Elements of Psych (HONORS)
Elements of Psych (HONORS) PSY 1113
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Norberto Weber on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
background stressors quotdaily hasslesquot cataclysmic events coping general adaptation syndrome GAS hardiness health psychology learned helplessness personal stressors posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD psychoneuroimmunology PNI psychophysiological disorders reactance social support stress subjective well being Type A behavior pattern Everyday annoyances such as being stuck in traffic that cause minor irritations and may have longterm ill effects if they continue or are compounded by other stressful events Strong stressors that occur suddenly affecting many people at once eg natural disasters The efforts to control reduce or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress A theory developed by Hans Selye that suggests that a person s response to a stressor consists of three stages alarm and mobilization resistance and exhaustion A personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress related illness consisting of three components commitment challenge and control Thebranchofpyhlgythat39 quot they 39 39 39 39 factors related to wellness and illness including the prevention diagnosis and treatment of medical problems A state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlledia View of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances even if they actually can exert some in uence Major life events such as the death of a family member that have immediate consequences that generally fade with time A phenomenon in which Victims of major catastrophes or strong personal stressors feel longlasting effects that may include reeXperiencing the event in Vivid ashbacks or dreams The study of the relationship among psychological factors the immune system and the brain Medical problems in uenced by an interaction of psychological emotional and physical difficulties A disagreeable emotional and cognitive reaction that results from the restriction of one39s freedom and that can be associated with medical regimens A mutual network of caring interested others A person s response to events that are threatening or challenging People39s own evaluation of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotions A cluster of behaviors involving hostility competitiveness time urgency and feeling driven Type B behavior pattern A cluster of behaviors characterized by a patient cooperative noncompetitive and nonaggressive manner abnormal behavior antisocial personality disorder anxiety disorder attention de cit hyperactivity disorder ADHD autism behavioral perspective bipolar disorder borderline personality disorder cognitive perspective compulsion conversion disorder Behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives A disorder in which individuals show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others The occurrence of anxiety without an obvious external cause affecting daily functioning A disorder marked by inattention impulsiveness a low tolerance for frustration and a great deal of inappropriate activity A severe developmental disability that impairs children s ability to communicate and relate to others The approach that suggests that observable measurable behavior should be the focus of study A disorder in which a person alternates between periods of euphoric feelings of mania and periods of depression A disorder in which individuals have difficulty developing a secure sense of who they are The approach that focuses on how people think understand and know about the world An irresistible urge to carry out some act that seems strange or unreasonable A major somatoform disorder that involves an actual physical disturbance such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or a leg Diagnostic and Statistical Manual A system devised by the American Psychiatric Association of Mental Disorders Fourth used by most professionals to diagnose and classify Edition Text Revision DSMIV abnormal behavior TR dissociative amnesia dissociative disorders A disorder in which a significant selective memory loss occurs Psychological dysfunctions characterized by the separation of critical personality facets that are normally integrated dissociative fugue dissociative identity disorder DID generalized anxiety disorder humanistic perspective hypochondriasis major depression mania medical perspective mood disorder narcissistic personality disorder obsession obsessive compulsive disorder panic disorder personality disorder phobias psychoanalytic perspective schizophrenia allowing stress avoidance through escape A form of amnesia in which the individual leaves home and sometimes assumes a new identity A disorder in which a person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities The experience of longterm persistent anxiety and worry The approach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow develop and be in control of their lives and behavior A disorder in which people have a constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health A severe form of depression that interferes with concentration decision making and sociability An extended state of intense wild elation The perspective that suggests that when an individual displays symptoms of abnormal behavior the root cause will be found in a physical examination of the individual which may reveal a hormonal imbalance a chemical de ciency or a brain injury An emotional disturbance that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living A personality disturbance characterized by an exaggerated sense of selfimportance A persistent unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring A disorder characterized by obsessions or compulsions Anxiety disorder that takes the form of panic attacks lasting from a few seconds to as long as several hours A disorder characterized by a set of in exible maladaptive behavior patterns that keep a person from functioning appropriately in society Intense irrational fears of specific objects or situations The perspective that suggests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood con icts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression A class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs sociocultural perspective somatoform disorders behavior modi cation classical conditioning cognitive learning theory conditioned response CR conditioned stimulus CS The perspective that assumes that people s behavioriboth normal and abnormaliis shaped by the kind of family group society and culture in which they live Psychological difficulties that take on a physical somatic form but for which there is no medical cause A formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response An approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning A response that after conditioning follows a previously neutral stimulus e g salivation at the ringing of a bell A onceneutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus continuous reinforcement Reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs schedule extinction xed interval schedule xed ratio schedule learning negative reinforcer neutral stimulus observational learning operant conditioning A basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears A schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed making overall rates of response relatively low A schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience An unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future A stimulus that before conditioning does not naturally bring about the response of interest Learning by observing the behavior of another person or model Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened partial or intermittent reinforcement schedule positive reinforcer punishment reinforcement reinforcer schedules of reinforcement shaping spontaneous recovery stimulus discrimination stimulus generalization unconditioned response UCR unconditioned stimulus UCS variable interval schedule variable ratio schedule aggression altruism assumed similarity bias depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences Reinforcing of a behavior some but not all of the time A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response A stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again The process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again Different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior The process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning The process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not the ability to differentiate between stimuli Occurs when a conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus the more similar the two stimuli are the more likely generalization is to occur A response that is natural and needs no training e g salivation at the smell of food A stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned A schedule by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed A schedule by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than a fixed number The intentional injury of or harm to another person Helping behavior that is beneficial to others but clearly requires self sacrifice The tendency to think of people as being similar to oneself even attitudes attribution theory catharsis central route processing central traits cognitive dissonance companionate love compliance conformity diffusion of responsibility discrimination dispositional causes of behavior fundamental attribution error group groupthink halo effect when meeting them for the first time Evaluations of a particular person behavior belief or concept The theory of personality that seeks to explain how we decide on the basis of samples of an individual s behavior what the speci c causes of that person s behavior are The process of discharging builtup aggressive energy Message interpretation characterized by thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to persuade The major traits considered in forming impressions of others The con ict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts referred to as cognitions The strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved Behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure A change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people The tendency for people to feel that responsibility for acting is shared or diffused among those present Behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group Perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors A tendency to over attribute others behavior to dispositional causes and the corresponding minimization of the importance of situational causes Two or more people who interact with one another perceive themselves as part of a group and are interdependent A type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of View A phenomenon in which an initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other uniformly positive characteristics industrial organizational The branch of psychology focusing on work and jobrelated issues IO psychology interpersonal attraction including worker motivation satisfaction safety and productivity Positive feelings for others liking and loving or close relationship obedience A change in behavior in response to the commands of others passionate or romantic A state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense love peripheral route processing prejudice prosocial behavior reciprocity of liking effect schemas self serving bias situational causes of behavior social cognition social in uence social neuroscience social psychology social supporter status stereotype physiological arousal psychological interest and caring for the needs of another Message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related general information rather than of the message itself A negative or positive evaluation of a particular group and its members Helping behavior Atendency to like those who like us Organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted stored and recalled In social cognition sets of cognitions about people and social experiences The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors skill ability or effort and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself Perceived causes of behavior that are based on environmental factors The cognitive processes by which people understand and make sense of others and themselves The process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others The sub eld of social psychology that seeks to identify the neural basis of social behavior The scientific study of how people s thoughts feelings and actions are affected by others A group member whose dissenting views make nonconformity to the group easier The social rank held within a group A set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a particular group and its members