Sexual Behavior PSYC 4470
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Drew Becker on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4470 at University of North Texas taught by Joseph Critelli in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/229197/psyc-4470-university-of-north-texas in Psychlogy at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Sexual Behavior Notes January 21 2010 Went over syllabus TA Kathy Kelsey Office hours Tuesdays 25pm Terril Hall Rm 215 cube 27 email katherinekelseymyuntedu Phone 2816605255 Historical and CrossCultural Perspectives on Sex 0 Crosscultural diversity result of anthropological reports Many different theories for different cultures Modern world is so connected that these can t be used as blanket terms Only up to the 1950s 0 Inis Baeg Tiny island off the coast of Ireland Isolated very poor land is bad fishing is bad everything driven by economy sustainability Sexually repressed married at late age considered terribly na39l39ve in terms of sex education Never discussed at any time always offensive and anxiety provoking Nudity is forbidden even the nudity ofhousehold pets is BAD Dog licking genitals will be punished When it s time for children to take a bath they have to wear specific clothing so that they don t have to look at the genitals of the children because this is upsetting They avoid touching and washing of their genitals because that could cause arousal and other problems Being seen with your socks offis seen as disgusting and scandalous No tradition of telling dirty jokes even in private groups of the same sex Dancing is allowed but it is where bodies are kept rigid and bodies do not touch Men have to stare at the women s feet Daughters are not taught about menstration sex education or childbirth It s to avoid embarrassment Midwives deliver children Can t support a lot of people so they try to keep population to a minimum some people leave the island usually younger Transition into this different culture once they leave the island is unknown Probably significant Oral Sex Fondling Touching breasts kissing with the tongue usually unknown or repressed I Men believe that sex destroys health I Limits to behavior male masturbation does occur I Premarital sex enough control over behavior so it is unkown I Foreplay is limited kissing and rough fondling of the buttocks I Sex only in missionary position with clothes on I Female orgasm is rare ifit does occur it is a sign ofpossession by the devil I Tied into religious beliefs more strict that the one there Also the economic factor is contributing 9 This is up to the 1950s now they are still restricted but they still have tv 9 How are the rules set up when there is no teaching of sex 9 When children break the rules scorn 9 Homosexuality unkown o Mangaia I Cooke Islands in the South Pacific Polynesia I Permissive on sex but still rules I Distinction between privatepublic behavior 0 Different way of defining private and public 0 Private home sex can happen in the home no matter what even little boys and girls 0 Outside the home married people can not hold hands Minimal amounts ofprotection from the weather a lot of time outdoors Age 13 boys undergo ritual circumcision designed to be painful right of passage Foreskin removed cut along the entire length ofpenis takes a long time to heal Once the wound heal the boy is trained in the art oflove by an older woman Both sexes taught how to give sexual pleasure Universal orgasm for men and women Pretty much experienced by everyone every time Not really a problem or an issue Easy and natural Ifyou do some kind of action that stimulates arousal it is thought unnatural to stop from completing the act 9 American culture tends to discourage younger boys Not just about sex but about grades jobs etc In the Mangaia culture a common insult is that they aren t having enough sex because they are lazy letting his penis go to waste 9 American culture there is a typical dating sequence Mangaian cultures say that western culture has it backwards Sexual pleasure should be thought of first 9 Parents of Mangaians encourage sex with different partners prior to marriage Implication of STDS HIV etcgt very little problems until other people brought ghonerria 9 American society believes that foreplay should be extended to help female orgasm Mangaian cultures believe in very little kissingforeplay before intercourse It s relatively brief Man is likely to be pushed away rejected and ridiculed ifhe is thought to be wasting time or taking to long before penetration 9 Oceanic position Sitting position with legs on the man s shoulder 9 Orgasm not thought be a great achievement in Mangaian culture Males try to make females peak twice for every one of theirs Males orgasm twice a day every day 9 Largely monogamous 9 A lot of factors control overpopulation Children die in birth mothers die in labor because of poor medical technology 9 Denial of homosexuality in this culture 9 Rape is not unusual within culture Historical Diversity 0 Early Turks and Great Mother Earth I Early Turks o Considered acceptable form of religious purposes to visit the maiden in the temples to have sex with them I Agricultural societies worshiped the Great Mother Earth 0 Lived by the harvest if they had a bad one then people died 0 Parallel between fertility of female body and fertility of crops 0 Participating in fertility ritual on human level pleases God I Early Christian cultures was not antisexual 1200s antisexual movement 0 Celibacy idealized Devout oneself to God 0 Marital sex only good when produced children 0 Nonmarital sex condemned taboo 1800s Victorian era 0 Considered a time in which Western Culture reached a peak of anti sexual attitudes Ex Semen conservation Theory that it was important for health to conserve sexual juices ifyou release too much of these uids then you would hurt your immune system and catch a disease 0 Ifyou have sex more than once every 3 years then you are running down your health and doing it too much 0 Different sexualization of the body I Americans female body specifically breasts I Victorian female legs 0 Even covered legs of table etc 0 At dinner table considered offensive to offer a lady a leg of chicken 0 position ofwestern religions 0 Sex is dangerous and must be under control 0 positions of sex therapists o Ifa religion is strongly repressive it hurts sexual health 0 control systems of religion and science 0 Does sex need to be controlled I Needs limits 0 Divorce because of sexual inadequacy 0 Teen mothers 0 Problems for children Rape and Abuse Some studies indicate that murders are related to sexual jealousy 0 Fast 100 years sex positive movement 0 Sexual revolution of1960s I Triggered largely by technology 0 Reliable birth control 0 Feminist movement 0 Recent years 0 Condoms and Birth Control I Once women are on BC condoms are then used to curb spread of sexual diseases causes tension 0 HIV amp AIDS I Result historically society moving in a sexnegative direction 0 Negative movement towards intercourse but positive towards oral sex and masturbation 0 American culture is not the best in terms of sexual behavior I Con icting messages 9 o Con icting messages 0 Traditionaly authority I Parents religion and medical science More negative to protect children from the dangers of sexuality 0 Popular culture I Advertising Movies and TV interacts with capitalist system use the power of sexual motivation to get money Downplaying consequences and causes irresponsibility Irresponsible Sex 1 Not using protectioncontraceptive 2 Being with multiple partners Different category 3 Knowingly passing on diseases 4 Sexual infidelity 5 Under the in uence of drugsalcohol 6 Being too timid to protect oneself 7 Sex too young to make own decisions 8 Disregard for other s emotions 9 Rape 10 Taking advantage of someone 11Having sex with Children 12Lying to make someone have sex with you Sex Research January 28 2010 0 Sample vs Population 0 What is a good sample I Look at the size of the sample not always a dominating factor I The sample represents the given population this is a good sample 0 Sampling problems in sex research I Mailed Questionnaires only receive a 203 0 response I People don t want to participate I Magazines are bad because they only serve special interests subset of target population I Biased for someone who volunteers to be apart of sex research Only get a certain kind ofpeople Those who participate in Sex Research tend to have a higher number ofpartners They also have a more positive attitude towards sex 0 SelfReport Data I Not might want to see guilt within themselves don t reveal embarrassing moments Distortion of the truth I Play up the positive I Minimizing negatives Things such a masturbation are down played I Child Sexual Psychology is a blind part of this study not common 0 Questionnaires I Inexpensive I Anonymous makes it more honest on some items I Easy to standardize 0 Interviews I Flexible can see how you respond to the question I Rephrasing so that someone will understand I Kinsey 0 Very famous 0 1940s not outdated still relevant Best data we have 0 Case Studies Problems on sampling but methodology have never been superseded When HIV was spreading they had to go back to Kinsey studies to be able to learn more about Anal Sex Extremely detailed facetoface interview Zoologist 2 hours 400 questions Culture has changed tremendously in terms ofpublic displays and sexuality TV just came out on air the word quotpregnantquot couldn t be used Had to reassure people confidentiality People were reserved over many of the issues talked about in the study He should have placed the burden of denial on the subject the way you ask the question assumes that the person already engages in the activity Main Findings from study 0 Masturbation 0 Female PreMarital Sex 0 Homosexual Behavior Loaumann 1994 0 Reactivity 0 National Sample 0 79 response I Paying people to participate Don t know how generalized it is 0 Money and Erhardt Fairly famous case study 7 month old infant complications with circumcision procedure 1960s doctors use method to burn the foreskin Electric wire During procedure there was a power surge and entire penis was burned off They decided to have sex change surgery They felt that it was preferable to be a girl compared to being a boy without a penis The boy had an identical twin You have a controlled subject One raised as a boy and one raised as a girl 1972 Girl is 6 years old went through sequence of surgeries Tom boy she thought of herself as female identified with mother and liked feminine toys Social environment is more important than biology Many years went by and no follow up case study Dr Giamon decided to do it himself tracked down patient Girl is 35 years old Conducted interview with patient and parents Female identity never took hold Sometimes behaved in feminine way would tear off dressed reject feminine toys and wanted to play with boys at those age Never interested in mother s makeup she would mimic father shaving tried to urinate standing up and social adjustment Classmates teased and said she looked and walked like a boy Called her quotCave Woman At 12 she took hormones to grow breasts and she refused them Not attracted to boys no interests 14 she was scheduled for another vaginal surgery refused and became suicidal Father breaks down and tells the whole story When she heard this she feels relieved Everything started to make sense She understood who she was Started to adopt a male identity took male hormones She got a transgendered surgery 25 he got married not able to have children but adopted Part of the penis there was no sensation and didn t have strong sexual urges Happy with life as a man Two years later after the interview his twin brother became depressed and committed suicide Started a series of events Wife left him he was depressed lostjob and also committed suicide Both twins were gone Conclusion that it s more about the biology Direct Observation 0 I More faith in it than selfreport data I Expensive I Time consuming I Biased reactivity they act differently when they know that they are being observed I Performance anxiety Masters and Johnson I One of the best created methods I They had people come into the lab and have a practice session that they didn t record When the couples came in the second time they were more comfortable I They looking into every kind of physical changes during three kinds of stimulation intercourse oral sex and masturbation They noticed that the physical changes were all the same even though they were different acts Measures of sexual arousal 0 OOO Penile strain guage Photoplethysmograph Perionometer Thermography SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Our bodies want to make babies and our bodies are good at it DNA chemical instructions inform us to procreate Testicles are made of tiny tubes Churns out 100 million new sperm a day Each one is one ofa kind Produced through a process called meiosis Each chromosome make a duplicate condense to make an X shape The two chromosomes come together and then divide twice The final result is a cell with 23 chromosomes By itself it is incomplete Females create all eggs within the womb In ovaries it s quality not quantity that counts Support cells feed the egg until it s time If an egg is not fertilized within a few hours then it will die The vagina is acidic so they must escape or die Most of the time the cerviX is locked shut except during ovulation Sperm can be altered in the cervix this might make them more viable to find the egg Only some of the sperm are let through to fertilize the egg If the lining matches with the egg then it sheds its outer coating and begins to fertilize the egg The membranes fuse Once inside the sperm releases it s chromosomes fusing with the egg And it begins to develop 24 hours has passed It continuously divides gradually creating the building blocks Trapped within the Zona At the beginning of the 6th day the cells squeeze out and begins to develop Once it attaches to the wall of the uterus it can be attacked by the immune system Two weeks after conception this is when they turn into an embryo Then Gastrulation happens where cells go inside to create organs Lower cells make lungs middle is heart and blood while top makes nervous system skin and hair 2 months after fertilization the embryo is now a fetus February 4 2010 Fertilized cell 0 Zygote 0 Once it starts to divide Blastocyst 0 When it s divided many times Embryo 0 When it implants in the uterus Fetus o 10 weeks 2 inches long Recognizably human Cloning is bad because 0 One disease could wipe out the entire population In one day a male produces 100 million sperm each one is unique The cilia are constantly moving to help move along the fertilized egg muscle contractions help the egg to move Sperm has to escape or die because the vagina is highly acidic This is to prevent infection High level of acidity is necessary to maintain women s health Slower sperm are stronger because they have accumulated a chemical alteration If they swim to fast it doesn t have enzymes to be able to fertilize the egg effectively 0 Zona 0 Protein shell around the egg in order to protect the egg Once in the uterus it breaks down and the Blastocyst breaks free Blastocyst is then in danger it can be attacked by the mother s immune system Women s narrow hips 0 Why haven t we evolved to accommodate birth I Wider hips there is a limit in our range of motion when running etc Male Sexual Anatomy 0 Penis I Boners derived from other animals that have bones in the penis o In animals it reduces erectile dysfunction 0 It s quickin nature gotta be ready to perform and penetrate I Love muscle bad wording because it s not a muscle Only about 1 ofpenis has muscle I Erection is more like filling a water ballon o Glans I Head of the penis most sensitive part 0 Meatus I Opening in which urine and semen pass out of the body 0 Corona I Rim of the glands bulbous shaped enlarged and somewhat spherical 0 Neck I Where the glands attach to the shaft 9 Why is the penis shaped the way it is A Shovel Theory a When a female is receptive to males she may have seX with different partners on the same day The male who comes in last on the inthrust it shoves the other sperm to the side you are squashing and taking out making way for your own sperm to make it in o Fenulum I Underside of skin attaches it to the glands o Foreskin I Skin from shaft that covers the glands I Upon erection it pulls back and looks more like a circumcised penis I Circumcision 60 ofAmerican males have been circumcised Issue that has to do with culture and religion Prior to 1900 most people were uncircumcised 0 Victorian era gave attitudes towards sexuality They felt that people who were uncircumcised were more likely to masturbate They felt that anything you could do to reduce masturbation was good Some males have gotten cosmetic surgery to have a foreskin Circumcised penises are easier to keep clean If the foreskin is not pulled back on a regular basis it can stick to the glands because of uids from the glands Circumcised men are less likely to be HIV infected o Langerhans I Cells which have tiny receptacles which match the interior structure of an HIV virus I Also matched to HPV and other STDs Argument for uncircumcised penis o Circumcision is a mutilation of the male body 0 We re the only ones to do it 0 Doesn t always have to be about cleanliness just takes a few seconds to clean it in the shower Males circumcised as adults 0 They have the experience either way 0 There would be a biased in favor of circumcision I They found that after the circumcision males said that a little of sensitivity was lost Why are children circumcised 0 Because the male father wants them to be similar 0 Shaft o Penis Size 0 Avg size 57 inches 62 inches is the avg Circumference 48 inches 0 Masturbation doesn t affect size of penis Very little connection to body built to penis size I Most of the parts of the body have to do with the tendency of the body to produce longer or thicker bones or smaller bones Penis is dependent upon the body s tendency to produce spongy tissue 0 Is it important I Yes for men they would always like to be bigger I For women they say that penis size is not important 80 say it s not If they are forced to choose between longer and wider 90 would prefer wider over longer gt Variability when accid Scrotum o Relaxes and contracts during temperature and fear of harm 0 When it s colder around the scrotum it pulls up and makes the testes warmer so that sperm can be made 0 During physical exercise arousal and fearanger Testes Semen 0 Male ejaculation is 200 million sperm 0 Only about 1 ofsemen is sperm The rest is mucus water chemical sugars 0 Not very high volumes of semen Female Sexual Anatomy 0 Mons 0 Mountain of love 0 Outer Lips o In adult females these are usually covered with hair I Cultural implications have changed women shave it more now 0 Why 0 No longer aesthetically pleasing 0 Want to feel youngerlook younger 9 pedophilia 0 Hair is associated with masculinity 7 Much more time spent with pornography because of internet 0 0 Inner Lips o More delicate clearly defined edges 0 Vary with each person 0 Not covered with hair 0 Clitorus 0 Top ofthe inter lips During arousal it doesn t get longer but gets about twice as thick Crura Bulbs OOO 0000 O O O O 0 Female circumcision o Cultures in Middle East and areas ofAfrica do this 0 Could involve the removal of the hood hoodglands sometimes inner lips are removed outer lips are sown together with just enough room for urination and menstruation Westerners believe that this is a violation of the female body For these cultures these are practices over many years not looking at westerners for advice Other women usually do this procedure usually at the age of 712 prepuberty It s usually the relatives of the little girl It s done because I To control promiscuity of females I Male preference is driving it I To make sure that after marriage she s not interested in having seX with any other man I To make sure that the children born are the man s child Vestibule 0 Surface area between the inner lips I Vaginal opening and urinary opening 0 O O Vagina o Relaxed state the walls close down and touch each other 3 inches 0 Arousal walls are away from each other 5 to 6 inches after that o Meant to take traumatic movement 0 How sensitive is the interior I It is not very sensitive to light touch I Nerves are in clitoris I Not sensitive because of birthing G Spot 0 A lot of controversy 0 Some say it doesn t eXist Right in the middle ofa seX battle in terms of a position on the G Spot 0 Just above the surface of the forward wall 0 On first feeling the area there is an urge to urinate Vulva O Homologous organs 0 Clear parallels between the two The male penis and clitoris testes and ovaries foreskin and clitoris hood Scrotum and lips February 18 2010 FEMALE ORGASM
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