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Urban Politics

by: Kelly Rodriguez

Urban Politics PSCI 4020

Kelly Rodriguez
GPA 3.79

John Todd

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John Todd
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This 78 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Rodriguez on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 4020 at University of North Texas taught by John Todd in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/229171/psci-4020-university-of-north-texas in Political Science at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Urban Growth and Development PSCI 4020 Urban politics Meaning of Urbanism Census Bureau gt Urban place an incorporated city with a population of at least 2500 people gt Metropolitan statistical area an urbanized area of at least 50000 people and surrounding commuting areas 2 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development e gm Mew ngaw Eaahwavks Van s e p www U vfmmatzusrl Getunq Staytgd awn 015 meme UNT Hamevaqe th565 ans 60031 when new t deem may RS we a 9 meme ozycnetmmunmt Emma mmth t w United states Urbaanural and Insideloutside Metropolitan Area G H mm CI39VP1UrthIRurzlznd MelmInlilnIINnnmelmpnlilznPupulalin Znnu e lDaIz ea 3 M Date Set Census 2an Summary File 1 5r 1 1 7Percen Meaning of Urbanism Sociological Definition gt LouisWirth Numbers Density Heterogeneity b Sociological definition emphasizes fact that urban life is different from rural life 4 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Criticisms of Urban Life gt Loss of sense of Community gt Interpersonal relationships tend to be functional instead of holistic gt Anon mit eo le don t know each other gt Fear and distrust 5 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Ban eid Imperatives of Urban Growth gt Edward Banfield Unheavenlx Citx I970 gt Three imperatives of urban growth Population increase Trans ortation technolo39 Income distribution gt Urban growth and development is an interaction among these three forces 6 HPSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Growth of Urban Population in the US Urban Population 5 a PBrcntage of US Total I lull I Urban 7 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Qwerview of Urban Growth in the US gt I790 Only five percent of the population in cities gt As late as I840 only I0 percent of population lived in urban places gt I860 20 I ercent of o ulation classified as urban k I920 First census in which a majority ofAmericans classified as urban 8 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Loewe of Urban Growth gt Initially cities located along rivers and waterways were most liker to grow and prosper b After the middle of the l9th century railroad development played a key role in urban growth 9 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Early Mercantile Cities gt Developed before the Industrial Revolution b Lack of transportation limited physical size of cities b Called walking cities gt Various social groups lived close together gt Sense of community that accepted traditional class divisions 1O PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Two Economic Revolutions In the 19th Century Transformed American Life gt Agricultural Revolution of the 840s improvements in farming technology Increased agricultural productivity Reduced need for agricultural workers gt Industrial Revolution took off in the 860s at the end of the CivilWar Transformed the nature of work with the introduction of the factory system Work became concentrated in urban areas with key resources Energy resources to run the factories Good transportation connections 11 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Industrial Cities Put Ban eld s Imperatives of Growth in Play gt Characterized by rapid population growth b New waves of immigration take their place at the bottom of the urban social structure Makes social class and income divisions more marked and more obvious k Improved transportation technology leads to outward growth and increase In physical size of cities b Income differences lead to more class segregation and hostility 12 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Urbanization Summary gt By end of the 20th century US had become highly urbanized gt Most people lived in large metropolitan areas gt Process of urbanization involved a good bit of social stress b Urbanization changed how people lived as well as changing where they lived 13 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Evolution of City Services gt In early mercantile cities most city services were provided by volunteer organizations Volunteer firemen Volunteer night watchmen gt Towards the end of the l9th century living conditions in cities tended to be squalid Water resources were inadequate and often contaminated Sewer systems were largely nonexistent Outbreaks of contagious diseases were common 14 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Evolution of City Services gt Sometimes services were provided by private companies gt Charleston SC Fire brigades in those days were paid by insurance companies Com etin39 com anies would race each other to the fire but wouldn t put it out unless the building bore a marker from their insurance syndicate 15 HPSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Evolution of City Services P In the last third of the l9th century the growing middle class began to demand better services especially improved water and sewer systems V Often business elites worked for improved services when they believed that they were needed to guarantee the cities economic viability V City governments expanded in the last part of the l9th century to meet growing expectations for city services 16 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Evolution of City Services gt The late l9th century was the golden age ofAmerican city building Brooklyn Bridge NewYork s Croton aqueduct system Parks movement and City Beautiful Movement b By the beginning of the 20th centuryAmerican cities provided more services than European cities 17 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Limited Power of Cities gt Emerging l9th century law of municipalities emphasized the limited nature of their powers b Dillon s Treatise on the Law of Municipalities I872 Cities are creatures of the state Cities have only those powers delegated to them 18 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Dillon s Rule P Local governments have only three types of powers those granted in express words those necessarin or fairly implied in or incident to the powers expressly granted and those essential to the declared objects and purposes of the corporation not simply convenient but indispensable V If there is any reasonable doubt whether a power has been conferred on a local government then the power has not been conferred 19 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Legislative Malapportionment and the Power of Cities gt As cities grew they were not awarded representation in the state legislature proportionate to their share of the state s population Many states failed to redistrict following new census numbers Some state constitutions specifically limited the number of representatives that could be awarded to cities b This problem continued to limit the influence of cities in state government until the US Supreme Court intervened in I962 case Baker v Carr b Legislative underrepresentation made it difficult for cities to get states to address their needs 20 PSCI 4020 Urban Growth and Development Governing the Metropolis PSCI 4020 Urban Politics De ning Urbain Sprawl gt Wider used to refer to lowdensity residential development on the fringe of urban areas gt More precise definitions define it as development that features two or three dwellings per acre or less 2 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Causes of Urban Sprawl gt A careful analysis of US Census Bureau data found that the two sprawl factors share equally in the blame Per Capita Sprawlebout half the sprawl nationwide appears to be related to the landuse and consumption choices that lead to an increase in the average amount of urban land per resident Population Growth The other half of sprawl is related to the increase in the number of residents within those IOO Urbanized Areas Source Leon Kolankiewicz and Roy Beck Weighing Sprawl Factors in Large USCities March 200 3 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Tame 2 USAFS Top Eprawlers Urbanized Areas w th Greatest Sprawl 1370 tn 1990 Ur h iZE39fl Area Sprawl 39sgq ml les 1 Atlanta GA 01 2 HanStan TX 638 3 New Ym k Cit NETNJ 5413 4 Vashington DC I v J VA 4501 5 Philadelphia IPANJ 4124 5 Luis Angelea CA 3933 DallasF011 M nh TX S Tmnpa St Petersburg 353 Clemvaster FL 9 PhDE iEE AZ 32335 10 Mli nmapnliESamt Paul 3416 3D S39 mrg L33 HENRI Bmzmu dam PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis TatIla 3 Per Bapita Land Consumpt nn n quottrme LIEA39s Tap Sprawlersf 159D Fractirnn Tm hanizecl Area 0139 Acre Per Resident 1 L M lt Ez D3317quot Honstan T155 II259 3 New Erark City39 NY HIJ El118 3941 EEvrarah lgtom DC iI u39ID KFA 1130 5 Philadelphia P A NJ 39Cl l 6 Lara Angela CA 1110 T Da aa Fon EE GHIIJ T 3239 E Tmnpa Saint Peteraburg 0343 Elamquotwatt 9 Phoenix II23 1C N mmeapolis St Pal111 EVE Earn c g LIE fair132 BE H39E EE M damquot PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis PSC 4020 r Govermmg He Metrophs rimmed Are PSCI 4020 7 Governing the Melroplls Is Urban Sprawl a Problem b It gobbles up open land b It adds to the pollution problems b It leads to traffic congestion b Time is lost in long commutes 8 PSCI 4020 b It provides the lifestyle that Americans want gt Land is not as scarce as it is in Europe 5 It offers choices Governing the Metroplis Limited Land Use Policy Permits Sprawl gt Unlike European countries we lack national land use policies Federalism makes this a state issue in the US Land is not so scarce gt Most states have not pursue land use policies gt Land use policies are largely the product of municipal governments since counties often lack authority 9 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Metropolitan Fragmentation Enables Sprawl b Metropolitan areas are not governed by a single entity b Metropolitan areas are a maize of local governments Cities Counties Special Districts gt Cities in metropolitan areas act to protect the values of their residents not the interests of the metropolitan area as a whole gt Lack of areawide planning opens the door for sprawl 1O PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Early Reformers Sought Consolidation gt Reformers argued that consolidated governments would improve services and reduce costs gt Consolidated governments could plan for the entire metropolitan region gt A few successes NashvilleDavidson County in Tennessee JacksonvilleDuval County in Florida MiamiDade Metro in Florida Baton RougeEast Baton Rouge Parish in Louisiana 200 consolidation of LouisvilleJefferson County in Kentucky 11 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Most of Consolidation Efforts Failed When Taken to The Voters gt Central cities rejected it b Suburbs rejected it 12 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis From Old Regionalism to New Regionalism gt New regionalism emerged in the l990s b New regionalism views the sprawl problem as a case of the Tragedy of the Commons 13 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Tragedy of the Commons r I968 article by Garrett Hardin in Science magazine b Commons is a concept derived from medieval manors where grazing land for herds were shared by all b In a commons environment herdsmen pursue their individual benefit by adding to their herds b The pursuit of individual benefits ultimately leads to a destruction of the commons by overgrazing b Hardin concludes Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all 14 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Tragedy of the Commons gt Why does freedom in a commons bring ruin to all Benefits are accrued by individuals Costs are accrued collectively ie by all gt How can we revent the traed of the commons b Hardin says by coercion The only kind of coercion recommend is mutual coercion mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected 15 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis How Does Urban Sprawl Fit The Travedv Of The Commons P P b Protection of open space undeveloped land is the commons Continuation of urban sprawl is a threat to that commons I 6 Danger is that we wil lot asJoni Mitchell put pave paradise and put up a parking it H r I The decisions to continue to build on the fringe are calculated in terms of individual benefits The cost encroaching on the natural environment is a collective cost that we are not required to confront PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis New Regionalism Agenda b Interjurisdictional agreements to promote better land use planning gt Taxing arrangements to control undesirable behavior gt Restraints on outward expansion 17 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Portland Oregon s Growth r J r In 973the Oregon legislature required all local governments to prepare a comprehensive land use plan D The legislature subsequently authorized the Metropolitan Services District subsequently renamed Metro to establish and enforce a growth boundary for Portland b Several attempts were made to overturn the growth boundary but eventually it was accepted 18 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Portland Oregon The Metro s Description of the Urban Growth Boundary r The boundary controls urban expansion onto farm and forest lands Land inside the UGB supports urban services such as roads water and sewer systems parks schools and fire and police protection that create thriving places to livework and playThe UGB is one of the tools used to protect farms and forests from urban sprawl and to promote the efficient use 0 and rWc acilities and services inside the boundary 20 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Metropolitan Council for the Minneapolis St Paul Urban Region b Metropolitan Council created in I967 with mainly planning authority b In I994 the Metropolitan Council became an operating government providing sewers and transit and running the regional airport b A coalition of suburbs joined with Minneapolis leaders in pushing for expanded Metropolitan Council b An ambitious tax sharing plan proposed for the metropolitan area was defeated by GovernorJesse Ventura 21 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Other Vehicles for Metropolitan Cooperation gt Urban County gt Interlocal contracting 5 Special district governments 22 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Smart Growth gt Smart growth movement says that planned development is the answer to urban sprawl b Growth should be quality development m roves blihted areas Promotes environmental quality Lowers energy consumption Assesses the cost and need for new public infrastructure Preserves agricultural rural and open space gt Smart growth tends to focus on balance between growth and necessary infrastructure 23 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis State of Maryland on Smart Growth gt Smart Growth has four straightforward goals Support existing communities by targeting resources to support development in areas where infrastructure exists Save our most valuable natural resources before they are forever lost Save taxpayers from the high cost of building infrastructure to serve develo ment that has 5 read far from our traditional population centers Provide Marylanders with a high quality of life whether they choose to live in a rural L UllllllUlllL suburu small town or city Source Maryland Department of Planning 24 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Maryland s Ten Principles of Smart Growth I Mix Land Uses Take advantage of compact building design Create housing opportunities and choices Create walkable communities Wl gtS quot Foster distinctive attractive communities with a strong sense of place 6 Preserve open spacefarmland natural beauty and critical environmental areas 25 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Maryland s Ten Principles of Smart Growth 7 26 Strengthen and direct development toward existing communities Provide a variety of transportation choices Make develo ment decisions I redictable fair and cost effective Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions Source Maryland Department of Planning PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis New Urbanism b New urbanism focuses on how design and architecture can be used to revive community and reduce reliance on the automobile W New urbanism proposed a new vision of city life that seems to be based on old urban neighborhoods 7 It rejects the singleuse zoning that has shaped most modern American cities t See clip from CBS News 27 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Principles of New Urbanism gt Walkability Most things within a IOminute walk of home and work Pedestrian friendly street design buildings close to street porches windows amp doors treelined streets on street parking hidden parking otsgarages in rear lane narrow slow speed streets Pedestrian streets free of cars in special cases gt Connectivity Interconnected street grid network disperses traffic amp eases walking A hierarchy of narrow streets boulevards and alleys High quality pedestrian network and public realm makes walking pleasurable 28 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Principles of New Urbanism b MixedUse amp Diversity A mix of shops offices apartments and homes on site Mixeduse within neignDornooas Within DlOCKS anCI Within Duucungs Diversity of people of ages income levels cultures and races gt Mixed Housing A range of types sizes and prices in closer proximity gt Quality Architecture amp Urban Design Emphasis on beauty aesthetics human comfort and creating a sense of place Special placement of civic uses and sites within community Human scale architecture amp beautiful surroundings nourish the human spirit 29 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Principles of New Urbanism gt Traditional Neighborhood Structure Discernable center and edge Public space at center Importance of quality public realm public open space designed as civic art Contains a range of uses and densities within lOminute walk Transect planning Highest densities at town center progressiver less dense towards the edge gt Increased Density More buildings residences shops and services closer together for ease of walking to enable a more efficient use of services and resources and to create a more convenient enjoyable place to live 30 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Principles of New Urbanism gt SmartTransportation A network of highquality trains connecting cities mus and neighborhoods together Pedestrianfriendly design that encourages a greater use of bicycles rollerblades scooters and walking as daily transportation 31 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Principles of New Urbanism b Sustainability Minimal environmental impact of development and its operations Ecofriendly technologies respect for ecology and value of natural systems Energy efficiency Less use of finite fuels More local production More walking less driving gt Quality of Life Taken together these add up to a high quality of life well worth livin and create laces that enrich u lift and ms ire the human spirit 32 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Bene ts of New Urbanism Residents Higher quality of life Better places to live vvu K amp play Higher more stable property values gt F b gt Less traffic congestion amp less driving b Healthier lifestyle with more walking and less stress gt Close proximity to main street retail amp services gt Close proximity to bike trails parks and nature 33 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Bene ts of New Urbanism Developers More income potential from higher density mixeduse projects due to more leasable square footage more salt per square foot and ger property values and selling prices Faster approvals in communities that have adopted smart growth principles resulting in cost I time savings Cost savings in parking facilities in mixeduse properties due to sharing of spaces throughout the day and night resulting in less duplication in providing parking Less need for parking facilities due to mix of residences and commercial uses within walking distance of each other Less impact on roads traffic which can result in lower impact fees Lower cost of utilities due to compact nature of New Urbanist design 34 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Bene ts of New Urbanism Municipalities Stable appreciating tax base Less spent per capita on infrastructure and utilities than typical suburban development due to compact highdensity nature of projects Increased tax base due to more buildings packed into a tighter area Less traffic congestion due to walkability of design Less crime and less spent on policing due to the presence of more people da and night Less resistance from community Better overall community image and sense of place Less incentive to sprawl when urban core area is desirable Easy to install transit where it39s not and improve it where it is Greater civic involvement of population leads to better governance 35 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Bene ts of New Urbanism Business gt Increased sales due to more foot traffic amp people spending less on cars and gas b More pro ts due to spending less on advertising and large signs gt Better lifestyle by living above shop in livework units saves the stressful amp costly commute gt Iconomies oi scale In marketing due to close proximity and cooperation with other local businesses gt Smaller spaces promote small local business incubation b Lower rents due to smaller spaces amp smaller parking lots 36 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Is Sprawl Inevitable r Robert Bruegmann Sprawle Compact History 2005 b Argues that sprawl defined as outward expansion of cities has always been taken place b Outward ex ansion is associated with rising incomes p Bruegmann writes if sprawl turned out to be a long standing feature of urban development worldwide it would suggest that stopping it involves something much more fundamental than correcting some poor American landuse policy 37 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Summary r Urban sprawl is real b It has some undesirable consequences b Radical ideas like the New Urbanism expect more of a lifest le change than is likell to occur b Most cities probably won t adopt the Portland urban growth boundary concept l Smart planning offers a mechanism for avoiding some of the worst excesses of sprawl 38 PSCI 4020 Governing the Metroplis Challenges to Governing in Contemporary Cities Psci 4020 Urban politics The Challenge of Governing 0 Cities must be adequate service providers 0 City governments must be arbiters of conflicting interests 0 Contemporary cities are challenged to find peaceful ways of incorporating multiple demands 0 Two movements make that challenge difficult Demands by racial and ethnic groups for representation and incorporation into the political process L Mobilization of middle and upperclass conservative Republican groups trying to undo what they see as they excesses of previous Democratic regimes While these two developments can be antagonistic they are not always so 2 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Minorities in City Politics gt Talking about minority politics is dangerous because it glosses over differences among racial and ethnic minorities k The assumption that minorities will join together to find the status quo is wrong gt Conflicts among minority groups appear as groups compete for scarce resources 3 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Forces Bringing Minorities Into City Politics gt Reaction against displacement by the federal bulldozer through urban renewal and federal highway projects helped galvanize opposition b The War on Poverty helped organize minorities Economic Opportunity Act called for the creation of Community Action Agencies that were expected to include maximum feasible participation of the affected groups Model Cities program included citizen participation requirements 4 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Rise of Minority Politicians e In I967 Richard Hatcher and Carl Stokes became the first African Americans to be elected ma or of a mavor American city a By I987 every city of more than IO0000 people that had a majority black population had elected an African American mayor o In the 980s and 990sAfricanAmericans demonstrated their ability to get elected to cities even when African Americans did not constitute a majority of a cities population o In the l980s Latinos began to be elected mayors of large cities 5 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing The Challenge of Governing for Minority Mayors b Minority mayors usually must win significant numbers of nonminority votes to win b Thereforewinning election and reelection is a delicate balancing act b Minority mayors must try to provide benefits to minorities while avoiding alienating others b Often must form an alliance with downtown businessmen and endorse the politics of growth b Lompetltlon among mom and ethnic groups maKes governing difficult 6 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing The Goal of Minority Politics incorporation b Incorporation involves achieving an equal or leading role in a dominant coalition that is strongly committed to minority interests k Involves the ability to influence a city council and the bureaucracies that deliver important services gt Electing a mayor is not enough to achieve incorporation if the service delivery agencies are still controlled by the old power structure 7 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Bene ts of Minority Incorporation o Minority employment in city government increases Eliminating barriers Affirmative action programs 0 Opening city contracts to minority businesses Some cities have programs to promote granting of contracts to minorityowned businesses In City of Richmond vA Corson Co I989 the US Supreme Court laid down a strict scrutiny standard for the use of set asides for minority businesses 0 Police reforms have been instituted 0 Political participation and sense of political efficacy increase among minorities 8 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Problems With Minority Politics gt Conflicts often arise among minority groups for city benefits b Minority leaders find it hard to fund social programs for minorities now that federal funds are so reduced gt Economic development programs often don t provide much benefit to minorities Better paying jobs go to nonminorities Low paying service jobs left to minorities b Minority incorporation rarely changes the taxing spending or service delivery patterns of cities 9 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Neighborhood Qrganizations 0 Neighborhood organizations have grown up to challenge the downtown growth machine Their leaders articulate issues of equity and social justice in the community Federal programs in the 960s and 970s encouraged the development and incorporation of neighborhood groups Some cities experimented with systems that delegated power to neighborhood groups in areas of schools planning and zoning Neighborhood groups have been more successful in Frostbelt than in Sunbelt cities PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Community Development Corporations 9 Community Development Corporations grew out of the Communit Action Avencies that were fostered b the Economic Opportunity Act in the I9605 0 They have become channels for federal money and foundation money 0 They often concentrate or lowincome housing programs but ma administer other social service I rourams o The Community Reinvestment Act CRA of I977 which outlawed the banking practice called redlining gave CDCs some leverage with local banks 0 A Dallas example Central Dallas Community Development Corporation f 71 v l I 11 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Problems With CDCS a Relationship to city government is often unclear and uneasy 0 Influence of CDCs is uneven varying by state and region 0 Neighborhoods with highest poverty rates are the least liker to be organized a CDCs lack the capacity to address the root causes of urban poverty a CDCs nd it hard to confront tne agenCIes they depend on for funding a They may become opportunities for corruption because they are nongovernmental agencies operating in relative obscurity 12 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing The Conservative Reaction b In the I99OS conservative mayors began to replace minority mayors in many cities Giuliani replaced David Dinkins in NewYork Richard M Daley replaced Harold Washington in Chicago Ed Rendell replaced Wilson Goode in Philadelphia gt A variety of issues opened doors for conservative mayors Resentment of affirmative action in hiring and procurement policies Rising taxes Concerns about crime and disorder gt Some victories involved AngloHispanic coalitions to defeat African American mayors 13 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Approach of Conservative Mayors b Curtail affirmative action programs gt Cut uuugets especially for social welfare programs gt Aggressive policing programs eg broken windows olicin gt Increase spending for economic development b Privatization of services ESSavas 14 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Time Magazine s Best Big City Mayors 2005 p gt Michael Bloomberg of NewYork Trimmed a 6 billion budget deficit in part by raising property taxes Spurred a wave of new economic development especially in the four other boroughs besides Manhattan Took control of the city s ailing schools and instituted a uniform math and reading curriculum Improved the city s quality of life by banning smoking from all restaurants and bars Cracked down on noise Created a onestop complaintandquestion line 3 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Time Magazine s Best Big City Mayors 2005 p gt Richard Daley Chicago Wields near imperial power um mo of Vicgv wuld m it no other way His annual budgets are routinely passed with only token opposition He controls public housing public schools and the city council He is cozy with Big Business is a master at the ward politics of fixing streetlights and he speaks with a blunt bluecollar brio that Chicagoans find endearing PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Time Magazine s Best Big City Mayors 2005 p gt Shirley Franklin Atlanta The first black woman ever to run a big Southern city To restore faith in the city government she shepherded through the city council a new ethics code for municipal employees She corralled 75 private firms to conduct studies ofAtIanta s budgetary infrastructure and homeless I roblems and I erform a massive audit of the city government pro bono She was awarded the John F Kennedy Profile in Courage Award by theJohn F Kennedy Library Foundation PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Time Magazine s Best Big City Mayors 2005 p gt Martin O Malley Baltimore His urban innovations primarily CitiStat a computerized score sheet intended to make key agencies like public works housing transportation and police more accountable have brought other curious mayors on pilgrimages to Baltimore Last year Harvard University praised CitiStat for slashing overtime paid to city workers cutting absenteeism in half at some agencies PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing One of Governing Magazine s Public Officials of theYear gt BillWhite Mayor of Houston Created a voucher program that moved Katrina evacuees into homes quickly Not a crusader mayor he looks for definable problems and tries to solve them Signed a labor deal with the city39s firefighters who had been without a contract for five years White had signals coordinated along major corridors as one part of a program to alleviate traffic congestion Has worked on air pollution problems even through air pollution is primarily a state responsibility PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing Forces of Convergence i Need to promote economic growth cuts across political approaches D Conservative mayors recognize the need to avoid policies that inflame minorities and risk unrest b Network of community organizations must be reckoned with by all h Mayors tend to be more pragmatic than ideological 20 PSCI 4020 Challenges to Governing


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