People and Cultures of Europe
People and Cultures of Europe ANTH 3600
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Anthropology 3100017 Anthropology of Europe Professor Jennifer Chase Office hours Tuesdays 230pm 4pm amp Wednesdays 330pm 530pm in Chilton 330N Email at JenniferChaseuntedu Friday January 22I 2010 Anthropology of Europe gt quotEuropequot as a fiction made real 0 Antiquity Christendom and European Integration different Europe s o quotThe awareness of the historically specific and even elusive and constructed nature ofthe boundaries of Europe is an objective crucial to current debates about European identity and European culture I What does she mean gt Theoretical Approaches to Europe 0 Domino Effect I Has previous been related to Asia countries 0 The theory is that if a powerful Asian country like China fell then the next would be Korea Vietnam Laos Cambodia Thailand Malaysia Indonesia Burma Myanmar and India 0 Modernization Paradigm I These are usually primitives usually in southern Europe the people are typically poor uneducated or seen to seem unhappy So the solution for this is to encourage coerce or force that society to modernize 0 At the time of the Colt War communities or societies like these were seen as future threats ifthey were to become communists so democratic nations like the US rushed to modernize them democratic states I She asks what barriers need to be in place to better the society 0 Social Evolutionism I This evolution of mankind is the story how humans went from savagery to barbarism to a civilization 0 Structural Functionalism I Durkheim I An organism a system of parts all of which serve a function together for the overall effectiveness and efficiency of society 0 This is kind of like how organs in a human body work together for you to stay alive by functionally properly Consensus theory Change is slow and orderly A society s educational system 0 How could you describe this Monday January 25l 2010 The Anthropology of Europe reading gt quotMediterraneanquot 0 Not quotreallyquot European I Small scale face to face I Honor and shame supersede in North I Self reliance and homogeneity 0 Agenda for scholars I Focus on small scale communities I Interpret value systems as reproducing consensus and the community functionalist I Interpret modernization as breaking communities and their values down gt Problems 0 Can anthropology be useful in modern industrialized nation states o What is community I Looking for consensus functionalism and seeing conflict and rivalries I No age sets or lineal principles matrilineages patrilineages gt quotEuropequot in the 1960s 0 Divide Europe into cultural areas for comparison and contrast 0 Work in Europe distinguished from the rest ofthe world be need to take into account Europe s history and traditions 0 That is other places didn t have history and traditions in the same way I When anthropologists were overwhelmed by the vast amounts of history that Europe has which may made Europe stand out 0 Cold War becoming hot I 0 Prague Spring 1968 I Neighboring Eastern European Blocks invaded Prague gt Challenges for Anthropologists 0 Things do change Quickly I At the time many student protest were happening 0 And societies aren t always made up of happy conservative people gt Responses 0 Understanding of Marxism in academy changed I In American at the time many people won t dare recite or quote Marxist views for o Gramsci Italian communist I Came up with the term hegemony I Was an activist writer which got him put in jail where he came up with his best work 0 Althusser French communist Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses I Argued the state apparatuses are tools used by the state I Found that something was fundamentally wrong with society 0 Like the educational system which in a way taught in a way that brain washed 0 Althusser was Foucault instructor in which Foucault later came up with the idea of discourse o Althusser argues that when we humans are created we are in a life cycle to which we influence subjects and are influenced by subjects Ideology creates us as subjects I Best example A policeman haling you 0 The point is that power is calling me or you as a subject when they yell quothey you 0 Discourse is social constructionism which is the idea that everything I Power is productive and power is a field Wednesday January 27I 2010 Continuing The Anthropology of Europe reading 0 Levi Strauss French founder of structuralism in anthropology o Structuralism is the interest in uncovering the deep thought in human thought 0 Why do we care 0 Because anthropologist in the 60s amp 70s could not understand the reasons for riots and other violence 0 To explain how cultures works so that we may better be able to understand them Skip Asad Lass and Schnieder sections in the Provocations of European Ethnology gt Other influences o Dependency arguments from Latin Americans and other peripheral nations 0 Practical concerns I Funding 0 Europe at the time was less expensive than traveling to Latin America or Africa I Welcome 0 This was varies on the country 0 So Europe became more thinkable as a fieldsite 0 Yet Friday January 29I 2010 gt Provocations of European Ethnology o Herzfeld I Colonialism o The result of migration from other places to the Europe we know now I Who speaks for whom 0 When trying to study Europe it is wise to not underestimate how much they know themselves Usually this is the idea that natives or nativists have towards outsiders I Epistemology 0 Usually talking about knowledge 0 Anthropologists have tended not to push the limits of the issues 0 Verdery I Break up monolith called quotthe West 0 The West is a love all or everyone is free society I Analyze concepts economy liberal democracy the state and capitalism o In the case of the United States there is a set of norms like 0 Going to school finding a job getting married has kids buy a house be successful enough to buy things It is the way our society is operates gt quotProvocationsquot 0 Rogers I One form of knowledge I Knowledgeableaudience I Native scholars 0 Rogers states that one must make great attempts to understand their way of thinking and comprehension I Rogers noted that there were too many Anthropologists or specialists of other academics in Europe 0 Asad I Is a West C Says that the West is a dominate power that cannot be ignored But the world is not becoming homogenous International relation through lens of western domination I Western categories have traveled I Study quotEuropequot outside of Europe gt Europe and the People without History Monday February 1I 2010 Taking interconnections seriously gt Retity naming bits and turning those names into things 0 Social culture nation gt Interconnections are clear 0 H1N1 0 Chinese migrate to Singapore o o gt O 0 Plants factories in the US department on oil in Persian Gulf Syphilis traveled from New World to Old Interconnectedness Treated cultures as ball in a game of pool Why did Onondaga subgroup of Iroquois have no native made group except for pipes by 1670 o Slave trade effected 0 Have learned that Europe exists that the West exists 0 Genealogy 0 Ancient Greece gt Roman Empire gt Reification Matters 0 When we name things we also assign them a destiny The 13 colonies were meant to become the US which was meant to expect to fill its current boarders o Teleology 0 But the US didn t have to come to look like it does Colonies Most colonials didn t want to leave the British authority Luck Louisiana Purchase French needed the money to fight the Haitians What others did mattered gt Returning to Modernization Theory 0 Westerns did worry about a trophy of community 0 But through the 20th century become commonsense that society would increase in size and complexity Individuals would be tied through atilitation and technical relations not sacred and moral ties gt ModernizationTheory o Traditionalsociety People into narrow inherited positions Then ties people together through those positions 0 Modern society No inherited ties or positions Mobile population can respond changing needs of society Popular vote created social goals Way of thinking would support social goals and marshalling resources to meet them 0 Traditional society Slow to change inflexible Lacking drive to achieve secular and rational goods China Albania Cube are pretty much all the same All those who needed to adopt US model traditional 0 Modern society gt Anthropology Desirable forward looking dea of US as democratic pluralistic Developed as the study of primitive non Western peoples Fieldwork became hallmark did allow for corrections to be made But functionalism explained each society in term of itself What is a study processes I Manduracu is a tribe in the Amazon 0 The bride moves into the husbands family and cutting ties with the bride s family 0000 Wednesday February 3I 2010 gt V V V V Europe in the Colonies o Anthropologists relied on colonialism 0 European power was always part of the reality that anthropologists sought to understand 0 And ofthe way they sought to understand it o Rivers 1913 o Colonialism both threaten and allowed anthropological work Malinowski Europe in the Colonies 0 Example of how colonialism helped anthropologists gain access 0 And how quotEuropean nessquot affected what he studied and how he interpreted it 0 When WWI began Malinowski landed in Australia he was considered an enemy alien He was Polish Malinowski and the Trobriand Islands 0 Talked about how the natives helped him but also his distrust with them Point being 0 In a world subjected for centuries to European capitalism and imperialism what are I Cultural community I Cultural autonomy I Culturalauthenticity Tradition 0 Ancient 0 Integrated o In need of preservation I There is a need to determine what is authentic and what is fake 0 Real tradition is the unreasonable reproduction of customs History of this conception 0 French revolution 1789 1799 I This was a overthrown of the political social and economic systems of the government 0 Inherited privilege and prejudice vs idea of universal reason and justice Edmund Burke 1729 1797 0 The past particular conception of what is inherited 0 But a point of authority To which one is linked through repetition Or from which one is severed 0 Provided a theory why people in France should not start a revolution I He said free reason is irresponsible gt Tradition o Westerners struggle with how to conceive of it I How to theorize non Western traditions within contemporary scheme of things Coping mechanism 0 I Allows people to deal with oppression or resist it gt Contemporary Example 0 How to deal with Islamic traditions 0 Describe as ifinevitable westernization 0 Recent political uses of Islam I Failure to fully modernize Irrational changing to tradition 0 Islam anomaly I Says something about hegemonic discourses of progress gt Example from 1930s 0 Rhodes Livingstone Institute in what is now Zambia I Devoted to documenting economic political and religious changes affecting African populations Categories changed from primitive and civilized to tribal and industrial Major problem was Why do tribes persists 0 Even though many Africans moved into the cities the people still organized themselves into tribal groups Which is something they wanted to explain gt Europe in the colonies 0 European power was always part of the reality that anthropologists sought to understand 0 And ofthe way they sought to understand it o Malinowski Middle East Zambia Friday February 05l 2010 Today we are talking about Zimbabwe gt Zimbabwe 0 Mashonaland Was a British colony from 1888 to 1965 Cecil Rhodes owned the British South Africa company 0 His name is where we get Rhodesian In 1923 Zimbabwe was more of a self governing colony In 1965 Zimbabwe claimed its independence 0 O V V V V V V V gt gt Malinowski and the Trobriand Islands 0 The bird which is a national icon found in ruins Differing storiesDifferent regimes o Brits non African group built them I Ophir o The area was somewhat claimed to this Biblical city I King Solomon s mines Rhodes 0 Financed research projects read secondary literature 0 Research conclusions based on I quota well accepted fact that the negroid brain Archeology o quotThe ancients I As I Fanisian I Egyptians Archival Work 0 The ancients became weak I Portuguese record a society that had lost technology but by 1650s so weak that quotmarauding savages could conquer them I Europeans beware For British 0 Story of the ruins supported I Africans had no clear title to land bc not there long enough I No capacity to use resources well For African Nationalists 0 Great Zimbabwe complex shows I Large state I Divine king I Class hierarchy I Occupational hierarchy I Formal political structure 0 Collapsed with the fall of gold prices ca 1450 o No break in the culture of the people in the area 0 African enterprise in mining trade construction Point for us 0 NOT that Europeans were racist I Duh BUT that colonialists and nationalists 0 Shared basic terms ofa historical argument I European language of territorial rights I Long continuous settled association with territory title to that land 0 Emer de Vattel I 18th century philosopher I Can up with the notion that if you are not using it then you should give it to someone you can use it o The nationalists agreed with that gt And agreed with that 0 Evidence of sophisticated urban life showed capacity for social progress I And that proof of this capacity was essential to creduity of claims to independence Monday February 08I 2010 Today we are concertizing Komotini o Boringly familiar or enticingly exotic gt 1St pole 0 1st quotofficial cultural formquot 0 State rhetoric I Literally literary language 0 The language which is used is going to help unit everyone in the nation with a sense of a unified identity I Europe I Hellenism 0 Greek identification comes from idealized classical past I Unified history gt 2nd pole Social Experience I The continuing and oral tradition of the Orient not limited to Asia 0 Romiossi o Greed identification from Byzantine Christians under Turkish rule 0 Perceptions of different within Greek culture gt Parading the Nation 0 Two parades annually 0 October 28th signal the start ofthe Greek resistance to Germans in 1940 I Nationally important parades throughout Greece 0 May 14th is the date that the Greek army s entry into Komotini in 1920 I Only celebrated locally I Part of quotnational completion I Moment when the citizens became Greek ceasing to be Turkish I Mark the moment when state rhetoric was legitimized I 1920 was the first 1St treaty with Turkey gt quotGreeknessquot 0 Local talk about the town I The local talk was the failure of 0 Street names I Was the first or many things that the Greeks began renaming o Other things were towns building and etc 0 Turkish speakers denied access to construction of urban spaces gt Official story 0 Greece is culturally linguistically homogenous I Excluded many ofthe Turkish culture 0 Enacted through I Parade I Renaming placemaking Turkish names illegal I Settling Greeks in heterogeneous areas gt Ambiguous local realities gt o Sarakatsani from the northern Greek mountains I Resettled by the government but were the original inhabitants 0 Eastern Thrace now part of Turkey I Homeland to many townspeople 0 Northern Thrace now part of Bulgaria I Also homeland to many 0 Greeks immigrated from Istanbul in 1950s Cappadocia now in central Turkey I Turkish speaking Orthodox Christians write in Greek alphabet s Greece European 0 Wednesday February 10l 2010 1St facilitators Herzfeld Through the looking glass gt gt gt V VV Why we hate Herzfeld a lot Why we hate Herzfeld a little less Ancient Greece is the idealized spiritual and intellectual ancestor of Europe Anthropology the study of humankind that emerged from the heyday of European dominace has nevertheless found dispro Greece is the word 0 The homogenization of cultures between the Greeks and the Turks made distinctions less obvious I Because of the breeding both within and between the cultures the bloodline and cultures make it so that there is no one Is Greece European And what the heck is European anyway England is European Right 0 The top food in England was Indian inspired curry which was at the top of the list But now it seems that Chinese dishes are now number one 0 Greece has a conflict with itself in the case of peasants The view of Greece as a peasants society is not wanted but at the same time it is needed to survive which has anthropologists stuck between a the wanting to see some sort of modernization but the Greeks themselves want to hold on to the way of life which is essential to their history o quotGreeks thus live out the tension between similarity and difference or inclusion and exclusion in an inhabited replay of anthropology s central dilemmaquot I Basically it is saying that anthropologist need to get the notion that culture cannot be boxed in There is more than likely more than one way to understand a culture gt Relating the anthropological dilemma in the United States 0 The Proposal 0 Complete an ethnography in order to detail the American existence I If China wanted to learn about the culture of American so the basic ideas are 0 Capitalism 0 Debt 0 Patriotism o A strong sense of individualism Stop here for Exam 1 Start for Exam 2 Wednesday February 17 2010 Facilitation Friday February 192010 Movie day gt Goodbye Lenin 0 Monday February 222010 gt Goodbye Lenin o In the movie the man attempts to buy items and goods that were from East Germany which was sometimes a very common practice among Eastern and Western Germans Also there is a since of quotunvaluedquot by the older population which had spend many years adjusting to life in East Germany Institutions like schools financial or etc were suddenly replaced by Western society ways of life 0 While watching the movie it is easy to see that many East Germans start to buy Western goods and services which after a short time many East Germans began to seek out and buy the old items clothes food and other goods 0 Socialism Post Socialism gt Modernizationtheory o Traditionalsociety 0 Modern society gt Ostalgie 0 Resistance of western dominance I quotWest is best to maybe not 0 Consumption as resistance I East German products 0 This is a way of resisting the inevitable change that came along with Western ideals and practices 0 Buying nostalgia for the past Ostalgie I An East Germany that never existed I Rememorization and formation of new identity 0 Only certain objects work I Cars Trabi or Trabant o A small Eastern Germany city car that had two cylinders o Represented the lack of consumer innovation and choice in the socialist economy of short resources 0 But at the same time it was a highly prized commodity after the fall of East Germany I Many Eastern Germans had to wait 15 years to get one o Trabi under socialism I Lack of innovation and consumer choice 0 Main difference between East and West I Luxury item I Replacement parts repairmen 0 Place in barter economy I Social activities 0 Trabi and the Fall ofthe Wall I Removed from is normal context I Symbol of freedom and mobility 0 quotGo Trabi Goquot I And of socialist inefficiency industrial backwardness and inferiority I Two Germanies 0 One is super cheap amp inefficient o The other is super sexy fast and ultra fast 0 Trabi as a symbol of devaluation I quotPeople here saved for half a lifetime for a spluttering Trabant quotTrabiquot Then along comes the smooth Mercedes society and makes our whole existence our dreams and our identity laughable Hans Joachim Maaz o Decline in Market Value I quotHow do you double the value ofa Trabi 0 Fill it up with gas 0 This is due to the flooding of newer Western cars I Other devaluations o Factories 0 Education system 0 Especially in Universities they didn t want to risk contaminating the future minds with old and impractical East German ideals o Renaming of buildings and streets 0 From Eastern German phrases and names to Western German ones Trial of guards o Stasi 0 Many average citizens were informants for the East German government About 1 in 4 was a Stasi informant o Ridicule Wednesday February 24l 2010 Facilitation Kella the borderland gt Where the world ended o Boundaries can be I Geographicterritorial I Sociocultural I Real I Imagined 0 Boundary maintaining mechanisms I Shape identity I Maintain culturalforms I Defines groups 0 Borderlands Liminality I quotDefined by Victor Turner as the ambiguous interstructural paradoxical quotbetwixt and between the luminal period is a transition quotbetween states As Turner himself suggests the term state may be 0 Pre Wende I 3 fold workload 0 Work 0 Usually factories o Domestics 0 Do traditional duties of motherhood 0 Politics 0 Post Wende I 3 fold workload o Kinder o Kirche o Kuche I Examples 0 Shopping pre Wende 0 Long lines necessities bartering 0 Shopping post Wende 0 Window shopping Tupperware parties status 0 Personal hygiene 0 Pre No makeup no shaving smocks 0 Post tanning salons hairmake upnails fashion 0 Ingrid s collar I How do women in America wear their shirt collars 0 Modern to wear collar up in the West 0 Here in formal GDR collar is worn down I Ingrid would wear her collar up on some days and down on others At a dinner party she actually had worn her collar up on one side and down on the other symbolism for this in between ness mimicking the fashionable West but as an Ossi resisting Western standards Friday February 26l 2010 Continuing from last time gt After Reunification Ossi identity 0 Intentional use to create quotEast German identity I Strategic consumerism 0 New home in context of displacement I If romanticized 0 NOT an identification with the government or socialism gt Ostalgi as a cult phenomena 0 quotCultquot devalues East German critiques I Because many still use their old Trabi as a middle finger to claim that their history and culture is cannot be just simply erased o The Trabant is just one form but it can take the form of dances music cafes and various other forms Monday March 01l 2010 gt Gender relations 0 How men and women interact 0 Kinds of life courses 0 Structures of feelings I Material list I Influences who you are subjectivity gt Europe 0 Publicprivate dichotomy I Historians are saying what has been considered public or considered private has changed in the last few years 0 Public things are usually government working at a job or at a school I Distinction is discursive gt women s and men s work is never as distinct as terms suggest o Organize any social fact interactions institutions space etc 0 Private sphere is usually feminine natural emotional and reproduction not the sense ofjust having a baby but reproducing a boygirl who will reproduce the norms 0 Public sphere is usually a social power laden historically determining masculine o The law amp economy has many women more dependent on men I Jobs like nursing teaching and other jobs that are more about nurturing people gt Marxist liberals conservatives and communists 0 Organizations of society 0 Engels was one the very few Marxists who saw that women in marriage in society have to be changed Wanted the bourgeois marriage was the cornerstone for why women were inherently dependent on men gt 1950s State socialism in Eastern Europe 0 The defined women as workers I This was done in order to homogenize the population which would hopefully strength the society overall I The ideology a need for labor meant that women were forcefully pushed into the workforce and higher education 0 Private sphere propaganda gone I Postwar in the West nuclear families were the symbol I Postwar in the East they made divorce easier to obtain childcare facilities and wanted to socialize housework the governments forcefully tried to make men participate in the household Men amp women dependent on state Women amp children are less dependent on men gt 1960s armed rebellions popular resentments shrinking birthrate o Motherhood was encouraged by the state to many women I Benefits could be 0 Access to housing 0 Money for having a child o In Germany there is a program called Kindergeld I This is a program that encourages women to have children 0 Access to childcare o Maternity leave 0 All of these things targeted women to directly influence their behavior I Before these benefits women were considered 0 Unreliable employee 0 Politically unreliable gt Informal black market 0 State resources I In the private 0 Wednesday March 03 2010 We who suffer and sacrifice o Self exploitation 0 Ethical 0 Usually done within the household I In the public They Run things Resisted jobs Loaf around and be lazy Manipulate others Tolerate lying I Often time people were both from the public and private Subjectivity I A feeling or sense of who you are I Women were responsible for taking care ofthe family as well as engaging in politics usually volunteering or working in social work as well as paid labor and lastly many women would still be responsible for the household Men are look to as morally superior in society which made women ultimate super victim I For men they were able to better adapt to changing conditions as well as molding into being more competent in their duties Men were employees loyal parties leaders politicians and athletes None of this was really ever taken home they only required the ability for people to serve them 0 Sex for men and women were two different experiences For men it was a possible risk to catch a STD but for women it could be the possibility was the chance of having another baby gt New forms of political participation Paradoxes and contradictions 0000 Is gender relevant to civil society and activism If so then how How is East Central Europe embedded in ideas and organizations bigger than the region gt Under communism and after 0 000 Male dominated politics I Women were included in politics but were placed at less important roles men No popular participation Hidden responses to conflict Now open conflict I The differences between groups were expressed openly but not violently Focus on sites of conflict expression I Legislature mass media and civil society gt Civil society I What is civil society 0 Poland Czechoslovakia and Hungary rallying cry 0 Wanted a bargain 0 Hope but term was catch all I Economic realm I Citizens organize o In a way that is independent of the state and market Effectively self help groups I Network of organizations I Forum for complaining 0 Collection of meanings allowed it to inspire hope and action gt Context 0 Leftists in western Europe I It was a way for leftists to feel refrigerated but in actually they were only fooling themselves 0 Other western Europeans I Were concerned about equal rights citizenship o US I For US citizens was a way for them to promote the democracy 0 East central Europe I Was seem as a form of cynicism 0 Civil society means something different everywhere 0 Post 1989 East central Europe I Appeal of new non state associations 0 Groups like NGOs self help groups charities 0 Hungary Poland Bulgaria I Now legal heirs of 2nd society gt Men women and civil society 0 Women in marginalized organization political positions I The number of women in Eastern involved in politics has dropped but it is still higher than that of the US and other parts of the world I Across Eastern Europe women dominate NGOs in terms of membership and leadership NGOs that do education healthcare things that fall under the stereotype for women women in volunteering on the national scale was very small but get larger as you reach the local level Since men 0 Funding I State provided and organization goals 0 Since the money comes from the states then the proposals were written to appeal to the state Not much different from Communism I Foreign sources and organization goals 0 Foreign sources also had their own agenda which caters to the funding to what the source wants 0 Also the groups applying for the money must walk talk and practices the lingo to please the funders So funding will not get taken away Friday March SI 2010 Facilitation The Riddle of the Third Sector gt Civil society 0 Perestroika period active citizenry that would take on more responsibility in society 0 Central European intellectuals expressing resistance to the socialist state 0 Western scholars ofthe Right confirmation of citizens resisting a oppressive state 0 Western scholars on the Left newly energized left opposition within the socialist society gt Third sector 0 A realm ofinformal groups Gets it s name from a triad I First being the state I Second being the private sector of business and enterprise Third being a sector of citizen initiatives O In socialists countries volunteerism is non existent The reason is because they see it as unnecessary as a waste of time So for unlike civic service or volunteer groups here in the US the people who work at the centers and groups work it as a regular job and they are funded by the state gt Katia 0 Living the third sector I Katia lived in the third sector but never actually worked in it Partially because after the fall of the socialist regime her position in civil service was not in dire need gt Maria 0 Feminist goals and third sector realities gt Conclusion 0 Third sector costly project gt 0 Different from the civil society activists envisioned o Indirectly creates hierarchies and business like ideals o Arena for former soviets Reflect 0 Gender I How is this re traditionalizing women s role 0 Rhetoric s and definitions I Language 0 Civil society 0 Third sector 0 Publicprivate 0 With what we ve been discussing in class how do you feel the rhetoric of public and private changed with eh changing definition of civil society Wednesday March 10I 2010 Facilitation Beyond Boarders Stop here for Exam 2 Monday March 22l 2010 gt VV VV V Paper guidelines 0 Slides are online 0 Do not have to capitalize anthropology all the time quotBlackquot isn t always quotblackquot Cultural expertise of race 0 What is racism I How do you know when you ve encountered it 0 Sometimes it is not always a physical appearance or easily identifiable I How does it come to be a social phenomenon I How do you American racism Short timeline o 1619 I A Dutch ship bring the first permanent African settlers Turks in post war Germany 0 First came between 1967 and 1973 I Guestworker program I West Germany needed labor 0 Each group to stay for a max of 1 2 years I Problems in Turkey I Post Nazi Germany can t deport people out ofthe country o Marry Turks from Turkey I Larger family size than ethnic Germans do I Many Turkish men went back to marry women from Turkey and brought them back with them into Germany Wednesday March 24I 2010 Ethnicity Frederik Barth gt Anthropologists treated it as o Largely biologically self perpetuating 0 Shares fundamental cultural values 0 Field of communication and interaction 0 Members define themselves and are defined as a category distinct from other categories of the same order I Think taxonomy Pongidae and Hominidae gt Summary 0 Similar to I A race a culture a language I A society a unit which rejects or discriminates against others 0 Boundary maintenance is quotnaturalquot result I Racial cultural differences I Social separation language barriers gt History s gift 0 A world of separate peoples I Own culture I Societies organized into quotislandsquot gt Implications 0 quotCulture bearing units I Often most important trait 0 Exhibit particular traits of a culture I Studying history of a culture study cultures in past which would not be included in the present bc of differences 0 Effects of ecology I People adapt to external circumstances I Same ideas and values but different ways of living 0 Which differences are taken into account I Not the sum of objective differences but those deemed important by the actors themselves I Some traits are used others ignored and dramatic differences can be downplayed gt Boundary Maintenance 0 quotEthnic groups ultimately depend on maintenance ofa boundary I What is used to define that boundary can change 0 Cultural traits of the members can change 0 Point is continuing dichotomization between insiders and outsiders Facilitation Algeria in France gt Colonization of Algeria 0 Invasion 1830 I Not necessarily for colonial purposes but for Charles X s domestic approval I Occupation up until early 1960s gt Benefits of colonization 0 Spread of French language and culture across Mediterranean 0 Remedy low population growth in France 0 Competition with colonial powers gt Emigration o Emigration I WWI France recruits thousands of Algerians from the Kabyle region I Persists through WWII and helps to facilitate growth in France I 1970s French government enact legal barriers to gt Post colonial rule 0 1991 2002 I The conclusion of French occupation of Algeria leads to a power struggle between the Algerian gov t and militant Islamic groups gt quotTranspoliticsquot 0 France as a cultural melting pot ie Cathedrals and cafes next to synagogues and curry houses I They tried to change the culture and beliefs of a nation gt Divide and conquer o Kabyle vs Arabs according to French I Arab I Kabyle 0 Reasons To consolidate rule and centralize authority gt French Justification o Isolating the Kabyles from the Arabs was an attempt to ally the French with an indigenous group and justify the invasion and colonization Wednesday March 31I 2010 Missed Monday class Facilitation gt Background 0 Blacks in Liverpool I Mid 19th century origins o Hired West African sea men as sailors I Considered by the inhabitants as quotthe original Black epicenter of Englandquot I Legacy Liverpool is exceptionally racist o Argued that West Africans were after money and sex with the white woman gt Race consciousness 0 Black political realization was fueled by the US civil rights movement 0 quotLiverpool born Blackquot in 1970s I Political realization of the black men from the civil rights movement in the US 0 Major geo social and economic differences recognized by the UK media and public on the disparity and uniqueness of the North and South England during the 80s 0 quotconstruct geographies of race that render some histories experiences and subject position visible and other less so gt Place 0 Not set of physical properties 0 An idea or feeling produced as matter material and that matter a unique perspectives constructed by the inhabitants of Liverpool 0 Comparing her work to Liverpool and author living in NYC Being born in Liverpool I Race has to be explained 0 Race varies in Liverpool I Americans believe you are born a certain race And continue of a race being linked into sex Race is not biological Race as a social construct Liverpool blacks see themselves as unique but this feeling of uniqueness is structured by living in Britain I Liverpool people in general highlight how unique the city is and then the uniqueness impacts who you are 0 Place as quotstructure of feeling life expectations that produced category of blackness I Relations with others 0 O I Emphasis on role of locality on who people are I Planting trees Monday April 5 2010 Discussed stuff about paper and started watching quotCrossing the Bridge Wednesday April 6 2010 Watched movie Friday April 8 2010 Facilitation gt Gang Episode 0 Early 90s poverty foreigners victim s of attacks fire bombs on Turkish households civil unrest graffiti and gangs gt Hip hop episode 0 Implementation of Hip Hop to combat violence 0 Naunyn Ritzeyouth center was key player in Hip Hop activities for the youth I The German government saw the aggrevated youth as a problem for society So they hired people to expose many the elements of Hip Hop as well as graffiti to allow the youth the express their feeling in an artistic way This notion would be unheard of in American gt World Culture Episode 0 Decline of Ghetto Narrative o Uprising of competitions cafes and clubs in Hip Hop scenen 0 Newspaper included rapper stories picture and art 0 Mid 90s Retro fashion club culture and Love Parade 0 Berlin global soon to be known internationally gt Cartel 0 1st immigrant rap group to achieve commercial success in Germany and Turkey with sold out shows The group members themselves are from different places in general from different places in Germany I The song quotYou are a Turk which interpreted the solidarity brotherhood and violence gt Islamic Force 0 Founded by Boe B dead 0 The group was intended to be provocative and arouse curiosity in Germany a Universalist political rap I Both ofthese groups invoked ideas of migrancy plurality human rights equality and conceptions of quototherhoodquot gt Germany Turkey Cultures aren t bound by borders 0 Hip Hop music and culture still resonates in Germany today Newspapers have occasional articles involving Hip Hop Youth centers continue Hip Hop activities to help youths with their expressions Wednesday April 14l 2010 Facilitation gt Invented traditions o Practices which attempt to instill certain values and behavior by implying gt Early approaches 0 Free movement of capital goods services and labor 0 Economics amp law vs people amp culture 0 Neofunctional theory 0 econo gt A quotpeople s Europe 0 European commission promotes a public awareness ofa common European culture 0 1973 declaration on the European identity 0 1975 Tin gt 1992 Maastricht Treaty 0 European citizenship 0 Gave control of education youth culture consumer protection and health to EC 0 Legal right to intervene in cultural field gt Four key sites 0 Creation of new symbols to represent Europe 0 Information policy 0 Europeans higher education 0 Women as targets for build the European identity gt Symbols 0 European Anthem 0 EU emblem amp flag 0 EU passports driver licenses and plates 0 Stamps 0 European Coinage gt Information policy 0 1993 De Clercq Report 0 Comite des Sages 0 Europe as a quotbrand product 0 Centralized Office of Communications gt Higher Education 0 ERASMUS semester I Way for youth to learn other cultures within Europe 0 Nicholas Moussis 0 European identity moral success story 0 Rewriting history gt Women amp Culture Building 0 Women of Europe Award 0 Women and the Future of Europe conference gt Discuss 0 Why is it so hard to create a common European culture Is the EU succeeding in doing so 0 What role if any does quot the Other play in the construction of the EU and the European identity o In the article Chris Shore states that European civilization is apart from other by Christianity among other things Therefore Muslim countries such as Turkey are excluded How does this allow for other religious groups such as Jews to fit into the European identity Friday April 16I 2010 European Integration gt The EU and Europeanization o A process I Emphasize likeness in the face of difference the idea is that people can move from one country to another without being noticed as different 0 Not the same thing as the European Union I Membership doesn t necessarily map onto being European 0 Example Membership for Turkey gt EU s reliance on nation states 0 Elections and law enforcement o No quotit was meant to be story line I There was no quotManifest Destiny spirit like the US to create nation states There is almost no form of quotEuropean pride like Americans loving their military They do however love their country individually nationalism o Individualism and freedom 0 Up to individual countries to host their own elections 0 As likely to be resented as celebrated gt Europeanization after the Cold War 0 Previous mirrors don t exist anymore I Invasionsoccupiers I New World I Colonies 0 Historical figures that do exist still I The Orient 0 Asia Middle East 0 Present in terms of people material goods images and ideologies gt Tools for Europeanization 0 National stereotypes o Involve linking national characteristics into a climate soil and environment 0 Brubaker I Argues that your environment helps determine your class status socioeconomic status quality of life I Unity in diversity 0 Depends on the people believing in those national stereotypes I Useful for 0 Family metaphor I Germany and France as parents I Britain as the affair I Greece is a bad child I Portugal is the good child I Bastard cousins Usually Eastern European countries gt Anthropology and Europeanization 0 Political centers 0 EU interactions with local communities 0 Interactions between Europeans gt Where else 0 Language I Use I Multilingualism I English 0 Tourism I Market historical sites I Looking for the Real I Experience the past of the Other Mondayl Agril192010 Anthropology Europe and Religion gt Historical Overview 0 Origins of religion I Late 1700s early 1900s 0 People were concerned about the origins of religion I Social evolutionism I Scientific racism 0 The functions of religion I Early 1900s 1960s I Functionalism I Structural functionalism o Meanings of religion and their articulations with society and the individual I 1960s present I Symbolic and interpretative Anthropology I Feminism I Post structuralism gt Context 0 Europe in the Dark Ages I Technological intellectual and aesthetic development in China India the Arab World Italian City States I Land and sea routes gt European Feudal Estate System 0 Medieval life I FuedalManorial relationships 0 Kings 0 Lords Vassels 0 Knights Vassels o Peasants Serfs gt Europe s Rise to Power 0 Events and expansion of European societies after 1400 I The withdrawal of China from world trade networks I The exploratory voy gt The quotAtlantic World 0 quotAtlantic World by the 1500s Europe was able to setup ports and trade routes 0 Wealth and power 0 Spreading Christianity was an integral aspect but while spreading the voice of Christ the Europeans tried to figure out where these new people belonged in the pyramid of religion gt 1517 Protestant Reformation 0 Martin Luther and Catholic corruption I Troubled by how people could barter their way out of repentance o Divided Christianity this divide allowed for the sociocultural milieu o Sociocultural milieu I Science I Technology I Modern philosophy I Capitalism gt 1648 Westphalia Peace Accord o Culmination of Protestant Reformation 0 National boundaries National boundaries were established and religion of the ruler was the religion of the land 0 Political dominance of Holy Roman Empire 0 Began change from feudal states to nation states I Ended wars that existed between feudal states gt Gutenberg o 1450 Was credited with inventing the first movable printing press this allowed people to feel a commonality with rulers or people that they may never meet 0 Also stimulated reading and education among the common people developing into independent thought gt 1500s 1700s European Age of Scientific Discovery 0 First phase I Empiricism I Mechanical philosophy 0 Idea that nature follow natural physical laws I Chemical philosophy 0 Matter functions according to active vital principals I Mathematization 0 Quantitative methods were applied to physical phenomenon 0 Second phase gt V V V V V I Human personality I Human development I Cultures and societies and their development 1700s European Enlightenment o quotSelf rule I A sense that people can rule themselves not needing Kings to tell them right from wrong 0 Humanistic ideas I Freedom I Equality I Right to happiness 0 Science in opposition to religion I Allowed mankind to measure and prove where religion requires a sense offaith 0 quotGod hath created all men equal becomes quotnature hath created all men equal Enlightenment and Religion 0 DEISM A pure quotnatural religion 0 Creator God made the world but leaves it to operate according to natural laws 0 Humanity s first religion and its best hope to humanity obtaining a sense of brotherhood Industrial Revolution 0 1700s 1800s 0 Scientific and technological advanvce Capitalism 0 Means of production and labor are privately owned whatever they are 0 Capital generated by worker labor monopolized by owners 0 Commodities and services are produced only for profit in the marketplace 0 Must expand 0 Needs inequality so that someone is on the bottom workers while someone is on the top owners Marx s Critique 0 History 0 Superstructure 0 Religion 0 Belief in God or Gods is an oppressive byproduct that needs to be removed Late 1700s Early 1900s The Age of Imperialism o Exponential escalation in the production of goods 0 Raw materials new markets and cheap or slave labor are required 0 Second era ofimperial expansion Constructing and Controlling o Europeans constructed the Other 0 Methods of control included I Religious conversion I Military force I Collecting knowledge about the colonized to facilitate domination Wednesday April 21I 2010 gt Results 0 Mass demonstrations I 300 died I 800 seriously injured 0 Newspaper reps I Deferent and cautious we didn t mean to be intolerant I Indignant universal reason gt General response 0 People are bound to be offended when their religion is mocked 0 But the proper response is notto riot causing damages injuries and deaths gt Productive o Across the political spectrum in US and Europe I Free speech should override religious sensitivities 0 But what exactly was everyone getting behind A rational belief in universal human rights secular democracy etc gt Taboo vs Rational morality 0 Remember Enlightenment I Search for wholly rational morality o Taboo primordial stage of moral development I Surviving in less enlightened realms of society 0 The taboo is located in religion for example the prohibition of following the strict guidelines set within religion Like sex before marriage 0 Similar to rational morality proscribes normative behavior 0 Different taboos are said to be sacred but may be irrational in reality because it goes against the nature gt Irony 0 Reason requires false things either to be eliminated or re sitted 0 Means NOT de transcendentalizing BUT moving transcendent qualities from one sphere religion to another sanctity of conscience 0 Europe has it sacred cows even if they re not religious cows I Dyan gt Question o If violence carried out on behalf of religious convictions are unacceptable and barbaric then what forms of violence gt Kinds of violence 0 Secularization rationalization of violence 0 Making traditional violence obsolete I Sectarian I Ethnic I Tribal gt Rational response to irrational taboos can include violence 0 Violence accompanying irrational taboos must be if necessary met with violence to protect the common good This rational 0 Why William Cavanaugh I Locke Rousseau Hobbes O o All wrote stuff about a commonwealth o In Hobbes case he wrote that men sign over their right to violence so that they can have a unified defense against the church I The Church Monday April 26I 2010 Tolerance and Religion pt2 gt Is Christianity relevant 0 Church membershipstudy I The trend is that the relevancy of religion is on a steady decline since the late 19th century gt samophobia o Meant to draw attention to exclusionary practices 0 Does it psychologize the problems I Hiding issues of power gt Across the spectrum 0 Right I Islam is externalantithetical to Europe I quotmore likequot the Arab world 0 Left I Secular democratic humanitarian values I Veiling circumcision animal sacrifice I Extreme submission to religion is the problem 0 Both exclusionary gt But secularism is good 0 Charles Taylor I Only public secularism allows safety for minorities 0 Really I Holocaust I Soviet Union I Cambodia gt Law and Religious Expression 0 France no crosses kippahs of headscarves 0 But Christians are not required to wear a cross 0 Islam quotin Europe not quotofquot Europe I Concept oftoleration 0 Based on the idea that at least two unequal groups exist and that the privileged group generally allows the weaker group to dwell within it Also assumes that relations between the groups are mutually exclusive and the balance of power will never change 0 Is the issue religion or politics gt Islam integral to Europe not External 0 Southern Spain Sicily and Central and Southeastern Europe 0 Ottoman Empire until WWI o Post Colonial labor recruitment I Britain South Asia I France North and West Africa I The Netherlands Surinam Indonesia Morocco I Germany Turkey and the Balkans gt One Force of Exclusion Britain Group rights France Individuals before the law Germany Race based nationalism Islamophobia intense irrational fear of Islam I Versus institutionalized discrimination o Are the best phrased as religious in nature 0000 Wednesday April 28I 2010 Facilitation Does French Islam have borders gt Islam and France Friday April 30 2010 gt ConsumptionProducts 0 Consumption for the most part is really religion I Consumption for the most part at the time was Coca Cola which is transnational gt Lithuania 0 Can be split in two categories I 1970s1980s o Dissolving Lithuania I 1940s 0 Atime where Lithuania was born 0 Also seen as traditional 0 Catholicism which relates back to consumptionscarcity 0 quotour products 0 Products are real and taste better gt Weddings 0 Traditional Russian weddings had vodka as a preferred beverage but the protestant coke drinks didn t want to have alcoholic beverages This was seen as an outrage by older more traditional people because the kids protestant viewpoint upsets the rituals I Vodka is a commonality solidarity family sharing moment of familiarity amp national togetherness Monday May 03I 2010 Final facilitation