Elements of Psych (HONORS)
Elements of Psych (HONORS) PSY 1113
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Norberto Weber on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Clarissa Thompson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/229259/psy-1113-university-of-oklahoma in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Learning Chapter 6 Learning about Stimuli 0 Learning 0 Novel stimuli o Sensitization o Habituation o Dishabituation o Nonassociative learning Classical conditioning Neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with stimulus that elicits a re ex or other response until neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit similar response 0 Phases of PaVlov s experiment 0 Phase 1 Before conditioning 39239 Natural re ex 39239 Neutral stimulus 0 Phase II Conditioning 39239 Pairing 0 Phase 111 After Conditioning 0 IT Aquot J stimulus UCS to food before Jquot 39 39 ned re ex Page 1 Learning Chapter 6 0 IT 1quot Jresponse UCR quot quot atfood o Conditioned stimulus CS after conditioning is the bell Paired with food manV time made dog salivate iust from hearing sound 0 Jquot A response CR7salivatin in response to the bell after training Stimulus Thing Response BehaviorRe ex Unconditioned Unlearned UCS Thing automatically UCR Re ex caused by UCS causes re ex Conditioned Learned CS Thing you learn to CR Re ex caused by CS associate with re ex Page 2 Learning Chapter 6 PHASE I Mar ondilinning has nzcnrud UCS 39 I UCR puwdll quotI salivaliun Ngiit eal39sil iulusl omnung mull iesponsa miss 2 11 prams of andiliuning Ng mvl glimulus Igllnjriid gcs one in UCR Sallianon PHASE 3 Alter cundlxiuninn has muned 5 5 CR I mm salivanany Changes Over Time Extinctioniwhen the bell stimulus sto s meani food the do will know and sto salivating Reconditioning after extinction if you wait some time and the Iing bell again then the dog Will salivateinot as much as before though Spontaneous recove CS again presented Acquisition Extinction CS and UCS paired UCS wiihheld Extinction if UCS again withheld Strength of an gt Trials Trials Time delay Stimulus Generalization amp Discrimination Page 3 Learning Chapter 6 o Stimulus generalizationknow that its an energy drink and then you feel fear when you see the can Then vou might also feel fear when vou see a different can 0 Stimulus discriminationdon t feel fear when you see a bottle of orange juice Factors Affecting Learning 0 Timing 0 Forward conditioningthe bell means food is coming 0 Backward conditioning o Simultaneous conditioning n I39AI39I39A 11 o r V W after a long time 0 Signal strengthsmall bell might be hard to ling to stimulus o Attentiondog oan has so much attentionhas to focus and figure out which stimulus actually means food 0 Biopreparedness o Secondorder Jquot 39 pair a light and bell together Dog might salivate to both separately Applications of Classical Conditioning 1 o Phobiasquotdon t like quot 39 or someone or 39 like that o SVstematic 39 quot39 quot r laxed but cant feels fear at the same time Page 4 Learning Chapter 6 Predator control Detecting explosives Predictipg Alzheimer s disease Instrumental amp Operant Conditioning 0 Law of W t m minimi e our nnni hment and nntimi e our rewards o Thorndike s puzzle boxput cants in a box and watch them learn to escape Instrumental conditionipgOperant conditionipg Organism learns to respond to environmentinway that produces consequences amp avoids ones 0 Skinner boxbasketball rat food reward o Operantiresponse that has some effect on world 0 Reinforcernan hjng that increases the likelihood that a behavior we be repeated POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT vinr Presentaliun of Frequency of Van put cnins into a pleasant nr hehaviotincruses avending machine p sitivn stimulus gt You ut coins in You receive a cold ve ndlng machlnes In the future NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT Behavinr Removal nf Frequency uf In the middle of an unpleasant behavinr increases a boring date gt stimulus gt You use the same you say yau have The date ends early tactic on future a bee ache boring dates 39239 Po itive 39 F quot and increase behavior Page 5 Learning Chapter 6 39239 Negative reinforcer Negative 39 r Does NOT P 39 39 removal of 39 stimuli and increase behavior 0 Escape Jquot 39 Learn how to get out of trouble 139 39 o Avoidance Avoid ever getting into trouble 0 Discriminative stimuli Forming amp Shaping Operant Behavior o Shaping successive annrn imatinn r rp nnn 9 that come 39 39 y close to desired response 0 Primarv 39 meet basic needssuch as food and such o Seconda reinforcersrewards that people or animals learn to like 0 Schedules of reinforcement O 0 i p hedulequot 393 Jevervtime 0 Partial 39 r scheduleonlv reinforced some ofthe timehow often whether it is predictable or not Page 6 Learning Chapter 6 Number of necessary Time that must first pass responses Predictable Unpredictable On the Average 39239 ixedratio FR Fixed Number 39239 Variableratio VRL Varying Number 39239 ixedinterval F1 Fixed Time 39239 Variableinterval VI Varying Time of Reinforcement amp Fv m nn of Operant Behavior 0111 0 Partial 39 quot quot effect Why Reinforcers Work 0 Premack principle 0 Response deprivation hypothesis Page 7 Learning Chapter 6 0 Biological approach Punishment PUNISH MENT 1 Presenlalian of Frequency of Vou touch a hot Iron an unpleasant behavlnr decreases stimulus You no longer touch Your hand is burned hot rons PUNISHMENT Z Penalty Behavior Removal of a Frequency of your ice cream cone 39 The Ice cream falls 39 You39re not as careless on the ground with the next one Drawbacks Merely suppresses undesirable habit Unwanted side e ec s O en ineffective Aggressionabuse When angry Punishment may lead to agggession Doesn t specify appropriate behavior OOOOOO Effective punishment 0 Specify Why punishment is being given Punishment should be irrrmediate amp noticeable O 0 Identify amp reinforce more appropriate behaviors Cognitive Processes in Learning o I earned b 1 1 ileamthat re non e do no affect t trying to control envornmentdogs and the shuttle box 0 l atent1 39 1 39 that is no at the time it occur the rats o Tolman s rats Page 8 Learning Chapter 6 39239 Group A Rewarded regularly 39239 Group B Not rewarded 39239 Group C No reward until day 11 Cognitive mapsmental ion of the environmentrats make them in the lab and in the wild Insight leaming sudden J I remembered as well first performance there is no errorsolution Observational leaming o 39 for observational learning to occur 39 Attention Retention 39 Ability to reproduce behavior 39 Motivation 0 o o o 000000 0 Bandura s Bobo doll studv vicarious conditioningmodel and kinds hitting doll 39239 TV Violence Page 9 Learning Chapter 6 Classrooms Across Cultures 0 Possible in uences 0 Us students addressed as group 0 Us students work on own 0 Feedback is usuallV delaved at least a daV for Us students 0 Learning principles used to improve situation II 1 Active l earnin g classes more interesting and going beyond memorization Skill Learning 0 SkillscompleX action seguences Practiceirepeated performance of a skill Instructions Reinforcement Imitation Feedbackcorrectness of response 00000 Page 10
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