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Bio 106 Week 1 (Lectures 1&2)

by: Sheridan Lantz

Bio 106 Week 1 (Lectures 1&2) 2570

Marketplace > Washington State University > 2570 > Bio 106 Week 1 Lectures 1 2
Sheridan Lantz
GPA 3.89
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee

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My notes are on lectures 2: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life & 3:Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. These notes have everything from the lecture slides with side notes on what the p...
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sheridan Lantz on Friday January 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2570 at Washington State University taught by Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views.


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Date Created: 01/16/15
Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture 2 Concept 261 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships Taxonomy A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life 0 Bionomial Nomenclature term for the two part latinized format for naming a species consisting of the genus and specific epithet Hierarchical Classification Species that appear to be closely related are grouped into the same genus Taxonomic Linnaean system 0 Places related genera in the same Family families into Orders orders into Classes classes into Phyla phyla into Kingdoms and kingdoms into Domains Phylogenetic Tree a branching diagram that represents the evolutionary history of a group of organisms Branch point made Taxon A Taxon B Sister taxa Taxon C ANCESTRAL LINEAGE Taxon D Taxon E Taxon F Common ancestor of taxa A F Two key points 0 Patterns of descent but not absolute timing 0 We cannot assume that taxon next to each other evolved from one another Concept 262 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data Homologies Similarities due to shared ancestry Phenotypic amp Genetic the similarity in the number and arrangement of bones in the forelimbs of mammals is due to their descent from a common ancestor with the same bone structure Homoplasy Convergent evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar analogous adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages Analogous structures that arose independently Concept 263 Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees Cladistics common ancestry is the primary criterion used to classify organisms 0 A cladogram is a depiction of patterns of shared characteristics among taxa Consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants Group I Q mUOWgt Consists of an ancestral species and some but not all of the descendants A Group II 39nrnuow Consists of various taxon that lack a common ancestor Group III CD39HI39HUOWgt A shared ancestral character 0 Homologous structure that predates a branching 0 Is shared beyond the taxon we are trying to define Example Wolfs leopards and domestic cats all have claws but the difference is some have retractable claws and others don t A shared derived character 0 Is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade Building trees 0 Out group To differentiate between shared derived and shared ancestral characteristics Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 0 In a large data set can never be sure of finding the single best free 0 Narrow the possibilities by applying the principles of and Maximum parsimony A principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts Maximum likelihood As applied to DNA sequence data a principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses one should take into account the hypothesis that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events given certain rules about how DNA changes over time Concept 266 New information continues to revise our understanding of the tree of life lclicker Questions A phylogenic tree is A hypothesis depicting evolutionary relationships Developed on the principle of maximum parsimony Inferred from homologous and analogous character state 9 b c d e None of the above Which species are most closely and distantly related to the badger a Wolf amp leopard b Otter amp co ote c d Coyote amp leopard Panthera Tquot gaysf pardus leopard 99P9l Taxidea taxus V badger 3 21 0A w 23 vanl eaplxel EJanued aepnatsnw Lutra lutra otte r 2A Canis 1 v Iatrans coyote J 39 Canis lupus r a gray t 39 wolf aepguea swag In a comparison of birds and mammals having four limbs is b A shared derived character c A character useful for distinguishing birds from mammals d A character useful for sorting bird characteristics ThinkPairShare activity Explain how CSI uses DNA and phylogenic trees to solve crimes You can set up a hypothetical situation Descent with Modification A Darwinian View of Life History of Evolutionary Thought Lecture 3 Concept 221 The DanNinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species Concept 223 Evolution is supported by an ovenNhelming amount of scientific evidence The Biological Species Concept A populations whose members have the potential 1 To interbreed in nature 2 And produce viable fertile offspring The process by which one specie separates into two or more species Three key observations about life 1 The way organisms are suited for their environments 2 Many shared characteristics of life unity 3 Rich diversity of Life Scientific explanation to explain these observations Evolution descent with modification 1 Species are descendants of ancestral species 2 Presentday species are different from their ancestors Darwin developed two main ideas Concept 222 Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life Artificial Selection Natural Selection and Adaptation DanVin proposed a mechanism of natural selection to explain observable patterns of evolution Individuals that have inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than others because of those traits Fitness linked to these inherited traits Adaptations Inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments Artificial Selection Humans selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits Natural Selection 3 inferences based on 5 observations gt Observation 1 Population sizes would increase exponentially staring of slow then increasing drastically if all individuals that are born reproduced successfully gt Observation 2 Populations tend to be stable in size 0 Except for seasonal fluctuations gt Observation 3 Resources are limited gt Observation 4 Members of a population vary extensively in their characteristics 0 No two individuals are exactly alike gt Observation 5 Much of this variation is heritable gt Inference 1 Production of more individuals than the environment can support leads to a struggle for existence with only a fraction of offspring surviving gt Inference 2 Survival depends in part on inherited traits gt Inference 3 Unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to gradual change in a population Favorable characteristics accumulating over generations Iclicker Questions DNA Sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees The most likely explanation for this result is that A Humans evolved from chimpanzees B Chimpanzees evolved from humans C Humans and chimpanzees are not closeli related E None of the above Natural selection is A B Humans selecting individuals with desired traits to breed The principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different for those operating today C Principle that states that mechanisms of chanie are constant over time E Similarities resulting from common ancestry Which of the following is not an observation on which natural section is based A B quot39quotquotUO Members of a population often vary in their traits Species tend to produce more offspring than their environment can suppo Many offspring fail to survive and reproduce Many of the traits within a population are heritable None of the above ThinkPairShare Describe this slide in terms of evolution and natural selection Predict the next scenario The birds have the taste for green bugs and not really the orange ones because of this the green bug population is decreasing


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