American Government Laws and Institutions
American Government Laws and Institutions PSCI 1040
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Political Science 1040 Review Sheet Test I 1 Describe the puzzle of American political culture concerning diversity and political beliefs 2 What was the American policy on immigration in the early national period 3 When and why did immigration policy become more restrictive 4 Compare and contrast the contract theories of Hobbes and Locke 5 Jefferson draws on which political philosopher s work in the Declaration of Independence 6 Explain the tension between individualism and equality in American political culture 7 List and define the core values of American political culture 8 Compare and contrast the contract theories of Hobbes and Locke 9 Jefferson draws on which political philosopher s work in the Declaration of Independence 10 How does Texas s population rank compared to other states 11 How much did Texas population grow between 2000 and 2009 Was Texas the fastest growing state 12 What percentage of Texas population is made up of Hispanics What percentage is African American 13 What percentage of Texas population in growth in 2009 was because of in migration 14 Which ethnic group has shown the fastest rate of growth in Texas in recent years 15 Which racialethnic group currently comprises a majority of the Texas population 16 In 20062007 how did Texas rank compared to other states in freshman graduation rate from high school 17 Define these three strains of Texas political culture a Classical liberalism b Social conservatism c Populism 18 Explain why Texans tend to support the low taxeslow service approach to government 19 How does Texas compare to other states in the degree of income inequality 20 Describe the government of the Articles of Confederation 21 What were the major problems of government under the Articles of Confederation 22 Describe the events leading up to the Philadelphia Convention in 1787 23 Describe the delegates to the Philadelphia convention 24 Explain what is meant by llmission creepquot at the Philadelphia Convention 25 Describe the Virginia Plan 26 Describe the New Jersey Plan 27 Describe the large statesmall state conflict at the Philadelphia convention and the compromise that resolved it 28 Describe the slavery issues that confronted the Philadelphia convention and the compromises that resolved them 29 Define these key principles of the Constitution a Federalism b Separation of powers c Checks and balances 30 How does the US Constitution reveal that we have a government of separation of powers 31 Where do we find the Bill of Rights in the US Constitution Why 32 What term would the founders of the country have used to describe the form of government that the constitution created RU30404 O U39lbw 4 l U39IU39I i O How did the writers of the constitution try to make ratification easier Describe the differences between the Federalists and the AntiFederalists in the ratification debate Identify the Federalist Papers Who were the authors of the Federalist Papers What were the purposes of the Federalist Papers Describe the procedures for amending the US Constitution How has the US Constitution survived for over 200 years with only 27 amendments Compare the structure of the US Constitution to the structure of the Texas constitution List and describe the problems of postCivil War state constitutions How do those problems apply to the Texas Constitution of 1876 How do interest groups contribute to detail in state constitutions How many constitutions have been written in Texas history What are the consequences of having a long detailed constitution How many times has the Texas Constitution of 1876 been amended Describe the effort to write a new Texas constitution in the 1970s Why did that effort fail What are the three ways that state constitutions had been rewritten Describe the JunellRatliff effort to revise the Texas constitution in the 1990s Why did that effort fail Political Science 1040 US amp Texas Government Review Sheet for Test 11 l 2 HHpW QP39HeP NHHHHHHHH oxoooxlcxuAmm l O NNNN th I NNN IONUI LANN 0000 Which article of the US Constitution deals with the presidency Describe the major tasks of the president and know which are mentioned in the constitution a Head of State Chief Executive Commander in Chief Chief Diplomat Chief Legislator Manager of Prosperity Crisis Manager Party Leader How many times did President Bush use the veto power Describe the president s power to grant pardons Describe the Executive Of ce of the President What s the difference between the Executive Of ce of the President and the White House Staff What does it mean to say that the power of the president is the power to persuade How do approval ratings affect the power of the president What does it mean for the president to take advantage of the honeymoon period 5790 93 199 Describe the cycle of presidential approval Distinguish between the inside and the outside approach to presidential power Give examples of presidents who have been good at each approach What does the Presidential Succession Act say about succession to the presidency What did the 25Lh amendment to the US Constitution amendment add What did the 22quotd amendment to the US Constitution add What makes successful presidents De ne executive privilege What does the Constitution say about executive privilege What did the Supreme Court say about executive privilege in US v Nixon Compare the characteristics of the Strong Governor Model to those of the Weak Governor Model States in which regions are most likely to have weak governorships Is Texas a Strong Governor or a Weak Governor state What are the factors that cause states to have weak governorships What does the Texas Constitution say about the term of office for the governor and about term limits Be able to recognize elected department heads in Texas Describe the veto powers of the Texas governor Why are vetoes by the Texas governor almost never overridden Describe the Texas governor s powers of special legislative sessions What were the three government departments in the Washington administration Be able to recognize the 15 Cabinetlevel departments in the national government Be able to recognize examples of a government corporation in the US government Why did the states sue the Environmental Protection Agency What did the Supreme Court decide in that suit Why are independent regulatory agencies often headed by boards with long staggered terms of of ce De ne the spoils system What are the advantages and disadvantages of the spoils system How is President Gar eld s assassination related to civil service reform Identify the Pendleton Act What are the key elements of the civil service system bbUJUJ H0000 Review Sheet for Test 111 7 Page 2 Identify the Hatch Act Identify an Iron Triangle and explain how it works Identify an Issue Network and explain how it works What are the major tools of bureaucratic accountability exercised by the President the Congress and the Courts When population growth and in ation are taken into account what do the data show about growth in government expenditures in Texas since 1991 Which two service areas in Texas consume over 70 percent of the Texas budget What are the three areas in the Texas bureaucracy that employ about 80 percent of the Texas government employees Why is the Texas Attorney General s power to issue advisory opinions important Why is the Comptroller s revenue estimate important to the Texas Legislature What is the role of the Texas Secretary of State with regard to elections What is the role of the Texas Education Agency What is the sunset review process in Texas What is the Sunset Review Commission and what is its role in the sunset review process Describe the organizational restructuring of the health and human services area that the legislature enacted in 2003 What innovation in the health and human services area failed to live up to expectations Do elections work as a means of holding state department heads accountable Why or why not Why is it difficult for the Texas governor to hold bureaucratic agencies accountable What does the involvement of the courts with Texas school nance tell us about the role of the courts in holding bureaucratic agencies accountable How does federal funding affect state bureaucratic agencies How does it restrict what they can do Ni 4 gt19 9 D ID ID ID I D I 11wa 0 D ID ID I Ooo Political Science 1040 US amp Texas Government Review Sheet for Test 11 De ne federalism and be able to differentiate it from unitary and confederal systems Be able to identify the following key constitutional provisions regarding federalism a Enumerated powers 7 Article 1 Section 8 b Reserved powers 7 10Lh Amendment 0 Necessary and proper clause 7 Article 1 Section 8 d Supremacy clause 7 Article VI De ne and be able to recognize examples of a National powers b State powers c Concurrent powers Be able to identify powers prohibited to national or to state government Be able to explain the importance of each of the following constitutional provisions regarding statet0 state regulations a Full faith and credit clause b Privileges and immunities clause 0 Extradition clause d Interstate compacts clause What is the signi cance of the Defense of Marriage Act passed by Congress in 1996 to federalism Explain the signi cance of the following Supreme Court cases regarding powers of the national government a McCulloch v Maryland b Gibbons v Ogden De ne the following periods of federalism a Dual federalism b Cooperative federalism c Centralized federalism d Nixon s new federalism e Reagan s new federalism Why were following Supreme Court cases important in de ning federalism a US v Lopez b Borne v Flores c Printz v US Describe the difference in growth in number of federal employees and the number of state and local employees since 1980 Which level of government spends the most money on domestic programs7state and local governments or the federal government Identify the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ARRA of 2009 Federal aid to state governments has become heavily concentrated in what policy area Identify the Race to the Top program Has the Obama administration increased or decreased federal in uence over the states 16 Identify the Repeal amendment being proposed by some states De ne bicameralism and explain why we created it for our Congress How many members are in each house of Congress Identify the nulli cation doctrine Page 2 7 PSCI 1040 7 Test 11 Review Sheet NNNN LANHO N 4 MN ION What is the term of office for Senators and Members of the House How are congressional seats adjusted after each census What basic membership requirements for the House and Senate are set forth in the Constitution Be able to recognize enumerated powers of Congress Why is party membership so important to the structure of Congress Be able to identify the major leadership positions in each house of congress and know how each is chosen Why is committee work so important in Congress Identify each of the following types of committees a Standing Committees b Joint Committees c Special Select Committees d Conference Committees What important tasks are carried out by standing committees Why are conference committees important in Congress Explain how members get their committee assignments in Congress Define seniority and explain its significance in Congress Be able to recognize the powers that are exclusive to each house of Congress Explain the difference in procedures for debate in the House and the Senate Identify the House Rules Committee and explain why it is important Identify a filibuster and explain why it is important Be familiar with the basic steps in passing a law in Congress Define demographic representation and explain why Congress is not demographically representative Be able to define these representational roles a Delegate b Trustee c Politico Explain why bringing home the bacon is an important part of being a good representative Identify the major factors that in uence congressional voting Explain why becoming a congressperson is usually a career change Why do we hate Congress but love our congressperson What the characteristics of a citizen legislature and of a professional legislature How does the National Conference of State Legislatures rate Texas on legislative professionalism How many members are in the Texas Senate and in the Texas House of Representatives What is the term of office for each house in the Texas Legislature Describe the trend in partisan membership in the Texas House of Representatives from 1970 to 2005 What are the major trends in legislative membership among African Americans Hispanics and women from 1970 to the present What is the salary paid to members of the Texas legislature How is the salary of Texas legislators determined What does the Texas Constitution say about the frequency and duration of Texas legislative sessions What officer presides over the Texas Senate and how is that person chosen What officer presides over the Texas House of Representatives and how is that person chosen What are the key powers of the presiding officers in the Texas Legislature What are the principal types of committees in the Texas Legislature List and describe the major support agencies for the Texas Legislature Explain how legislative redistricting is done Why is the govemor s veto so powerful in the Texas legislative process Political Science 1040 US amp Texas Government Review Sheet for Final Examination 1 Be able to differentiate between courts of original jurisdiction and courts of appellate jurisdiction Original Jurisdiction courts have the authority to hear a case for the rst time and Courts of appellate jurisdiction hear cases on appeal from the lower courts 2 Distinguish between criminal cases and civil suits Criminal case is an act against society criminal law regulates individual behavior to protect property and public safety A Civil case is an act a private person or group deals with business and contractual relations between groups and individuals 3 Which federal courts are mentioned by name in the US Constitution Supreme court 4 How does the constitution describe the jurisdiction of the federal courts the judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this Constitution the laws of the United States and treaties made or which shall be made under their authority Describe the appellate and the original jurisdiction of the US Supreme Court original jurisdiction in quotcases affecting ambassadors other public minister and consuls and those in which a state shall be a party Appellate jurisdiction quotin all the other cases before mentioned the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall makequot How are federal judges selected What is their term of of ce Federal judges are appointed by the President and subject to the advice and consent of the Senate No term limits held as long as they demonstrate good behavior Distinguish between constitutional courts and legislative courts in the federal judiciary Constitutional courts are established or authorized in the Constitution and Legislative courts are established by Congress under its implied powers and usually serve special purposes EX tax courts patents courts veterans How did the Judiciary Act of 1789 affect the structure of the federal judiciary It established structure for the judiciary a 3tiered structure of the federal court system District courtsgtCircuit Courts appea1gt Supreme Court Describe the jurisdiction of these federal courts a US District Courts original jurisdiction cases involving federal government civil suits under federal law civil suits between citizens of different states in issue of 75000 admiralty or maritime disputes bankruptcy other matters assigned by Congress US Courts of Appeals no original jurisdiction hears appeals of cases from lower federal courts c US Supreme Court rare original jurisdiction in cases of two or more states US and a state foreign ambassadors and other diplomats a state and a citizen of another state if begun by state Appellate Jurisdiction How many federal district courts are there How many in Texas 94 federal 4 in Texas 10 How many US Courts of Appeals are there What circuit includes Texas There are 14 circuit courts total 11 numbered Texas is in the 5Lh circuit with Louisiana and Mississippi Define judicial review The power of the courts to declare an action of the other branches of government and of the states to be unconstitutional and to declare it null and void fall courts can use judicial review not just federal ones 12 What does the US Constitution say about judicial review It is not mentioned 5quot 0 gt 00 5quot P H H 13 14 H Ul H 0 H l H W H O N H N N Todd 7 1040 Review Sheet for Final Exam 7 Page 2 What is the importance of the following Supreme Court cases with regard to judicial review a Marbury V Madison first case to declare a federal law unconstitutional asserted judicial review at a national level b Fletcher V Peck first case for state law to be declared unconstitutionalasserted judicial review at a state level How did the Supreme Court justify its use of judicial review Interpretation is clearly part of judicial function determining that an action is contrary to the constitution is part of interpreting a law and the right of judicial power is implied from the Supremacy Clause and Courts cannot enforce an unconstitutional law or act Explain the use of the following criteria in limiting the number of issues coming to the US Supreme Court a Real case must involve a real case or controversy they will not issue an advisory opinion to a hypothetical question b Standing someone involved in the case must bring the case and must have a substantial stake the in the outcome of the case Not moot problem must still exist and need resolution c Describe the basic steps by which the U S Supreme Court decides whether to take up a case and hear it Most cases come by a writ of certiorari clerks make a cert list of which they think is most important judges vote on which cases to take up at least four justices must vote yes in order to take the case to the court Describe the types of cases that the U S Supreme Court is likely to take Cases that involve con icting decisions by the federal circuit courts cases that present important questions of civil rights or civil liberties and cases in which the federal government is the appellant How can interest groups in uence decisions made by the Supreme Court They can find and prepare important test cases and file arnicus curiae briefs in cases Describe the procedures following by the Supreme Court in hearing and deciding a case Receive written arguments briefs and study them oral arguments 30 min includes questions from justices conferences private among justices writing opinions majority dissenting and concurring opinions no new testimonies are heard Why does the US Supreme Court publish opinions explaining its decisions They publish it to explain why it has done what it his done provides guidance to other courts especially circuit courts How to apply that case Differentiate among the following types of opinions a Majority written by someone who voted with the majority opinion and the ruling on the case b Dissenting written by someone the minority opinion of the justices who disagree with the ruling of the court and the majority opinion c Concurring someone who voted with the majority but had different reasoning for voting with them Explain the following terms a Stare decisis adhere to the decision Judges defer to prior decisions precedents in similar cases b Judicial restraint judges defer to other branches of government and let their decisions stand c Judicial activism judges should use their power broadly to further justice especially in areas of equality and personal liberty How does the attitudinal model explain judicial decision making It holds that judges make decisions based on their personal attitudes attributes party occupation education and prior experiences Todd 7 1040 Review Sheet for Final Exam 7 Page 3 24 How does senatorial courtesy affect appointment of federal judges district courts and state courts presidential appointments should consult with state senators about who they think will be suitable for cases President typically seeks out advice ofthose in his party 25 How can the following techniques be used to in uence Supreme Court decisions a Presidential appointments the president names nominees after consultation and investigation he looks for similar justices to his opinions b Senate review of presidential appointees judiciary committee hearing is usually partisan can affect who ends up in the supreme court c Congressional ability to pass laws or propose constitutional amendments If congress doesn t like supreme court decisions they can pass laws or clarify them to change their decisions Identify the types of law applied by Texas courts a Common lawa body of unwritten law emerging out of court decisions imported with our English founders N 0 b Statutory law passed by the state legislature c Texas constitutionmust uphold the laws of the Texas Constitution d Federal law must abide by the Supremacy Clause so if federal law supercedes the texas law they must apply that 27 How many courts are named by the Texas Constitution in Article V there are multiple courts named by the texas constitution in article 7 unlike the federal level Explain the signi cance of the following features of the structure of the Texas court system we have to separate supreme courts with original jurisdiction a Two courts of last resort the court of criminal matters b Many types of courts of original jurisdiction it is complex and confusing and can allow attorneys to apply jurisdiction shopping to nd the court most favorable to its case Explain the signi cance of the following common criticisms of the structure of the Texas judiciary a De novo trial of some appeals if someone appeals from the JP courts or municipal courts b Jurisdiction shopping by lawyers overlapping jurisdiction among the courts of original jurisdiction allowing lawyers to shop for opinions c Two supreme courts 30 Why have efforts to reform the structure of the Texas judiciary been unsuccessful Mostly because efforts to reform them will be opposed by judges who think their jobs would be lost to reform ex justices ofthe peace countyjudges lawyers 31 How are judges selected in Texas State courts partisan election 32 How does the Texas system of choosing judges compare with methods used by other states A lot of states use nonpartisan election we are a part of small states using partisan elections 33 What are the common criticisms of the Texas method of choosing judges It s a system that requires judge campaigns and they must raise money often there will be con icts of interest because many of the same lawyers who donate may appear in later cases 34 Does the demographic pro le of Texas judges resemble the pro le of the Texas population No old white men mostly 35 Differentiate between these types of juries used in Texas a Petit juries a small jury which is responsible for determining the outcome of a trial in a court of original jurisdiction Guilty or not someone has been harmed or not b Grand juries bigger bodies approx 23 determine whether a person should be indicted or not if there is enough evidence to even charge the person with a crime all felony indictments must be handed down from the grand jury in TX N 00 N O 36 37 38 39 40 5 N 5 M 5 UI 5 0 5 l 5 W UI N Todd 7 1040 Review Sheet for Final Exam 7 Page 4 What is the role of the Texas Commission on Judicial Conduct They hear complaints against sitting judges and decide appropriate punishment What tools are available to the Texas Legislature to discipline judges Two only one counts TX Legislature can bring about impeachment proceedings against a judge and judges can be removed by judicial address by passing a law meaningless constitutional tradition that is not used Distinguish between civil lights and civil liberties Civil liberties are issues involving protecting the freedoms of individuals and they arise out of the bill of rights Civil Rights are questions revolving around equal treatment of individuals 143911 amendments equal protection of the laws clause Where are civil liberties described in the U S Constitution Bill of Rights What did the Supreme Court say about the Bill of Rights in Barron v Baltimore 1833 Those rights only apply to the federal government not to the state government Guarantees included in the constitution the federal courts must uphold but liberties in states are restricted by state constitution and courts Defme selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights Became possible once the 14 amendment was rati ed due process clause the court has ruled that rights defined in the bill of rights apply to the states through the due process clause casebycase basis over a long period oftime to get the bill of rights to apply to states What clause in the 14th amendment has been used to apply parts of the Bill of Rights to the states Due process clause Differentiate between these two clauses pertaining to religion in the First Amendment c Establishment clausegovernment shall pass no laws of the establishment of a national religion a Free exercise clause government shall not interfere with the free exercise of religion What are the three parts of the test set forth by the Supreme Court in Lemon v Kurtzman regarding religious activities authorized by a state When can the state set up a religious interference it must have a secular purpose and be good for something more than religion it should not foster or prohibit it or create an intermixng of government and religion working together Indirect aid to religious schools has been justified by the Supreme Court using what theory Child benefit theory provide bene ts to religious establishments if it bene ts a child What is the signi cance of the Supreme Court s decision in Zelman v SimmonsHarris 2002 Supreme court upheld the right of the government to give cash payments to people to aid their education and that of their children even if the parents were using the money to send kids to a religious school Identify these tests used by the Supreme Court in free speech cases a Clear and present danger test imeant to draw a distinction between advocating something illegal and something that could lead to something illegal b Direct incitement test strengthens the idea that there must be direct incitement to danger that something illegal will happen Explain the no prior restraint rule used in cases involving freedom of the press In dealing with the press there is no prior censorship but we can hold people responsible after publishment What are the ways the universities commonly assert that they are allowed to regulate freedom of speech on college campuses They can regulate place time and manner but they cannot regulate the content Describe the Roth test used in judging obscenity cases In judging obscenity look at material whole community standards and What did lVIiller v California add to the standards used in judging obscenity cases Added local community standards Defme the following terms and explain their relevance to freedom of speech and press a Libelwritten statements that harm another person reputation etc Todd 7 1040 Review Sheet for Final Exam 7 Page 5 b Slander oral statements that harm another person 53 Which amendments in the Bill of Rights deal with rights of accused criminals 4 5 6 8 54 What are the things that the Fourth Amendment says must be speci ed in a search warrant Specify the place to be searched what they are looking for and must be speci c No blanket warrants 55 In what circumstances might a search without a warrant be legal Those dealing with incidents to an arrest limited search in the place where the person was arrested for weapons or clearly visible evidence to protect health and safety of police officers Def39me the exclusionary rule and explain its signi cance Evidence not properly attained can be excluded from use in court 57 Def39me double jeopardy Cannot be tried for the same crime twice 51h amendment doesn t prevent trials from both state and federal suits or both civil and criminal suits What are the things included in the Miranda warning that a police of cer must give to a suspect who is being arrested They have the right to remain silent anything they say can be used in a court of law right to an attorney government will provide an attorney if they cannot afford one What important part of the Bill of Rights was applied to the states in Gideon V Wainwright Right to counsel in a trial 60 What was the impact of Furman V Georgia in 1972 Declared several state capital punishment statutes unconstitutional on the grounds of vague state laws that led to arbitary and capricious application States simply reinstated capital punishment laws that met the specificity 61 What is the constitutional basis for the right to privacy upheld by the Supreme Court The right to privacy is implied by the constitution as ruled by the supreme court even though its not specifically stated Explain the court s ruling in Roe V Wade Right to abortion as the preganacy advances in time and liability the government has more power to regulate the use of abortion 63 Why does Carhart V Gonzales 2007 demonstrate the importance of court membership as a factor in uencing court decisions Specifically upheld a federal law hold 64 What period in the Supreme Court s history showed a lot of activity in applying the Bill of Rights to the states 1960s under the Warren Court which handed down the Miranda decision 65 Which current Supreme Court justices were appointed by President Obama Kagan and Sotomayor 66 Describe the following provisions of the Patriot Act a Roving wiretaps broad provision permitting blanket warrants to wiretap any communication devices a person may have b Delayed notice search warrants they may search someone s house without telling them What are the parts of the Patriot Act that have cause concerns about civil liberties Broad snooping provisions of personal records etc What action did Congress take on the Patriot Act in 2006 They renewed it and gave individuals additional protections Describe the NSA warrantless wiretapping and how it was brought to an end Bush authorized NSA to carryout wiretaps without a warrant Courts didn t agree with this and it was ended 70 What has been the relationship between war and external threats and US policy regarding civil liberties When we feel threatened we allow the government to do more What is the dilemma involving in balancing civil liberties against external threats We want to protect ourselves against external threats we throw away the system to protect our rights 72 Identify these amendments and explain why they are called the Civil War Amendments a Thirteenth Amendmentoutlawed slavery b Fourteenth Amendment equal protection of the law c Fifteenth Amendment cannot distriminate 0 0 UI 00 0 0 0 N 0 l 0 00 0 O l p r l M l Ul Todd 7 1040 Review Sheet for Final Exam 7 Page 6 Identify the following devices used by some states to circumvent the intent of the Fifteenth Amendment a Literacy tests limited blacks from voting b Poll taxes c White Primaries Why was the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 signi cant Abolished literacy tests and aided minority voter registration and enforced the 15111 amendment Differentiate between the following a De facto segregation where people live By natural processes not proscribed by law b De jure segregation segregation by law Ex south after the civil war and reconstruction Identify Jim Crow laws Broad set of laws to limit the rights of freed slaves What was the signi cance of Plessy V Ferguson 1896 Established the rst jim crow law Separate but equal doctrine FL separate railcars for blacks What is the signi cance of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 What did the Supreme Court decide in Brown V Board of Education in 1954 Overturned plessy v ferguson because separate schools were inherently unequal End segregation Why did the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965 speed up the pace of school desegregation A 39 desegregation plan by p 139 g money to schools if they establish a What did the Supreme Court decide about the use of busing as a tool of school desegregation Differentiate between a Equal opportunity government should base people on their merit not race etc b Affirmative action try to take deliberate steps to increase minority participation because of past discrimination How was af rmative action initiated as a federal policy By Johnson as an executive order How did the following cases affect af rmative action policy a Bakke case 0ne of the earliest reverse discrimination cases Quotas should not be used in af rmative action case b Gratz v Bollinger prohibited minority increases in points of minority scores What did the Civil Rights Act of 1991 say about the use of quotas in affirmative action programs Prohibit the use of quotas in af rmative action plans When and how were women guaranteed the right to vote in the U S 1920 19111 amendment What was the Equal Rights Amendment and what happened to it A constitutional amendment imposed by congress trying to outlaw gender discrimination and it failed in rati cation Identify Lawrence v Texas and explain its significance to gays and lesbians Private sexual acts cannot be penalized How many states currently permit same sex marriages six How many states have statutory bans on same sex marriage How many states have constitutional bans on same sex marriage Identify the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund Identify the Arizona law regarding illegal immigrants What is the largest minority group in the United States today Hispanics