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Project III Digital System Design

by: Frederik Hoeger DDS

Project III Digital System Design EENG 2910

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Electrical Engineering > EENG 2910 > Project III Digital System Design
Frederik Hoeger DDS
GPA 3.92


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Class Notes
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This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by Frederik Hoeger DDS on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EENG 2910 at University of North Texas taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/229226/eeng-2910-university-of-north-texas in Electrical Engineering at University of North Texas.

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Date Created: 10/25/15
Audio Equalizer Circuit By Taylor Willams Austin Youngblood Jacob Polakoff The consumer needs a circuit for his audio mixing that is designed to o Splita musical input into different frequencies He will use the circuit which will sample an entire song and capture specific ranges for him to create sound mixes I 39II Iv lvl I39ll 39rvvlllvvl l39l IV gtlnpul from audio gtDevlce that requiresa device to break stereo input since it is frequency of signal avery common signal into 3 parts gtDevlce will also need Treble looulpulstereolo IMld external device in test Bass case speakers I 39II Iv lvl I39ll 39rvvlllvvl lvl IV Frequency of Human Hearing I it is found to be 20Hz20kHz Mostly from t 8kHz and up are noises which aren t on pleasant So we designed the circuit around human hearing Sound pressure variations himoephouol la a I 391 Pressure 39VIUI I 39rvvlllvvl l39l IV gtParts of the Circuit 0pAmp r tow pass filter Mid pass filter High pass filter Note The cutoff frequencyfor our filters is that frequency at which the output load voltage equals 707 of the input source voltage Above or below the cutoff frequency the output vo tage is lower or higher than 707 of the input and vice versa gependwg on the type of filter The equation we use is show e 39VIUI I 39rvvlllvvl l39l I gt Equation used I Freq 12piRC I Frequency1piRC Frequency piRC 2 n39 n 2 1 I 1 i2Frequency RC I 1 i2FrequencyR C I Assuming Ris value 10k Ohm now we can pick frequencies and get Capacitances gt Calculations v wquencies 30qu I 25kHz I 3kHZ gtThe 741 Opamp is used for all of the filters in this project Mt isaver commonl used amp for its price reliability and gain 5 Supply iioltage i fnthZ IM39UA 2 iIohm ZquotI ohm Slew RateI 1iuSec l 10 mg m mi 105 105 m 1 m we we we ll15 mu 10 Hertz Hi 1 Hmz Fiijz L3 39I I I 39Iv39 I II 39 The filter contains RC Allow frequencies less components going to than 300Hz to pass an opamp and excludes others mil Orcad Capture Lite Edilion lt SCHHVIATICI PAGEI 39 Place Maura 135 ch Accessnries Opium Winan Help le Edit View l lh i Sean v gag kglunivgfgg SCHEMAIIE1hhh 39 J E a i WWW Vl lllhllwlwtll 1 I gt The filter res onded I r0 erl b I I Constraints dropping off at 300Hz as shown below gt RR2 1k D RR1 20k gt 0pamp uA741 gt CC1 02uf gt RR3 10k gt VV2 12Vdc b VV1 AL 1vac The filter contains both Allows frequencies high pass and low pass between Properties 300Hz 25kHz lorcad Capture Lite Edition I SCHEMATICI FAGE1 a le Edit mew Place Macro FSpice Amries Op ons Window Help a 5151 g 9e1ig 91mm Igemlgl m Ileslslstslnutteslslstst V D I D I a i 2 R1 N 20k l lu0 lt xv v 1 I v Menus selected Scale167 xsso Y120 35121 IE Praanla unz 7410pAmpTutnrial Mi Omad Capture me E 391 un ed Paint oCo I RR3 I VV2 I RR6 I RRl nstraints RR7 40k 10k 12 10k 20k gtThe constraints led us to the figure below which is correct since it starts at mm and drops at 25khz I Opampl uA741 I RR8 I VV3 I VV1 10k 12Vdc AC 1Vac I OpampZ uA741 I RR4 I CC2 I RR5 I CC1 20k 500ut 10k 01ui quot3 The filter contains RC Filter allows values components wired greater than 3kHz to opposite from the low pass through pass filter 3550er Capture Lite Edition I scuEMATlCl PAGEln File Edit View Place Macro PSpice Accessories Options window Hdp ali l l l asg glen j galgr s Mali quot 5 SCHEMAnmm 39I 9b I lgt EM 9IQIEI I w hll A I v 4 gt Ready 5aiezaz x47n Y23u start BE TDDAYT I E 741 Op Amp Tutnrial ML mead Capture Lima w un ed gtPaint I SCHEVIATICI FFFPSDK I ltlt g 445 AM I II VI I vvlvvuvv pConstraintgg gtThe constraints led us to the RR2 1k figure below which is correct gtRR1 17k since it starts at 3khz gt 0pamp uA741 gt CC1 002uf gt RR3 10k gt VV2 12Vdc b VV1 AC 1Vac 39VIUI I 39rvvlllvvl lvl IV gtTo Recap gt50 Therefore Low pass filter allows low range signals mid pass filter allows mid range signals High pass iilierallows high range signals II39VVII39 VI V39IIIIIII39I I39II V J M mm W 101mmMHZ lomzmmm W2 30K320 JzW 51WWmmmzm EW icg Basically we created an Equalizer which takes an input and puts out eithera Bass treble or Mid signal By Connecting the filters together in Pspice we could hear the entire song Realizing this we decided to connect the schematic drawing or the Final Schematic mad Capture Lite Ediljon smmmc1mc 1 E le Edit View Flat Macro PSpioa Amassories Op ons Mndow Help I I Io IAIHJllslr39lv 7 E gala lglw IgtIKJIOIEIIlt I39 Iflg C4 R13 50M 1k I f laitems waded 15ale129 X560 Y390 jstart Tonm IgmmpmmmnaIMi odCapmreuteE Hun edPa m IIIIrI39III39I I39Vl lvl I gtlmplemeni Pspice Final from previous slide into a circuit on a bread board gtCreaie individual filters to be connected to 18 male ack for in at and 1 8 iemale ack for Output gtSysiem 10 Ilnpui ipod IOuipui Speakers IIIIrI39III39I I39Vl lvl I gtin rr a imrlmnPri n r w ordered the parts with our TA oihen when the parts came in we only had difficulties with some odd value components such as 17k40k resistor and even 500uF capacitor gtThis made us realize we can just parallel or series capacitors or resistors to achieve desired values as shown in the next slide IIIIrI39III39I I VI39IVI I Resislors j Capacitors I Parallel I Parallel IIIIrI39III39I I39Vl lvl I We decided to create ram then join them together at the end she low and high pass filters took less time than th ban a 0 build since they had less components gtAfter connecting all the filters up we connected the wires IIIIrI39III39I I39Vl lvl I s We then modify the circuit by replacing the 1k resistor on the output with 18 female jacks s We also replace the Vac with a 18 male jack Hurr rlrulrl ru lcl39rvI r I Lrlmu rror r lllhu ll ml ll lumqu rlllh Lapp upprampprpmw r IIIIrI39III39I I39Vl lvl I gt ow Pass il er 3mm mm Hmmmull nmmmmmwammm vm WMMN FVHI w huh M5 me 3 mm b mm awnm4 mkwmm mm m 51th IIIIrI39III39I I VI39IVI I Mid Pass Filter daemonrhrrtmmmur mammmmh mw 1 MW 7 Mouton1L W rumM Note there would be more red arrows but it would block the picture IIIIrI39III39I I VI IVII Hi Pass Fi ter rmrm in m m M m Pan Am am m M il liil I mm mm mm M MW 7 Nibwhirl mumquot nu rumm lemmam IIIIrI39III39I I39Vl lvl I gtThe 18 jacks connects to the film gtThen we connect an tpod to the input and a speaker to the output gtThe signal went through and sounds acceptable so we then put it though tests gtCase 1 Connect to Bassjack Listen for low pitch sounds from this filter gtCase 2 Connect Mid jack Listen for regular sounds with no extremes moses ConnecttoTrehle jack Listen for more high pitch sounds 39Vrlvllllvll39 V I lulll vl I39IIIquot gtThe pmact winitely met specifications as intended by the customer since it can extract different chances a ay song gtThis will allow our customer to fully enjoy creating beats with his new circuit quotII39I l Irrllvvl lvllv I II gt Most Stereo Systems gt Live Audio Mixing gt FM Transmitters gt Power and Other Electronic Protection I39VII V39IIIU gtBiggest troubleshooting was deciding which Opamp to use along with either a variable capacitor gtAlso we tried to use bandpass filter for all of the filters but we finally figured i would 39 a 5 work better for high nd low pass filters University of North Texas EENG 2910 Circuit Design and Analysis L Using SPICE UK Traf c Light Controller Team Members Tudor Nyawasha Kodzo Agbedanu Eric Ayeh N Group Members at duty I EricAyeh from the left Tudor Nyawasha Kodzo Agbedanu Introduction 1 As our final project for the spring semester ZUOI We nave LU WOrK On a project of our choice that required us to use the tools learned in this course EENG 2910 design simple circuits containing resistors capacitors inductors and voltage sources using the PSpice software debug and test by the means of the oscilloscope and all the equipments available in the laboratory L Introduction 2 I Circuit operates red amber amp green LEDs in a specific sequence I The UK traffic signal operates differently from the one that we have in the USA or in some other countries Below is the UK traffic light sequence I Red gt redamber gt green gtamber I Sequence can be varied from 7s to 25 minutes Components I Resistors 4709 x 3 ZZkQ 100kQ 1M9 variable I Caps 01JF 1JF 10 HF I Diodes 1N4148 x 6 I LEDs red yellow green I 555 timer IC I 4017 counter IC if L J Major Components I 555 timer IC I Used in astable mode I Provides clock pulse for 4017 counter I 4017 counter IC I Has 10 out uts 0 to 9 I Each output becomes high in turn as the clock pulses are received l I 1M9 variable resistor I Determines duration of complete sequence Purposes of main devices1 I Use of a 555 timer circuit to produce quotclockquot pulses astable multivibrator I Use of a 4017 decade counter circuit to produce a sequence of pulses coming from the 555 and for frequency division I Diodes used in the I ur ose of ashing sequences L Purposes of main devices2 I IC outputs must not be directly connected together I diodes can be used to combine two or more digital outputs I Useful wa of reducing sim le logic functions without using logic gates I we used 5 diodes to combine 5 outputs so that LED is ON for 5 clock cycles Components I Four our project the main components that we needed were fortunately available in the library of the software PSpice used As a matter of fact I 555 available in the ANLMISC library I 4017 IC is obtained b ust t in the part name in the part search 7 panel available b clicking on the L place partquot button 555 circuit in PSpice Comparators RS thrFlup 11 1 S 13 XDMFI 1 man 1 14 K 3 15 123 R i x xcmpz 1 mm 3 555 Component I For our project design we did not have to build the 555 timer astable oscillator as presented in the previous slide We just have to set the 555 in the circuit and make sure that it providing us at it output a square wave that will represent the clock going as an input into the 4017 IC u 0 ud ud L Z L 1 1 t m a w 2 31m 0 SWSH a 555B 0 Output 555 Astable Configuration 555 Output in PSpice 39I J WW 1 TV 555 Astable Parameters I Frequency of output f 14 C1R1 2R2 Choosing R1 R2 amp C1 uChoose C1 to suit the freq range IChoose R2 to 9 we eq required ie R2 07f gtlt C1 ILHUUSC K1 0 De dDOUE a lJU OT R2 1k min if L 555 Operation I C1 is charged by the current flowing through R1 and R2 I When Vc reaches 23 of Vs threshold voltage the output of the 555 becomes low I Capacitor discharges thru R2 I When Vc reaches 13 of Vs trigger voltage the output becomes high I This CYLII repeats continuously u 555 Output output Va 55 pin 3 0V capacitor Vs 0V mark time Tm space time T5 mark time Tm time period T Tm Ts charging discharging cha Testing 555 amp capacitors I To make sure that in the designing of our circuit everything is working right we have applied the divide and conquerquot method and test the circuit at each level I To process to the simulation we have used tools as the oscilloscope to test the output of the 555 and the 7 capacitors 39 Testing 555 amp capacitors I Results Sing the quotv 739 Testing 555 amp capacitors I The outputs from the capacitors and the 555 timer oscillator as shown in the figure obtained from the oscilloscope are as expected We can therefore conclude that one part of our design is working properly 4017 Decade counter The 4017 Decade counter lof lO is an useful electrical device It counts as the c ock coming from the 555 timer output becomes high on the rising ed e Each output from Q0Q9 goes high in turn as counting a vances For some functions such as flash sequences as in our project outputs may be combined using diodes The reset input should be low 0V for normal Operatlon counting 0939When high it resets the count to zero Q0 becomes therefore high Counting to less than 9 is achieved by connecting the relevant output Q0Q9 to reset for example to count 0123 connect Q4 to reset The disable input should be low 0V for normal 0 eration When high it disables counting so that the clock pu ses are ignored and the count is kept constant The 10 output is high for counts as 04 and low for 59 so that it can provide an output at 110 of the clock frequency It is nally used here to drive the clock39output from the 555 timer to count the tens 4017 Complete circuit 16 dock mput enah e 4017 decade munter reset E 3455739 3 24 710 1 sis 9I11a 4017 Decade counter I As we mentioned earlier the PSpice software contains in one of it library the device needed Our designing was therefore simplified since we did not have to redesign the complete circuit as in the figure presented in one pf the previous slides L 4017 Decade Counter I 16pin CMOS decade counter from the 4000 series I takes clock pulses from the 555 amp makes ten outputs come Onquot in sequence L L J 4017 Output Sequence Only 1 output is Hmmjym f L HIGH at a tIme 3 J1 1101 Q P is HIGH ji li F br counts jjjjj amp LOW for counts 59 fr 4017 Output vs LED 4E1 GDLH IEE39 LEC 5 m E3 339 outputs high amber green OD and 1C O1 and 1E I11 and 1C OS and 1C Cu and 12 05 CE I Q ooIog 03 r19 0 Main Circuit Diagram GND WSCHARGE THRESHOLD CONTROL RESET OUTPUT TWGGER 100k 4 CAR jYOUT 4 NJgt U39I l 1M 1uF 1 1uF i 555B 2 C2 T l L 0 L Simulation Result Simulation I The final simulations results obtained PSpice were not really as expected To represent the LEDs in PSpice we used the diodes D1N4148 We first thought that we will obtain some LEDs that will flash in our simulation but it was not the case so we place some voltage markers at the pin of each diode to check it functionality L Final circuit Building I The simulations were not really satisfying However we process to the designing of our circuit on the electrical board Once the circuit is built on the board we connected the voltage source and fortunately the circuit was working almost as expected L Final Circuit r I 1 12 2 I 3939 an 39 nu In ll 1 III In L H III39 III 4 mm l u r 3 ul 1 m Human 4 Il hiiiiiin 39 c 39K WIEI Q9 nutnu 1 Innr nu llllll o 2 i 1 3 Hill Iiiil l p 7 I Ii lii l min nunn In nit nunu nunn lfii unu III a IIIII IIIII IIII u IL rl i r 339quot 39 T71 Problems The problems were various and at each level oF the designing First we encounter some problems with the designing oF the main parts in the software and there simulations For example the LEDs Also aFter the designing 39oF the Final circuit the LEDs were taking too Iong to Flash we then Figured out that we need to play with the value oF the variable resistor till we obtained the appropriate results Conclusion1 I Appropriate outputs are combined with diodes to supply the yellow amp green LEDs I Red LED is connected to the 10 output which saves having to use 5 diodes I Circuit worked as expected if L Conclusion2 I We have learned a lot through this project course and the objectives are met Even though we still have at some point an hazy idea or struggle with the designing of some circuits we now Know and understand now circuits are built how the simulations are run and how the results are obtained u References I httpwwwkpsecfreeukcomcompo nentscmoshtm I httpwwwdoctronicscouk4017ht m L L J Questions I q 9 Questions are L guaranteed in I


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