation is a global concern g Drainage networks i The land area that contributes water to a stream is called the drainage basin ii The drainage pattern consists of the interconnected networks of streams in an area iii A drainage basin of one stream is separated from the drainage basin of another by an imaginary line called a divide h Drainage patterns are formed by the network of streams i Channel Erosion i Hydraulic Force 7 reference to the force of the water ii Stream Abrasion 7 sand and gravel is exposed in the water iii Stream Corrosion 7 iv Whirlpools carve pot holes v Bank caving and strainers j Stream ow i Two types of ow determined primarily by velocity 1 Laminar ow 7very little agitation 2 Turbulent ow ii Factors that determine velocity 1 Gradient or slope 2 Channel characteristics including shape size and roughness 3 Discharge 7 the volume of water moving past a given point in a certain amount of time measured in CFS cubic feet per second iii There are no Wild Rivers in Texas We have built reservoirs to provide drinking water ood control and recreation for our citizens Discharge rates are carefully managed k Transport of sediment by streams i Transported material is called the stream s load ii Types of load 1 Dissolved load 7 clear solution 2 Suspended load 7 discolors the water 3 Bed load 7 heavy stuff iii Capacity 7 the maximum load a stream can transport iv 6 Red Rivers in USA 1 Deposition of sediment by a stream i Caused by a decrease in velocity 1 Competence is reduced 2 Sediment begins to drop out ii Stream sediments 1 Generally well sorted 2 Stream sediments are known as alluvium m Base level and graded streams i Two general types of base level 1 Ultimate sea level 2 Local or temporary ii Changing conditions cause readjustment of stream activities 1 Raising base level causes deposition 2 Lowering base level causes erosion n Stream valleys i Floodplains l Erosional oodplains 2 Depositional oodplains ii Meanders 1 Cut bank and point bar 2 Cutoffs and oXbow lakes 0 Deposition of sediment by a stream i Channel deposits 1 Bars 2 Braided streams p Incised meanders and stream terraces i Incised meanders l Meanders in steep narrow valleys 2 Caused by a drop in base level or uplift of the region ii Terraces l Remnants of a former oodplain q Floods and ood control i Floods are the most destructive geologic factor ii Types of oods 1 Regional oods 2 Flash oods 3 Icejam oods 4 Dam failure iii Engineering efforts 1 Arti cial levees 2 Floodcontrol dams 3 Channelization iv Nonstructural approach through sound oodplain management r OLD RIVERS
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