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## Research Methods I Statistics

by: Norberto Weber

59

0

4

# Research Methods I Statistics PSY 2113

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Psychlogy > PSY 2113 > Research Methods I Statistics
Norberto Weber
OU
GPA 3.51

Karen Thurston

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COURSE
PROF.
Karen Thurston
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Norberto Weber on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Karen Thurston in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/229257/psy-2113-university-of-oklahoma in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.

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Date Created: 10/26/15
Psy 2113 Statistics Review VOCABULARY not allinclusive data facts or figures statistics numerical summary measures computed on the data mean population group the researcher is interested in sample subset of the group random sampling observations are independent descriptive stats inferential stats estimation variability sampling variability of stats distribution hypothesis testable guess research structured problem solving absolute research taking measurement describing something comparative research comparing one group to another scienti c method variable free to take on different values continuous variable discrete variable independent variable IV variable manipulated by researcher dependent variable DV variable that is measured manipulation extraneous variable EV variables that affect DV control randomization of subjects to groups controlling extraneous variables 1 Hold it constant 2 Include in study 3 Randomization 7 randomly placing subjects into levels of your design stem and leaf display t f s bar graph qualitative data X categories y frequency histogram quantitative data X intervals y frequency frequency polygon histogram line pie chart scatterplot used W2 quantitative variables central tendency typical or representative score skewness kurtosis peakedness of the distribution 1 Mesokurtic 2 Platykurtic 3 Leptokurtic summation notation 2 sample size N score X 2X 2x2 2202 Measures of Central Tendency mode most frequent score median middle score in ordered data mean average Xbar or M median position N12 least squares criterion population mean sample mean range high 7 low sample variances sample standard deviations population variance population standard deviation relative standing position of a score relative to others in a group z score quot 39 minus its mean its standard deviation normal distributions symmetric unimodal continuous bellshaped parameters linear relationship correlation degree of linear relationship between two variables r Pearson Correlation Coefficient positive relationship negative relationship r2 proportion of variability in Y explained by X rho regression prediction of one variable from another prediction equation Y bXa syX standard error of estimate partitioning variability total explained not explained errors sample space group of data points representing all possible outcomescard deck elementary event single element or point that exists in a sample space8 card event probability number of outcomestotal possible outcomes conditional probability independence multiplication and rule PAampBPAB X PB addition or rule PA or BPA PAampB mutually exclusive if A amp B don t have an elementary event in common they can t occur together joint probability marginal probability sampling with replacement sampling Without replacement population distribution sample distribution sampling distribution ZX central limit theorem as N approaches 00 3040 the sampling distribution of Xbar approaches normality unbiased hypothesis testing assumptions null hypothesis H0 tested alternative hypothesis H1 believed to be true reject H0 retain H0 signi cance level 0 05 or less directional hypothesis for ltailed tests nondirectional hypothesis for 2tailed tests onetailed test H0 u X H1 u 75 X twotailed test H0 u gt X H1 u EX critical values cut off the rejection regions rejection values values that lie Within the rejection region decision rules pvalue PSTAT If PSTAT S or reject H0 Type I error Falsely rejecting H0 Type II error Falsely retaining H0 at Type 1 errors 3 Type 2 errors 10 Correctly retaining Ho l Correctly rejecting H0 Power the probability of rejecting H0 variables that influence power 1 effect size 2 sample sizequot N 3 Control of EVs 4 Choice of a 5 Hypotheses onesample t test degrees of freedom n 1n22 t distribution one parameter gt degrees of freedom dfNil twoindependent sample t test robustness health or accuracy of a statistic When assumptions are violated AWSt test used ifnl i n2 or if n1 n2lt15 twodependent sample t test Pat least one Type I error F gmeasure of variabili between groups measure of variability within groups oneway ANOVA F distribution Levels SSE SSW MSB MSW t2 F multiple comparisons S pairwise comparisons error rate per comparison error rate familywise Tukey s HSD studentized range distribution q twoway ANOVA factors IVDVEV cells conditons main effects MSAMSW and MSBMSW interaction MS ABMSW SSA SSE SSAB SSW dea dea deB3 dfwa MSA MSB MSAB Mswa FA FBa ll ABa nonparametric ChiSquare goodness of t test 2OKEK2E K observed frequency OK expected frequency EK x2 distribution Exhaustive ChiSquare test of independence 2 categorical variables marginal frequencies These terms are intended to give you a good start at understanding the topics of each chapter This is not intended to be a list of all the things necessary for the exam

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