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Historical Geology

by: Mafalda Waelchi

Historical Geology GEOL 202

Mafalda Waelchi
GPA 4.0

Emmett Evanoff

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Emmett Evanoff
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mafalda Waelchi on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 202 at University of Northern Colorado taught by Emmett Evanoff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/229228/geol-202-university-of-northern-colorado in Geology at University of Northern Colorado.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Lyell s views on Geology Sought to explain geologic change by work of natural observable processes Based on his views on Hutton s Theory Granite and basalt were from magma and lava Earth was very old Unlike Hutton Fossils were important in understanding earth history Uniformitarianism The uniformity of processes state and rates of geologic processes of time Uniformity of laws natural laws are constant in time and space Uniformity process if a past phenomenon can be explained by the result of a process now acting do not invent an unknown process Uniformity of rate gradualism pace of change is slow Uniformity of state nonprogression change is not evenly distributed evenly throughout time and space Legacy of Uniformitarinism Uniformity of laws and process are still accepted today Uniformianty of rate is now not accepted Processes can be sped up or slowed down Major events can affect the globe Uniformity of state is also not accepted Can have major differences in climate sea level tectonic activity in the past Ex Glacial ages Lyell made no interpretations about the origin of the earth Fossils always gave Lyell problems fossils show major changes through time extinctions Modern Concepts of Geology Actualism only natural laws and principles have been uniform through geologic time Intensities and kinds of natural processes have been different thro geologic time Still do not accept Extremely violent events from supernatural causes Rigidly uniform steadystate earth T quot 39r 39 quot and quot yrocks Major Depositional Environments Can be grouped in three categories Terrestrial those that occur on land and include sub aerial and freshwater environments Coastal Those that occur at the margin between the land and sea Marine those that occur in the ocean Each depositional environment has a unique kind of sediment that becomes a unique kind of rock Transgression Sequence Time 1 Transgression when a sea or lake expands its extent and the shoreline moves landward Regressive Sequence Regression when a sea or lake reduces its extent and the shoreline moves toward the center of the basin Geologic Time Methods of Age Dating of Rocks Relative Age Dating Sequential ordering of rocks and events Numeric Age Dating The assigning of a unit of time for the age of an object or event Older and Younger Older rocks or events those which occurred earlier in time Younger rocks or events those which occurred later in time Principles of Relative Age Dating 1 Steno s Principles Original Horizontality Sediments are deposited horizontality deposited in flat layers Original Lateral Continuity Sediments originally extended in all directions until they thin to nothing or are limited by the margin of the depositional basin Superposition the oldest rocks are on the bottom the youngest are on top Recumbent Fold a fold with a horizontal axis Principles of Relative Age Dating 2 Hutton s Principles Crosscutting Relations any rock body cut by a fault or another rock body is older than the fault or crosscutting rock body Included Fragments any fragment of rock in another rock body must be older than the rock body 12511 Unconformities Any contact between two rock bodies that represents a major break in time Major break in time is more than 1 million years Includes Nonconformity coarse crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks cut by erosion and buried by sediments Disconformities A major gap in time between two parallel sedimentary rock units Angular Unconformity contact between a tilted and eroded sedimentary rock sequence covered by flat sedimentary rock units Faunal Succession Fossils plants and animals succeed each other in a definite and determinable order Life has undergone through irreversible change through time Any group of fossils is unique to a particular time Any period of time can be recognized by its fossils 12711 Geologic Time 2 Numeric Age Dating Assigning an age in years to a rock or geologic event Ga Billions of years ago Ma Millions Ka Thousands Subatomic Particles Protons large positive charged particles Electrons very small negatively charged Neutrons large neutral charge Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus ofan atom and make up almost all of its mass Radioactivity spontaneous decay of certain elements into another Elements are defined by the number of protons but isotopes of the element have varying numbers of neutrons Carbon 14 is radioactive Radiosotopes radioactive unstable isotopes Uranium changes into Lead many steps Carbon 14 changes into Nitrogen 14 Potassium 40 changes into Calcium 40 Argon Rubidium 87 changes into Strontium 87 Former parent material Latter daughter material Half life of radioisotopes Amount of time of the radioactive atoms change into a daughter product Half of the radioisotopes break down into 1 half life Half of the remaining radioisotopes break down in the second half life Half of the remaining radioisotopes break down in the third half life ect 1 12 14 18 116 The graph would be decreasing exponentially Radioactive Parent Stable Daughter HalfLife Uranium238 Lead206 45 billion years Uranium235 Lead207 713 Ma years Thorium232 Lead208 141 Ga years Rubidium87 Strontium87 47 Ga years Potassium40 Argon40 13 Billion years Materials that can be dated Igneous rocks can be readily dated indicating time of crystallization of the magma or lava Metamorphic rocks can be readily dated indicating time of last metamorphic event Sedimentary Rocks generally are hard to date exception volcanic ashes tuffs All dated by primary radioisotopes Uranium Potassium 40 Rubidium 87 2111 Thursday the 10th FIRST EXAM Memorize time scale Carbon 14 Dating C14 is formed in the upper atmosphere where atoms of Nitrogen are hit by neutrons generated by cosmic rays C14 combines with oxygen to form C02 C02 with the C14 isotopes are taken up by plants during photosynthesis Animals eat the plant material to take in the C14 Amount of C14 constant while the animal or plant is alive Once the plant or animal dies then no more C14 enters the organism Radiometric clock starts With halflife of 5730 years can date only back to 70000 years maximum Geomagnetism The interaction between the solid inner core and the liquid outer core acts like a dynamo that produces the Earth s magnetic field The magnetic field has a pole that is about 10 degrees off of the geographic pole around which the earth spins Results in Magnetic Declination Angle between the true geographic pole and the magnetic pole at any point on the Earth s surface Magnetic Inclination Angle of dip that a magnetized needle will orient across the Earth s surface Paleomagnetism Tiny magnetic minerals typically Magnetite Fe304 in rocks are orientated to the Earth s magnetic field at the time of lithification or crystallization Basalts abundant iron lock in when crystallizes Clastic Sediments tiny magnetite grains orient then are locked in at lithification Inclination of these grains reflects where the rocks were relative to the Earth s equator Horizontal inclination Near equator North Arrow dips down Northern Hemisphere North Arrow inclined up Southern Hemisphere Geomagnetic Reversals The dynamic relation between the inner and outer core produces alternating strong and weak magnetic fields over long periods of time and can switch their directions with the current north magnetic pole shifting to the southern hemisphere These are called magnetic reversals 2311 Continental drift and Plate Tectonics Continental Drift Theory that the continents have moved laterally over the Earth s surface Plate Tectonics Model by which the Earth s lithosphere is divided up into large plates that move across the Earth s surface New crust is derived from spreading zones Old crust is recycled back into the Earth at convergence zone Divergent Boundaries Where p zte Sprezdmg Doom and hey Dcezmc crust ts added tn the p zte The urgest mudhtzth hdgetsthe mtdmezh hdges Mtd Dcezmc hdges are cut by 2 graben where the mates spht czHed 2 htt graben PrEdsIan Graphic Rtttthg m Cuntments As Hftsfurm wtthth cumnems ahdtuhh uceznsthequuwmg uncurs 1The curttheht tsbuwed upwardfrum upwe hng m2 m2 mhetwu stdessepzrate furrmng the H vzHey Surruunded by htgh dztezds The nvazHey deepens and extends ehgthwtse eyertdzuy Cunnectmg tn the sea Cumergem Buundz es Wheretwu ptztesmuythg m uppustte dhectmhsmeet head uh subducter zunerunehthusphere dateshdesuhder anathermzte tn 2 hneufvu cznues czHed vu cznmzrcs cuhtthehtztmezhm Cunvergence oaeamooaeamc Cnnvergence Dsnnkuclnnlcconvnrsanco 2811 Hut sputs Earth ssurfzcetmzrgezm ts May mur atuhg the Sprezdmg Hdges but nah mur m the rhtddte ptates Fezturesufme szzu hut sth Actwe basattm vutcahtsrh wtth shauuw earthquakes W the bg tstahd uf szzu tstahd CHEW uf durrhahtvutcahues These tstahds Snk mu the ucezn asthey rhuve art the butge farmed by the hut spur Fezturesufthe VeHuwstuhe Curtthertat crust S a p urhe Mahc rhagrha at base uf crust rhettsthe uvertythg grammc crust 1 cumesRHuhtmngmzznd exptuswevutc msm Hutsput buwed up bythensmg rhagrh t t at Nurth Ame czn ptate has muved uverthe hut spat otder catderastu the sw 21511 Dtrrereht kmdsuf str Stratumszny sthgtetayerur sedtrheht ursedtmentzw ruckPurz strata ta nzrz y straturhthat Slt 1cmthtck Bedrzny stratumthat tsgt 1cm thmk betuw t and t tsthtck ehuughtu be 225W mapped Sedtmentzry structures ahy reature wtthm a sedtmentzry ruck prunesses du ng hthtftcztmn Asymmetric ripple marksflow in one direction formed from a current Modern mudcracksi indicate alternatingwet and dry conditions Secondary Sedimentary Structures Nodules m 7 r 7 ContactsrThe surface between two rock layers Sharp Contact a very abrupt contact between 2 rock layers l39 g y Gradational Contact a gradual change from one rock type into another Origin ofthe Earth and Early Earth History Origin ofthe Earth 1 In the beginningthere was a very large star Size ofthis star was between 10x to 50x the size of the sun A red giant ora redsuper giantr like Betelguese inthe constellation Orion This huge star quotburnedquot Hydrogen and then Helium by nuclear fusion H to He to Carbon thermonuclear energy Expansion by thermonuclear energy compaction by gravity Origin of Earth 2 Eventually the star started to collapse as H and He fuel became low Thermonuclear Energy lt Gravity Star fused atoms into heavier and heavier elements H He C O Si Fe Origin of these elements that later were in the earth and in our bodies Origin of the Earth 3 Supernova Star collapsed even more so that even Fe started to fuse into heavier elements Thermonuclear Energy gtgtgt Gravity Star blows itself apart as a Supernova Event A huge amount of gas is blown out to space Composition of this gas H 75 He 23 and remaining 2 is all the other elements Origin of the Earth 4 The gas expands into space where it is dispersed and becomes very cold Density very low 10 atomscubic cm air has 3 billion atomscubic cm Temperature very low lt 173 degrees C or only 100 degrees C above absolute 0 At this temp the atoms move very slow and clump Origin of the Earth 5 Dust clumps together even more from gravitational attraction and becomes a dust cloud or a dark nebula Enough dust to start blocking light Because of gravitational attraction from nearby stars and shock waves from exploding stars the nebula has internal motion typically a spinning motion Origin of the Earth 6 Dark nebula contracts from gravitational attraction of dust Density becomes greater and greater as more particles are attracted and come closer Spinning dust cloud becomes wheellike with most dust in the center the hubquot and smaller outer disk Central hub becomes hotter as it contracts Materials in the dust start to clump Origin 7 Contraction of the central hub continues until the temperatures reach about 10 million C Start to have fusion of H into He Origin of the Sun and soon becomes stable Thermonuclear Energy Gravity Planets start to form from the clumping of planetismals in the disk 21711 Origin 8 Near the Sun radiation and particles solar wind blow away lighter materials Inner planets become metallic and rocky Mercury is mostly iron Venus Earth and Mars are mostly Silicon Oxygen Magnesium and Iron Outer planets become huge and gaseous with methane and ammonia Nebular Theory for the origin of the Solar System Origin of the Compositional Layers of the Earth Earth materials were once homogeneous light and heavy materials were mixed Earth heated by Meteorite impacts Friction from gravitational compression Heat from abundant radioactive materials Earth materials became partially melted Heavier Fe Ni S sank to the center core Lighter Si Mg Al and 0 compounds rose to the surface Process is called density stratification Age of the Earth 455 Billion Years Ago Ga Based on Age of meteorites ancient planetismals Ratio of Lead Isotopes Meteorites Extraterrestrial object that falls onto the Earth s surface Meteors Extraterrestrial objects that burn up in the Earth s atmosphere Most meteors are small sand to small gravelsized meteorites are large enough not to completely burn up in the atmosphere Derived mostly from the Asteroid Belt a zone between Mars and Jupiter that represents a stony planet that was kept apart by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Jupiter Formed at the same time as planets 455 Ga Age of Earth Lead Isotopes Pb204 Primordial U2389 Pb206 U2359 Pb207 Lead Ratios on Earth 204206207 10 185 156 Lead Ratios in Meteorites 10 93 103 Events of the Hadean Age of Earth 455 Ga Oldest rocks about 40 Ga What happened between 455 and 4 Ga Hadean Evidence from the Moon Moon has no rock cycle preserves ancient features Features of the Moon Diameter about of Earth Average density 33gcubic cm similar to Earth No plate tectonics Light areas composed of Carich Plagioclase Dark areas composed of basalt flows Origin of the Moon 44 Ga Mars sized object hits Earth at an angle The impactor s and part of Earth s mantle spewed into space Ring of debris forms around the Earth and comes together as the moon Geological Events of the Moon Moon s surface is covered by meteorite craters with ages ranging from 42 to 39 Ga Earth probably also was hit by meteorites during this time but the craters have largely been destroyed by the rock cycle Basalt flows on the moon occurred between 38 to 32 Ga Little has happened on the moon since this time Origin of the Earth s Ocean Water was derived from 2 sources 1 Within the Earth released from volcanoes as steam 2 From icy comets hitting the Earth Early bombardment of Earth by huge meteorites probably vaporized the first ocean Once impacts slowed water began to accumulate Oldest rocks Acasta Gneiss are metamorphic that s were probably originally marine sediments 398 Ga Origin of the Atmosphere Original Atmosphere was probably composed of gases similar to those released by modern volcanoes Original Atmosphere H20 water CO2 CH4 Methane H2S Hydrogen Sulfide SO2 Sulfur Dioxide N2 Nitrogen H2 Hydrogen He Helium Modern Atmosphere N2 78 O2 21 Ar 9 CO2 033 Ne 0018 He 0005 H20 variable 02 comes from Photosynthesis H2O CO2 sugar 02 K409 Ar40 Ca40 H25 and 02 removed by bacteria 22211 Hadean Crystals Grains in quartzite were originally grains in sand Zircon crystals ZrSiO4 formed in older granites very stable crystals that originally contained Uranium and Thorium Dating Zircon crystals in sediments sedimentary rocks or metamorphic rocks date the original granites As old as 44 Ga Craton the large tectonically stable core of a continent composed of thick Precambrian crystalline rocks It is made of granite and high grade metamorphic rocks Shield Large areas of exposed Precambrian rocks typically in the center of the craton Amean shield l Vllgam shield Rocksoflhe Archean 17 Granulites oarse crystalline plutonicand metamorphicrocks V V I Jonalilelgranitei with quartz and sodium plagioclase feldspar instead ofpolassium feldspar rGranodioriler graniteswith quartz Na plagioclase and Krfeldmar th 39t 39 calcium 39 of the lunar highlands Origin oflhe IgneousGranulites Separating offelsic materials directh from the mantle to form the crust he Greenstone Belts Large basins filled with metamorphosed volcanics and sediments in between granulite plutons Named from the abundant green clay chlorite Order ofthe rocks top to bottom Sedimentary rocks Quartz sandstone and Graywacke sandstones Argillites slightly metamorphic shales and mudstones Banded ron Formations Felsic Volcanics Rhyolites Mafic Volcanics pillow basalts Sedimentary Rocks Ultrama c Volcanic Ma c Volcanlcs Gmniteaneiss Granite Intrusions Origin ofthe Greenstone Belts 1 As basins between plutons that were compressed by lateral movements Require thin crust and high heat flow 2 In basins formed as huge meteorite impact craters Beginning of the Proterozoic Mountain Building events orogenies that welded the Archean microcontinents together Continental crust became thicker probably to the modern average of 35km thick Plate Tectonics as we know it today started to occur Beginning ofthe Wilson Cycle Wilson Cycle 1 Starts with the rifting ofa supercontinent to eventually result in an ocean basin 2 Thick accumulation of sediment on the trailing edge of a continent Passive Margin the trailing edge ofa continent 3 The passive margin became an active margin as the older sediment became compressed during collision with another continent or microcontinent Form another supercontinent This cycle typically takes about 600 million years to occur Accretion to North America during the Proterozoic The Wopmay represents only part of the accretion ofthe continental crust onto Laurentia The Superior Province welded with the Wyoming and Hearn Provinces by the TransHudson Orogen N 25 Ga Added more materials on the south and southeast margins Central Province including Colorado 18 to 16 Ga Grenville Province 13 to 9 Ga 3111 Precambrian Life 1 Major events in the early history of life Life and the Earth Life occurs on Earth because of the presence of liquid water Why the Earth has liquid water 1 Earth is not too small so it can hold an atmosphere 2 Earth is not too large so it has such a dense atmosphere that sunlight cannot penetrate it 3 Earth is in an optimal location from the sun so the temp allows for a liquid water Early atmosphere and the building blocks of life Early atmosphere and oceans contained 502 N2 NH3 All of these are inorganic molecules that are building blocks of life Anoxic Atmosphere no free oxygen in the atmosphere Energy Sources in the Precambrian Earth Heat from abundant radioactive materials in the Earth Electricity Lightning Ultraviolet Radiation No ozone layer on Earth because the atmosphere was anoxic Ozone 03 Mixture of basic materials C N H S P and liquid H20 and high energy produced chemical bonding of inorganic molecules into organic compounds Essential Components for life 1 1 Proteins stings of amino acids that act as building materials for life and catalysts in chemical reactions in cells 2 Organic phosphorus compounds Transform chemical fuel or light energy into compounds such as sugars that can be used for energy in a cell 3 Membrane An enclosing sack that keeps the cell s components together so the chemicals and interact Also provides a stable chemical environment that allows chemical reactions to occur Replicating Compounds Nucleic Acids Large complex molecules that can duplicate themselves replicating compounds Are chains of nucleic acids composed of phosphates sugars and nucleotide bases AdenineThymine CytoceneGuanine DNA Contains the inherited chemical code of development RNA transforms info from DNA to make proteins and other organic molecules StanreyMr39Her39sExoen39rnent x l rm mmn 39 mi ea nra than After a week of cr39rcu atr39urr amino acids Had formed r39rr the water Erecrrodes Eomrrg water Aooitr39onar Expen39rnentsr39n Produo ng Organr39e Compounds quot are fnrmart h WWW r neanng and orrurng omne water rorrn euen ronger enar39nsororganr39e moreeures sr39nrore nuereon39oe basesand sugars naue arso oeen rorrneo n the aburatury Makr39ng ceHs wr39tn heat urtraur39oretraor39an39on and0r ereetn39o39ty resurt r39n 5ugars phosphates nuereon39oe oases ao39os get a ceH Bacte 39 Tne sr39rnprest rr39ur39ng organr39srns 39 39 quot wrtrrrurtarm r M amth DNA strand within a protective sheH Cannutreph39cate on its own Fr39r5t bacteria prooaory utr39h39zed the organr39o compounds r39n their enur39ronrnent 39Lm r quot39 quot 39 nn39rnarr39r noar rrnrn r39nnroanr39r rnaten39ars suen asCOZ and water Chemosynthesis and Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis is the ability to construct sugars and other inorganic compounds using external chemical fuels such as sulfur compounds and methane as an energy source Photosynthesis is the ability to construct sugars and other organic compounds using light as an energy source Not restricted to sulfur or methane vents Source of free oxygen in the atmosphere Earliest Photosynthesis and Fermentation Earliest bacteria utilizing photosynthesis used sulfur compounds H2S C029 sugars S free sulfur Also broke down sugars using fermentation C6H1206 9 2C2H50H 2C02 energy Sugar 9 alcohol carbon dioxide ATP Autotrophs those organisms that utilize chemical or light energy to store energy in organic compounds Heterotrophs Cant s make organic compounds so they consume organic material in order to live Life and the Anoxic World Note that the Photosynthesis utilizing sulfur compounds and fermentation does not utilize oxygen Free oxygen was poisonous to the first bacteria anaerobic bacteria However sulfur or methane sources are relatively rare on earth H20 and C02 are much more abundant on Earth so photosynthesis processes using these materials have much more resources Removal of Oxygen in the Precambrian 0xygen combined with a wide variety of materials dissolved in the oceans during the Precambrian C0 CH4 NH3 reduced Fe and Si Removed 0 from the environment by forming nonpoisonous materials C02 and H20 or precipitated out as sediment Fe203 and Si02 This resulted in the deposition of the Banded ron Formations 0xygen crisis At about 18 Ga the materials that the free oxygen combined with in the oceans became depleted 0xygen started to build up in the Oceans and atmosphere Anaerobic bacteria had to adjust to the increased oxygen levels in the environment Many bacteria develop aerobic respiration Sugars 02 9 ENERGY C02 H20 18X s more energy is derived from aerobic respiration than from fermentation Advantages to an 0xygenated World Utilizing 02in respiration quotrecyclesquot a poisonous waste product As 02 builds up in the world an ozone layer develops in the upper atmosphere This allowed organisms to come onto land Allowed for advanced Eukaryotic cells to form 3311 Origin of Eukaryotes Endosymbiosis Larger bacterial cells engulf smaller bacteria that can respire or are photosynthetic these smaller bacteria continue to live in the cell producing sugars or having aerobic respiration eventually becoming organelles The genetic materials of the larger bacterial cell become surrounded by a membrane to form the nucleus Eukaryotic Cell Has a nucleus and organelles Development of Metazoans Metazoans Multicellular organisms Most simple are the multicellular algae including kelp First multicellular animals were all soft bodied no hard skeletons Found in rocks of youngest Proterozoic All small most less than 2 feet in length Development of Shells and Skeletons Shells provide several advantages to animals 1 Protection from predators 2 Support for muscles and can grow to large sizes 3 Keep the animal above the watersediment surface Internal skeletons provide support for muscles and allow for growth into large sizes Summary of the Events of Precambrian Life 1 Inorganic compounds H20 CH4 NH3 H2 2 Simple organic compounds 3 Complex organic compounds 4 Replicating organic compounds 5 Stable organic environment that surrounds the replicating compounds the cell 6 Photosynthesis and fermentation 7 Aerobic respiration 8 Endosymbiosis to Eukaryotic cells 9 Multiple specialized cells Metazoans 10 Shells and skeletons that are very large in size 1 Nickel and Chrome come from the Precambrian era 2 Uranium Half of the world s supply is in Precambrian rocks 3 Gold Witwatersrand in South Africa V2 the world s gold 4 Banded ron Ores almost all Proterozoic era NEXT TEST WILL BE ON THE PRECAMBRIAN Continents and Sea Levels through the Paleozoic Laurentia North America Missing Florida and parts of the west No mountain building at all Baltica Northern Europe Gondwana Super continent Africa South America India Australia Antarctica and Arabia Panthalassic Ocean Landforms Cambrian apetus OceanSea 510 Ma Middle Ordovician Ice on the bottom ofGondwana 470 Ma Late Ordovician Taconic Orogeny mountain building on Laurentia Silurian Laurussia Laurentia and Baltica combine Siberia Rheic Ocean Gondwana 430 Ma Late Devonian Laurussia Siberia Acadian Orogeny Microcontinents colliding with Laurussia Gondwana 400 Ma Mississippian Antler Orogeny mountain building on the western side of Laurussia 340 Ma Pennsylvanian Pangea Gondwana combines with all other continents Panthalassic Ocean Ancestral Rockies Alleghenian Orogeny Paleotethys Sea Ice on southern pole of Pangaea 300 Ma Orvogenies Appalachians 9 Allegheniar Pennsylvanian Acadian Devonian Taconic Ordovician 3811 Oldest evidence for life Oldest evidence C13C12 isotope ratios of black slates 38 Ga sua Series Greenland C isotope enriched with C12 similar to life Oldest Fossils Warrawoona Biota Pilbara Basin in Northwestern Australia Rare bacteria fossils in chert Bacteria spheres Cell chains similar to modern Cyanobacteria Age Middle Archean 35 billion years Archean Fossils and Conditions First numerous stromatolites Fig Tree Chert of South Africa 34 Ga Oldest stromatolite reefs Pangola Belt South Africa 30 Ga Archean conditions were anoxic no oxygen Deposition of pyrite as sediment Removal of Oxygen in the Precambrian Oxygen combined with a wide variety of materials dissolved in the oceans during the Precambrian CO CH4 NH3 reduced Fe Si and Uranium Removed 0 from the environment by forming nonpoisonous materials C02 and H20 or precipitated out as sediment FeZO3 and SiOZ UOZ FeZO3 Hematite SiOZ Microcrystalline Quartz Chert UOZ Uraninite Uranium was least abundant precipitated out in the late Archean Early Proterozoic Life became abundant stromatolites found worldwide Tm utdepusmun ufthe Banded run Furmztmns Anemung bandsuf run uxwdesand Shoe Ongm ufmustufthewur 5er Farmed musuy bmween 24 and 12 32 aw39svery rarez er 12 32 nc udesthe u destfuss smthe Cumde rsgmnr 24 32 Strumztuhtesm the Medmme Buw Muuntzms Wyurmng Strumztuhtes Arcntzrchsr rm Eukzryute russus O deslfuss retard u zrge eukaryutm ceHs17 Ga Deve upment uf Metzmzns Mammary mumcemmzr urgzmsms Must swmp e arethe mu tmeHu zr zhgze mcmmrg ke pwth u deafuss sN 162 mm mu uceHuz rammz swere 2H summed Fuund m rucksufyuungea Prutemzmc sun Mztu 541mg Hrs mu uceHu zrEmma erdwzczra Fauna Ezrhesl She C uudmz ufthe ztesl Pruteruzmc She and me am ufthethneruzmc She and ske etuns appeared war 2 me span uf su M2 years 32211 When continents are apart sea level is usually high but when continents are combined Pangaea sea level is low This is a principle of isostacy Sea floor spreading can also cause a change in sea level Fast spreading high water sea level Slow spreading Low water sea level Glaciations None high water sea level Full low water sea level Summary of Cambrian History Time of widespread marine transgression Sauk Sequence No major mountain building in Laurentia Review chapter 10 and its figures basins Orogeny in Devonian Arcadian and Caledonian east coast Antler Orogeny west coast Summary Of OrdovicianDevonain History Mountain building along the modern eastern margin of North America Taconic Orogeny Queenston Clastic Wedge Acadian Orogeny Catskill Clastic Wedge Caledonian Orogeny First mountain building in western North America Antler Orogeny Baltica combines with Laurnetia Laurussia Large intercratonic basins in the craton Michigan Basin Illinois Basin Williston Basin Mississippian orogeny Antler still occurring today Pennsylvanian Orogeny Alleghenian Ouachita and the ancestral Rockies Middle Paleozoic Life Ordovician to Devonian Origin of Stony Corals Bryozoans Crinoids Jawed fish Amphibians Land Plants Reefs made of corals and sponges Reef Skeletal mound that is resistant to waves Early Jawed Fish Devonian Sharks LobeFinned fish Early Amphibian Devonian First Forests Late Devonian Late Paleozoic Life Umelove 32911 Economic Materials Limestone used for concrete building stone flux steel making purify iron ore Quartz Sandstones Used in glass making refractory bricks Can withstand extremely high temps can use to fracture shale or limestone underground Salts Gypsum Halite Potash Salts Drywall gypsum table salt halite fertilizers potash salts Oil and Gas Places like Michigan Ohio North Dakota Saskatchewan Alberta and West Texas Usually in reef deposits Coal Age Pennsylvanian Late Paleozoic Life Trilobites eurypterids coral reefs rare Reefs byozoans algae sponges Abundant crinoids Mississippian Widespread swamps abundant corals Carboniferous Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Giant insects First reptiles Pennsylvanian Mammallike reptiles dominate Permian Late Paleozoic Coal swamps Conifers modern gymnosperms Late Paleozoic Reptiles mammal like reptiles Mass extinctions Late Ordovician Late Devonian Late Permian Late Triassic Late Cretaceous In the Permian 98 of all marine species became extinct FINAL EXAM Mesozoic Era Age of Dinosaurs Early to Mid Triassic 30 of earth covered by land Mid Triassic Pangaea at its largest Late Triassic Rifting starts 220 Ma fresh water lakes EarIyJurassic Salt Deposition as Pangaea continues to break apart 200 Ma Middle Jurassic Pangaea continues to break apart Laurasia Gondwana Late Jurassic North America Asia Tethys Sea 150 Ma No glacial ice Early Cretaceous Continues to Break Late Cretaceous South America Africa India Australia Antarctica North America Asia Western Interior Sea of North America 90 Ma Active mountain building in North America K T Boundary Chicxulub Structure asteroid hit 65 Ma 4711 final will primarily on Mesozoic and Cenozoic features of North America and Colorado and western US NOT A COMPREHENSIVE FINAL no class next Thursday get little bits and pieces of land flowing in to north America like island arcs and such added land on western side that makes up Alaska Oregon California This is all added during the Triassic era in the Connecticut valley we have some foot print fossils not a lot of bones big sill of basalt called Palisades on the Hudson River PALISADES Triassic Basins Long linear basins Nova Scotia to North Carolina Halfgrabens are normal faults on one side and rocks are tilted HolfGroben filled with river and lake deposits sedimentary rocks are interbedded with basaltic lava flows and sills Late Triassic in agereptiles and dinosaurs like those in the west Origin Cordillera Mountains include the Andes and through middle America and all the western mountains from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic era North American Passive Margin Started in the Jurassic as North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico opened up Earliest marine deposits were evaporites up to 1000 m thick these evaporites laterflowed upward as salt intrusions forming sat domes Great source of salt and oil and gas traps Eventually had 14 km of sedimentaw rocks in the region 87 miles of sedimentaw rocks Cretaceous means time ofthe chalks 0 western US has chalk black shale and sandstones 3 things going on in the cretaceous 1 No ice warm waters which expands 3 fast sea floor spreading a sevier is a thrust belt kt boundaw has iridium which is common from meteorites 41211 Early Triassic 240 Ma Red beds Sonoma Mountains Ancestral Rockies Western North America Late Triassic 220 Ma Petrified Forest NP sand mud Triassic Red beds SEE PAGE 32 Upper Triassic Chinle volcanic ash 9 contains Uranium Reptiles and dinosaurs Jelm dunesands riverbeds Lower Triassic Moenkopi ripple marks Upper Lykins tidal flats and lowland rivers Early Jurassic 200 Ma SEE PAGE 32 Dune sandstones Wingate Ss dune Kayenta Fm river Navajo Ss dune 0ne ofthe largest sand seas of all time Middle Jurassic 1St sea Foreland basin Epicontinental Sea Sundance Sea Entrada Ss coastal dunes UpperlLate Jurassic 150 Ma Morrison Fm Fluvial pertainingto a river and secondaw lakes FLUVIAL Dinosaurs Volcanic ash 9 has concentrated Uranium EarlyZLower Cretaceous 130 Ma Fluvial beaches Dakota group Chert pebbles Middle Cretaceous 90 Ma estern Interior Seaway Lasted about 100 Ma to 70 Ma Black shale chalk Ss west Petroleum and natural gas Transgressive and Regressive sequences Black shale appears black because of carbon and sandstones combination for oil and gas Cretaceous rocks have over halfthe world39s oil and gas Cretaceous means quotage of the chalks Late Cretaceous 75 Ma Western Interior Seaway CretaceousTertiam Boundam 65 Ma Modern Rocky Mountains Laramide 0rogeny Seaway gone Time of coals 41911 Mesozoic Life Over half the oil in the world comes out of the cretaceous period Increasing Heat and Pressuregt Algae organic rich mud kerogen petroleum9 natural gas Land Plants peat ignite coals bituminous coals antracite brown coal soft black coal hard black coal Mesozoic Invertebrates Appearance of planktonic calcareous algae and foraminifers chalks Bottom dwellers dominated by bivalve mollusks echinoids crabs lobsters crustaceans oysters and inoceramids in Cretaceous Ammonoids and belemnoids abundant Ammonoids are good time indicators Rudist bivalves become most important reef builders in cretaceous Rudist reefs are very important petroleum reservoirs Marine Vertebrates Modern rayfinned fish become dominate in Cretaceous marine and fresh waters Marine reptiles include Lahthyosaurs very fish like marine reptiles Plesiosaurs long neck marine reptiles Mosasaurs marine lizards related t the modern monitor lizards Most common marine reptiles of the Cretaceous Western Interior Sea Land Plants of the Mesozoic Triassic and Jurassic dominated by gymnosperms including conifers cycads gingkos groundcover ferns Cretaceous Angiosperms flowering plants became dominate plants by the end of the Cretaceous groundcover angiosperm shrubs and forbes Dinosaurs come in two groups Ornithischians with bird like pelvic structure SEE PAGE 34 Saurischians with lizard like pelvic structure birds actually came from this group SEE PAGE 34 Saurischians Allosaurus TRex Sauropods giant longneck dinosaurs Ornithischian Miasaurus Hadrosaurs duck billed dinosaurs Ankylosaurs Armored dinosaurs stegosaurus Ceratopsians Horned dinosaurs triceratops Pterosaurs flying reptiles not dinosaurs Quetzalcoatlus wing span 40 feet Archaeopteryx first bird 42111 T Boundary 65 Ma Tethys Sea lb Chicxulub Str Eocene 50 Ma Tethys Sea lin Mediterranean area Latest Eocene 35 Ma SEE PAGE 33 Chesapeake Bay crater Volcanism in North America Himalayas start to r se Antarctica and Australia still connected by shallow seas Miocene 20 Ma SEE PAGE 33 No isthmus of Panama ice in Antarctica gi e nning ofAtlantic Ocean ucture Alps Tethys Closed Circumantartic Currents Pleistocene SEE PAGE 34 is mus of Panama Glaciers 13 of the world covered Greenhouse and ice House World Green house World Ice house World No polar ice caps Large polar ice caps Weak winds and oceanic currents strong winds and strong oceanic currents little mixing of deep and shallow Strong mixture of deep and shallow marine marine waters waters sea level is hi h sea level is low deserts not common bc of the water ow amount of C01 in atmosphere vapor conditions we liyein toda high amount of C02 in atmosphere Mesozoic Economic Materials Oil and natural gas K Coal K Silver K Nevada GoldJ California Uranium TrJ Diamonds S Africa and South America K SaltJ Gulf Coast Atlantic Coast Life of the Cenozoic Mammoths at Hot Springs SD Bats 42611 Middle Eocene of SW Wyoming Uintathere Horses Tapirs Rodents Primates Lemurs and Tarsiers Alligators and Crocodiles Early Oligocene Colorado Rhinos Tapirs Peccaries Cats Rodents Bronotheres largest animal of that time Early Miocene Nebraska Bear dogs Camels Rhinos Pigs Oreodonts Bigger horses Dogs Cats Late Miocene Nebraska Horses Rhinos Camels Deer Pronghorn Cats Proboscidians Peccaries Gomphotheres ancestors to elephants and mammoths Pliocene of Idaho Great mammal exchange from the connecting of the isthmus that is Panama between North America and South America 3 Ma Sloths Otters Beginning of bears Horses Camels Deer Pronghorn Peccaries Rodents Cats Dogs Mastodons Pleistocene of Alaska Horses Moose Deer Muskoxen Bison Bighorn Sheep Dogs Lions Cheetahs Saber tooth cats Badgers Mammoths Green river Formation Earlv Eocene 50 Ma llOil shalequot actually Kerogen Algae Kerogen9 Petroleum Natural Gas Shale is laminated dolostone Sycamore fossils Warm subtropical Tropical plants Bronotheres in Colorado Late Eocene Flnri ant Fn i Red Late Enrenp ll near Pikes Peak onifers and broad leafangiosperms Warm temperate Creede Calderar Middle Oligocene 27 Ma onifers pine cones fir spruce sagebrush Cool temperate Economic Materials ofthe Cenozoic Gulf Coast Oil and Natural Gas Colorado and Utah Oil shale probablywill be used as plastics ake kerogen into petroleum you have to retort itr heat it to 400 degrees C rVou have to add energy to get energy out of it expensive rNeeds large amount ofwater rWaste rockex ands rReleases high fluorine Wyoming and Montana Coal Paleogene rocks Coal beds over 100 meters thick black soft coals rlow sulfurcoalsrwestern coalsr sub bituminous rhigh sulfur coals eastern coals 42811 Late Cretaceous 70 Ma S vierThrustBelt Early Eocene 50 Ma Laramide Orogenyr Middle and Southern Rockies Colorado Plateau Thrust Belt Green river lakes Basins afWV UT CO Colorado Mineral Belt Plutonsi shallow 6550 Ma Hydrothermal Metamorphic aAu Ag Mg 2n Pb Mu Camera awnans huge aan aws we d aan aws estem Sierra Madre aMexTCu 5 came 5 between 3550 M Rhyuh39 cbut shifted at abuut 25 Ma Co umbw39a River Basa ts 1 Tan a a Basamc Vu cam39sm 25 Ma una extens r Ma Horsk A rnoumain range bounded by normal farms 5 PAGE 52 Graben A basin bounded by normal farms 5 PAGE 52 Quaternam Events L uren de ce SheetHuds n Bay Cardmeran m Sheet Canadian Rackres an Fr a I GEOLOGICALTIMEUNE Figure 1 Figure 2 Lower Muenkopi and upper Triassic Chinie Red beds ofthe Moenkopi Aiso EariyJurassic Wingate Kayenta Navajo Figure 3 HORST AND GRABEN EOCENE 50 Ma PLEISTOCENE THE DINOSAUR PEJLVIS Sauriscbian Ornitbisrbian Aceiobulum lscliium lschium Pu bis Figure 4 Saurischain reptile like pelvis and Ornithischian bird like pelvis F39gumS V 52mde gm urg neck dmuszurs F39gul27 Hadruszurs duck mum dmuszurs Figure 9 Ceratopsians Horned dinosaurs triceratops re 10 Pterosaursflying reptiles not dinosaurs Figure 11 Quetzalcoatlus wing span 40 feet rugquot 3 SzurwschzmyTrREX Museums


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