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Criminology. 3600. Criminology

by: Johnson Collier

Criminology. 3600. Criminology CJUS 3600

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Criminal Justice > CJUS 3600 > Criminology 3600 Criminology
Johnson Collier
GPA 3.57

Ashley Blackburn

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Ashley Blackburn
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Collier on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJUS 3600 at University of North Texas taught by Ashley Blackburn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see /class/229201/cjus-3600-university-of-north-texas in Criminal Justice at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
CIUS 3600 Mid Term Review 0 Strain Theory 0 Developed by Emile Durkheim States that social structures within society may encourage citizens to commit crime Crime is a normal reaction to abnormal social conditions Conventional Goals Legitimate Means Conformists Law Accepts Accepts Abiding Innovators Criminals Accepts Rejects Ritualists Bureacratic Rejects Accepts Deviance Retreatists Homeless Rejects Rejects Drug Abusers Rebels Terrorism Rejects but looks to Rejects but looks to Revolutionaries replace with their own replace with their own o Behavioral Learning Theorists o How do they view humans 0 Blank slate o Rational choice Theory 0 A neoclassical theory asserting that offenders are free actors responsible for their own actions 0 RCT view criminal acts as specific examples of the general principle that all human behavior reflects the rational pursuit of benefits and advantages 0 People are conscious social actors free to choose crime and they will do so if they perceive that its utility exceeds the pains they might conceivably expect if discovered o 4 main types of data collection strategies section 2 0 Uniform Crime Reports UCR I Primary source of official crime data in US 0 FBI collects data from state county and local agencies 0 Participation Voluntary I Measures Crime Rate I Offenses divided between Part quotindex crimes and Part II offenses I Cleared quotIndex Crime Offenses I Cleared b y arrest I Cleared by exceptional means I Problem with UCR 0 Official data underrepresents amount of crime actually occurring 0 Federal Crimes not included 0 Not all agencies participate Falsification of crime data 0 Hierarchy Rule 0 National O SelfRe O UCR and NCVS Differe O O O O o quotChica I o Discretion of agencies reporting Incident Based Reporting System NlBRS begun in 1982 Collects more details on each crime incident Collects data on 46 quotGroup A offenses and 11 quotG roup B offenses No Hierarchy Rule Problems remain Only collects data on reported crims Few agencies participate Crime Victimization Survey Data National Crime Victimization Survey 0 BJS surveys sample of representative households nationwide 0 Measures reported and unreported crimes 0 Problems 0 Telescoping 0 Under and over reporting 0 Legal Standards was the incident actually criminal 0 Only crimes against persons port Crime Surveys Benefits 0 Uncovers extent of minor offenses Explore relationships between criminality and individual characteristics Problems Convenience sampling leads to problems with generalizability Less accurate for serious crimes Dishonest of respondents nces What do they say about basic dem Shahmckay research go School 1892 Statistics and qualitative data Shift in focus to social pathology Robert Park 0 Cities grow according to basic social processes Scientific study of city life Ernest Burgess 1925 o 5 concentric zones center being most intense quottargetquot 0 Zone 1 the Loop 0 Zone 2 Factory Zone I Transitional zone Deteriorating residences Highly transient people 0 Zone 3 Zone of Workingmen s Homes I Those who escaped from Zone 2 0 Zone 4 Residential Zone I Residential suburban area 0 Zone 5 Commuters Zone I Highest priced residences o Ecologyfocuses on place I Shaw and McKay o Examined 56000 court records from 1900 1933 0 Created quotspot mapsquot 0 Found crime rates to be highest in Zones 1 amp 2 0 Persistent trends 0 Robert Agnew 0 General strain theory I Agnew s extension of anomie theory into the realm of social psychology stressing multiple sources of strain and how people cope with it I 4 Sources of Strain 0 Failure to achieve goals not getting in to college 0 Removal of valued stimuli kicked off the teamdeath 0 Presentation of negative stimuli subject to bullying 0 Failure of achievement to meet expectations o Copingways we cope I Delinquencycrime is one way to cope with strain 0 Others include o Behavioral coping I Exercise 0 Cognitive coping I Think positive 0 Emotional coping I Anger response most likely to lead to crime 0 Biosocial perspective 0 Biosocial Criminology I EO Wilson s 175 Sociobiology I Recognizes biological and social factors 0 Twin studies 0 If crime is heritable and genetic it should be more prevalent in identical twins 0 While empirical support has been found studies have been criticized o Messner and rosenfeld 0 Institutional Anomie Theory 0 contends that crime can be explained by an examination of American society particularlythe exaggerated emphasis on economic success inherent in American culture which has created a quotcheating orientation that permeates structural institutions including academia American Dream 0 Economic institutions undermine social controls 0 Emphasizes winning over how we play the game 4 Cultural Values Achievement Fetishism of money Individualism Universalism 0000 o Anomie I Lacking in rulesnormlessness o Cartographic Criminology o Cartographers are scholars who employ maps and other geographic information in their research and those who employ these methods to study crime are called cartographic criminologists o The cartographic school would reemerge in Chicago in the early 20 h century as human ecology o Socialdisorganization o The central concept of Chicago school of ecology It refers to the breakdown or serious dilution of the power of informal community rules to regulate conduct in poor neighborhoods 0 Elements of neighborhood I Little or no community feeling I Transitory Relationships I Low levels of community surveillance weak informal control I Ineffective social organizations 0 Prefrontal cortex 0 What link does that have to antisocial behavior 0 Deterrence o The prevention of criminal acts by the use or threat of punishment specific or general 0 According to impurical evidence What is shown about severity I Deterrence declines wexperience I Certainty rather than severity I Informal rather than formal 0 Relationship between low IQ and crime 0 Lower the IQ the more susceptible to crime 0 Parsimony vs scope 0 Scope I Range of phenomena which it proposes to explain 0 Parsimony I Conciseness and abstractness of a set of concepts and propositions 0 Importance of critically evaluating theories to see if they offer a sound explanation of crime or criminal justice 0 Judging by scientific criteria 0 Logical Consistency I Clearly defined concepts I Propositions are logically stated and internally consistent o Testability I Must be testable by objective repeatable evidence I A theory may be untestable for a number of reasons o Tautological Propositions are too open ended Concepts are not measureable by observable and reportable events 0 Empirical Validity Accuracy I Most important criteria Simply means theory has been supported by research evidence Difference between causation and correlation Criminological theory uses the probabilistic concept of causation o The presence of X renders the occurrence of Y more probably Soft determinism o Recognizes that carious factors influence and limit actions but leaves room for individual choices which cannot be totally predicted o Usefulness and Policy Implications Usefulness in providing guidelines for effective social and CJUS policy Judging the utility and effectiveness of policy through empirical tests 0 Ellis and the RK theory 0 Arousal Theory Theory of crime based on the idea that in identical environment situations some people are underaroused and other people are overaroused and both levels are psychologically uncomfortable 0 Where are criminals more likely to be found in relation to RK Theories on Reproductive Drive of the Selfish Gene 0 rK theory 0 Evolutionary continuum from r to K o r criminals o Biosocialcriminologists o What do they prefer nature via nurture nature Intervention tech for psychological perspectives 0 CJ practice Psychoanalytical 0 Root causes 0 Control parental deprivations Ecological o Manipulate environment Behavioral o Reward and punishment 0 Discipline Cognitive o Replacing destructive thoughts with constructive ones Psychoanalysis therapy counseling drug treatment o How are neoclassical perspectives different than classical perspectives 0 Classical Perspective 0 Beccaria amp Bentham I Administer justice rationally I 17 h century Enlightenments Scholars I Human rights and freedoms I Radical yet conservative o Neoclassical Revisions I French code of 1791 revised in 1819 for discretion I Humans are rational calculating hedonistic I 1960s rehabilitative movement criticized for being ineffective 0 Classical Criminology 0 Did not begin as a way to describe criminal behavior 0 Beccaria and bentham how system should function Should n t be arbitrary Sovereignty 0 An effective deterent has what 3 elementscassica o severity certainty and celerity o Positivism 0 An extension of the scientific methodfrom which more positive knowledge can be obtainedto social life 0 Criminal Behavior as Caused of Determined Positivism I Behavior caused by factors beyond an individual s control pre determined I Thinking and reasoning rationalization and justification for predetermined courses of action I Explanation for why classical theories had failed Criminologists seek to identify the causes of criminal behavior biological psychological sociological o Demonology 0 Biggest critique of o How demonology views humans I 2 ways to become criminal 0 Possession o Temptation which recognized some kind of fault o Policies according to biological perspectives 0 Know diff between behavioral inhibition and behavioral activating and the neural transmitters associated with them 0 Who were the major classical criminologists o Beccaria and Bentham o Hedonistic calculus I Painpleasure 0 Def of paradigm o A school of thought within a discipline o It provides a model for choosing the problems to be analyzed the methods to analyze them and the theoretical framework for explaining them o Competing paradigms within criminology Def of theory 0 A set of logically interconnected propositions explaining how phenomena are related and from which a number of hypotheses can be derived and tested Demonology o What made you not as susceptible I Faith Evolutionary psychology 0 attempts to explain psychological traits such as memory perception or language as adaptations that is as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection 0 Human behavior is rooted in evolutionary history Natural selection has favored victimizing tendencies in humans Cheating theories Techniques of crime control under demonology Techniques of Crime Control 0 Witchcraft trials I Strangulation prior to burning at stake o Exorcism or Death 0 Less severe techniques I Pursuit of spiritual guidance I Sacrifice I Enforced pilgrimages o Penitentiary 0 Current Pastoral Counseling 0 Diff between correlation and causation o correlation often measured as a correlation coefficient p indicates the strength and direction of a relationship between two random variables 0 Causation The belief that events occur in predictable ways and that one event leads to another 0 correlation between two variables does not automatically imply that one causes the other though it does not remove the fact that correlation can still be a hint whether powerful or otherwise 0 Panopticon o Bentham s prison design 0 Readings o Methamphetamine o Durkehim o Phelsom and cohen I 3 things must be present for crime to occur 0 Motivated offender 0 Lack of capable guardian 0 Availability of o Vien and beech I Cortex disfunction 0 Ellis I Evolutionary neuro androgenic theory 0 What does say about male evolutionary 0 Diff between macro and micro level theories 0 Why are social and legal norms violated I Why are there variations in group rates of crime and deviance 0 Macro Structural Explanations I Why are some individuals more likely than others to commit criminal and deviant acts 0 Micro Processual Explanations o The micro theory looks at subject as it pertains to individuals or small groups while the macro theory does so as it pertains to society as a whole 0 4 legal basies for insanity according to courts insanity offense 0 o Agnew and categories of school strain 0 4 categories I Negative peer relations I Negative teacher relations I Poor grades I Schooldissatisfactions o Readings 0 Gary becker I Economic approach 0 Strain in general 0 What kind of policies do we see I Strain and CJ Policy 0 Do not over promote economic goals 0 Reduce sources of strain 0 Dugdale criminal anthropologist o What did he do I Family Type Theories 0 Thought that certain families could be mentally degenerate and quotsocially bankrupt 0 Richard Dugdale 1841 1883 o Beginnings of criminal anthropology o The Jukes A study in Crime Paupersim and Heredity 1877 o The burden of crime is I Found in illegitimate family lines I Eldest child has criminal tendency I Males more likely than females to offend o Shaw s program 0 Shaw s Chicago Area Project 1932 I Organized recreational activities I Reduced physical deterioration I Helped those in trouble with C system I Curbside counseling o 4 cultural values described by messner and rosenfeld IAT o 4 Cultural Values I Achievement I Fetishism of money I Individualism I Universalism O 0 Reading 0 De Haan and Voss I Street robbery o D alessio and stoltzenburg o Lombrosso o What did he do I Adevism hereditaryThrowbacks o The Born Criminal I Lombrosso 1835 1909 o The Criminal Man 1876 0 Theory of Atavism derived from ancestor characteristics and features 0 Criminals were hereditary throwbacks to less developed evolutionary forms 0 Could be identified through stigmata 518 atavism o 4 main classes of criminals 0 Born criminal atavistic o Criminals by passion 0 Insane criminal o Occasional criminal I Criminaloid weak I Epileptoid epilepsy I Habitual criminal career I Pseudo criminal by accident I Lombrosso eventually recognized socio environmental factors 0 Sheldon s body types 0 Ectomorphs Conan O Brien 0 Endomorphs Jack Black 0 Mesomorphs Arnold S I Recent Applications Testosterone and Aggression o Beccaria o What did he suggest for the systemhow did he think it should look I Humans are free equal and rational I Social contractindividual sovereignty I Law making by elected legislatures I Crime as offense against society Presumption of innocence Procedural need 0 Restraint over arbitrary power 0 Protection of accused o Minimize discretion I Adversarial trial I Jury of peers I Punishment proportionate certain and swift Reading 0 Sanchezjankowski Chicago School of Ecology o What is it I the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork What led to socially disorganized cities 0 Continuous redistribution of neighborhood populations 0 Major social changes I Immigration 157an day Frames of reference 0 Know differences 4 sources of strain within GST o 4 Sources of Strain I Failure to achieve goals not getting in to college I Removal of valued stimuli kicked off the teamdeath I Presentation of negative stimuli subject to bullying I Failure of achievement to meet expectations Reading 0 veenstra I Study of dutch children 0 Osgood ad Chaimbers I Social disorg in rual v urban areas Durkheim 0 Diff between mechanical and organic solidarity I Mechanical existing in a small isolated prestate societies in which indiciduals sharing common experiences and circumstances share common values and strong emotional ties to the collectivity I Organic characteristic of modern societies in which there is a high degree of occupational specialization and a weak normative concensus Reading 0 Steffensmeyer I Gender gap 0 Bufkin an luttrell o Piaget and kholberg First section of book talks about laws and how they stay the same or change 0 What does the book say about law Anthony Walsh is associated with what 0 Author of book Reading 0 Goddard I Feable mindedness o Sherman I Experimentation v analytic work 0 Bentham Durkeim 0 Social ecology I Term used to describe the interrelations of human beings and the communities in which they live in Diff between mala in se and mala prohibita o Mala in se Universally condemned crimes that are llinherently bad 0 Mala prohibita Crimes that are bad simply because they are prohibited


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