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Introduction to Anthropology

by: Miss Albert Wilderman

Introduction to Anthropology ANTH 1010

Miss Albert Wilderman
GPA 3.59

Gene Luster

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Gene Luster
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Albert Wilderman on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1010 at University of North Texas taught by Gene Luster in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/229194/anth-1010-university-of-north-texas in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Texas.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Class notes The exam will be through chapter 11 on Monday instead of Friday Thursday September 17 2009 712 AM The First Farmers I The Neolithic Originally the quotNew Stone Agequot now refers to the first cultural period in a given region in which the first signs of domestication food production are present Dependent on region not universal According to the book first occurred in the Middle East Hunter gatherers kind of like small businesses break down even smaller when resources are scarce Food production human control over the reproduction of plants and animals Wild game changed dramatically around 15000 years ago at the end of the last glacial Large slow reproducing mammals are replaced by fish mollusk and rabbit that reproduce quickly and prolifically By 7500 years ago most Middle Easterners had moved almost completely away from foraging and were farmers and herders The transition to food production in the Middle East 1200010000 years ago seminomadic hunting and gathering broad spectrum foraging 100007500 years ago Early dry farming no irrigation wheat barley and caprine goats and sheep domestication 75005500 years ago increasing specialization of food production cattle pigs irrigation more productive varieties of wheat and barley 5500 origin of state wa complex irrigation systems The first ideas of possessions came with civilization The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East Food production arose in the context of four environmental zones vertically I High plateau 5000 feet Hilly Flanks I Piedmont steppe treeless plain I Alluvial desert areas 100 to 500 from riverbanks with extremely fertile soil Started in Hilly Flanks rich in natural resources Foragers could adopt sedentary lifestyles because resources were abundant and close together Natufians 12500 to 10000 years ago Climate changes warming and increased population cause people to start migrating away from the Hilly Flanks towards water taking local plants and animals with them I Could be catalyst people already invested in this place don39t want to move decide to take control of environment Environmental Zones lead to a vertical economy Different environments for different seasons Each zone had its own unique resources Zones liked by seasonal migration and trade Movement of seeds between zones allows for greater genetic variation mutations genetic recombination and human selection People are starting to have a grasp on some aspects of nature Human beings with culture and presence accelerate evolution on plants and animals also select thing based on what tastes good and what doesn39t Genetic Changes and Domestication Wild Plants not designed for food production Low yields Efficient seed dispersal Difficult to process Human selection and mutations allowed for rapid evolution into domesticated varieties Selection of sheep for wool keeps sheep cooler and provides material for clothing Plants got larger and animals got smaller Animals got smaller because they39re easier to control and contain Food Production and the State Transition from foraging to food production required specialization and control coordination of resources water Central authorities become necessary to control and distribute water track crop surpluses coordinate building and engineering projects etc Wealth and social class are born Independent Centers of Food Production Food production began independently in at least seven or eight world areas Middle East wheat barley sheep goats cattle pigs 10000 years ago Southern China Rice water buffalo dogs pigs 85006500 years ago Northern China Millet dogs pigs chickens 7500 years ago SubSaharan Africa Sorghum pearl millet African rice 4000 years ago Central Mexico maize beans squash dogs turkeys 4700 years ago I South Central Andes potato quinoa beans llama alpacas The African Neolithic Neolithic marks agriculture quotnew stone agequot Nabta Playa Temporary lake created by high river waters first occupied 12000 years ago 110009000 years ago small seasonal camps of herders of domestic cattle used for milk and blood 9000 years ago permanent residents still foraging wild plants 8000 years ago pottery production 8100 years ago sheep and goats Pottery shows craft Storage shows surplus Suggests sedentary lifestyle Free time 7500 years ago new group of settlers after long drought Sophisticated social and ceremonial system Sacrifice and burial of young cattle Astronomical measuring devices Believed to have been a ceremonial center between 8100 and 7600 years ago Nine large upright stone slabs dating between 7500 and 5500 years ago The Neolithic in Europe and Asia 8000 years ago Mediterranean shores started shifting from foraging to food production 7000 years ago Sedentary full farming villages in Greece and Italy 6000 years ago Thousands of farming villages stretching from France to Russia quotIce manquot Chapter News Brief 8000 years ago domesticated goats sheep cattle wheat and barley in Pakistan 7500 years ago Northern China cultivating millet 36003100 years ago Shang dynasty based on irrigated agriculture 8400 years ago Southern China cultivating rice The First American Farmers America39s First Immigrants First hominins migrated from Northwest Asia est 18000 years ago before the end of the last glacial Crossed Bering Straight in pursuit of big game Eventually killed off all big game Clovis tradition 1200011000 years ago sophisticated stone technology 13500 years ago Chile inhabited The Foundations of Food Production Areas of independent food production Mesoamerica Eastern United States supplemented foraging South Central Andes Domesticated Animals Large animals hunted into extinction Largest domestic animal llama Turkeys ducks dogs guinea pigs No heard animals Cloric Stapes Carbohydrates Maize corn Potatoes Manioc root crop Other crops Beans Squash Quinoa cereal grain Early Farming in the Mexican Highlands Mammoth remains date from 11000 years ago around Mexico City In Mexico39s southern highlands between 10000 and 4000 years ago foragers concentrated on deer rabbits cactus leaves fruits and tree pods These foragers would hunt and gather during the fall and winter During spring weather time and animals would compete with humans for wild plants so they had to gather them in force over a short period of time In summer they would gather teocentli the wild ancestor of maize Genetic changes occurred somewhere between 7000 and 4000 years ago where the teocentli became more productive prior to domestication I Teocentli has no natural means of dispersal so human selection and hardiness of plants were favored over time Eventually teocentli was planted in the alluvial soils of the valley floors I By 4000 years ago teocentli now maize was more productive than mesquite pods so mesquite trees were cleared to make room for planting From early farming to the state By 3500 years ago food production had created permanent villages that were occupied year round in the humid lowlands of the Gulf Coast of Mexico and the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Guatemala In the Mexican highlands simple irrigation techniques pot irrigation allowed for the planting of maize I The spread of maize farming increased genetic diversity improving yields and allowing for more complicated irrigation systems Explaining the Neolithic I Jared Diamonds Guns Germs and Steel Factors that contribute domestication and its spread across the globe Only 14 out of the 148 large animal species were able to be domesticated I 12 plants out of the 200000 known species account for 80 of the worlds farm production Foragers had just as much knowledge of plants and their reproductive cycles as food producers Advantages of food production Discoveries and inventions I Spinning weaving pottery bricks masonry smelting and casting of metals I Sculpture art writing systems weights measures mathematics new form of political and social organization By 5500 years ago Middle Easterners were living in vibrant cities with markets streets temples and palaces Specialists Economic opportunities Disadvantages of food production I Harder work foragers work very little in comparison Less adequate diet I More children child labor I Malnutrition Communicable diseases Trash and sewage I Sanitation issues Waste disposal Increase in social inequality I Property distinctions I Slavery Crime I War I Human sacrifice Religion Power Pollution


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