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Developmental Psychology

by: Norberto Weber

Developmental Psychology PSY 2603

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Psychlogy > PSY 2603 > Developmental Psychology
Norberto Weber
GPA 3.51


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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Norberto Weber on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/229262/psy-2603-university-of-oklahoma in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
Developmental Psych Review 35 multiple choice questions de nitions and key facts t eories experiments covered in class examples applying what you know cookies for being in class 23 TF s 10 fill in the blank 2 words to choose from telldifferene between two related concepts 8 short answer questions give an example ofa specific phenomena or concept explain difference between two related topics How Do I study Go over lecture notes and identify Terms defined Similar concepts Examples Gist and outcome of any experiment Key aspects of theories Anything that was in lecture more than once Developmental Psychology Review Lecture 1 Developmental Psychology I What is developmental psychology 0 O 0000 O 0 Developmental psychology study of who we are and how we change Developmen systematic changes and continuities from conception to death from womb to tomb Growth physical changes that occur from conception to maturity Aging positive negative and neutral changes in the mature organism Biological aging the deterioration of organisms over time leading to death A 39 Trajectory includes gains to stability to losses I developmental changes not always GSL model I sometimes performance decreases with maturity I Apfelbaum and colleagus asked children to play guess who I Counted number of questions it took children to arrive at an answer I Fewer guesses better performance I Not always GAINS I Ex Children lose self esteem as they get older I Old age not always LOSSES I Psychological wellbeing increases after 50 years Types of development I Physical I Body and organs I Physiological systems I Changes in motor abilities I Cognitive I Perception language leaming memory conceptual understanding problem solving I Psychosocial I Personality emotion relationships interpersonal skills I One type can depend on ano I Cognitive and psychosocial social cognition encoding retrieval and processing of information relating to other people Emotion psychosocial and perception cognitive Sensation physical and social appraisal psychosocial Physical and cognitive ex Crawling and walking in infant memory I Physical and cognitive ear infections affect language acquisition I See lifespan chart very important Naturenurture issue question of how biological forces and environmental forces act and interact to make us who we are I nature affects nurture and nurture affects nature Nature I Emphasizes heredity I Influence of biological in uences such as hormones I Development is primarily a process of maturation developmental changes that are biologically programmed by genes I Focus on universal processes I Oxytocin I Increases generosity I Improves ability to mindread I Makes people more trusting I lmplicated in autism and schizophrenia o Nurture I Emphasizes role of the environment Primarily process of leaming based on experience and practice cultural in uences Events and conditions outside of the individual Physical environment air quality nutrition exposure to toxins noise levels Social environment behavior and relationships with other people birth order cultural norms in society family unit Rroffenbrenner s Ecology ofT m I Microsystem immediate environment Mesosysteminterrelationship between microsystems Exosystem environments person does not experience directly I Macrosystem larger culture inwhich all of this is embedded I Chronosystem changes or constancy in person or environment over time Lecture 2 Experimental Design and Developmental Methods The Scienti c Method I A way of approaching a question or questions that prioritizes objectivity and openness to revise one s theories in accordance with the data 0 Steps I Observation theory predictionhypothesis experimenttesting datanew observations accept or reject theory apply to theory 0 o QALMRI METHODway of critiquing experiments and organizing your own thoughts when designing one I Q Question what is the question this research is attempting to addressBroad or specific AAlternatives possible answers to the questionsGood experiments consider at least 2 plausible altematives and address the reasoning behind them LLogic how does the experimental design answer the question and distinguish from alternatives corresponds to predictions in scientific method MMethod identifies the procedures that will be used to implement the logical design RResults what was the outcome of the experiment Includes the statistical analyses used to interpret these results I llnferences what do these results tell us about the alternatives 0 Theog set of concepts and predispositions designed to organize describe and explain a set of observations 0 H nothe i possible 39 I Experimental Design 0 Sample selection Sample group of individuals selected to be studied in an experiment I Populationwelldefined group that a researcher who studies a sample is interested in drawing conclusions about I Random sample 1 identify all members of population of interest for use to predict outcomes ofresearch 2 selecting a portion of them in an unbiased or random way 3 truly random sampling is rare in psychological sciences I Most developmental sample selection done with WEIRD societies making conclusions biased and not generalized I WEIRD Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic 0 Methods of data collection I Verbal reports directly asking someone questions I Self report 0 Weaknesses 1 J 39 J 39 391 bad judge of themselves 0 Some populations not capable of selfreport I Other report asking someone questions about themselves or another person 0 Weaknesses accuracy because ofbias tendencies I I Selfother report strengths Directly tap into issue to study I Highly controlled ask exact questions I Behavioral Observation observing and recording behavior I Naturalistic observation scientist observes participants in common everyday activities in their natural habitat o Ostrav and Keating observed 48 preschoolers for aggression I Structured observation scientists construct special conditions can more to I Ecological validity degree to which one can generalize from a lab study to naturalistic settings I Demand characteristics characteristics that cause a participant to form an interpretation of an experiment s purpose and unconsciously modify their behavior accordingly I Physiological Measures I MI and EEG brain I skin conductance arousal I heart rate I gaze direction and movement I pupil dilation I blood test 0 Kinds of Experimental Design I Case study an indepth examination of an individual or small group of individuals I Data from many sources methods I Useful for rare conditions I famous patient With profound amnesia was a subject of more than one hundred experiments for over 50 years developed his theories of development based in part on in depth case studies of his children I Experimental method method in which an experimenter manipulates or alters the environment or a task and examines the effect of that manipulation I Independent variable variable being manipulated I Dependent variable variable being measured I must include random assignment manipulation and experimental control Correlational Method an experimental technique involving determining whether two variables are relate I participants not quotassignedquot to conditions no manipulation of independent variable as they come correlation is not causation attempt to statistically control for the effect of other potential variables may be only ethical option sometimes I Why study Development 0 I T o O O I Psychology is evegwhere To better serve young and old Elderly population increasing dramatically Relates to health care business etc Intervention Unravels human psychology mysteries Re earch De ign how do you study it Crosssectional designs different age groups are studied at the same time and compared looking for age effects may find cohort effects cohort group of people born at the same time particular generation of people cohort effects in crosssectional research the effects on findings that the different age groups being compared were born at different times and had different formative experiences age effectsin developmental research the effects of getting older or of developing Longitudinal designs one group of subjects is studied repeatedly for years Stanford Marshmellow Test can be expensive for time and money repeat testing may bias effects sample sizes are often small effects may not generalize to later cohorts Seguential designs Testing different cohorts repeatedly over time Crosssectionallongitudina Lecture 3 Theories of Development I 3 goals for developmental theory 0 o o u I Big Questions 0 Describe pattems that characterize development Explain processes that underlie these patterns Predict the way these processes are affected in various circumstances in Developmental Psychology Is human nature essentially good or bad O Tabula rasa idea that the mind of a child is a blank slate and that all knowledge abilities and behaviors and motives are acquired through experience John Locke O Humans have bad and good biologically programmed tendencies Nature vs Nurture The quot over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors Today39s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture O I Nativism holds that a subset of our beliefs preferences and knowledge is innate I Empiricism holds that we are born with mechanisms for learning but knowledge must be acquired through sensory input and experience Stabili vs change I Do we become older versions of ourselves or someone different Activi vs Passivi I Are we active participants in our own development or do we simply react O O I Mechanistic models view development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli I Organistic models view human development as intemally initiated by an active organism I Determinism views events in the world as determined by prior conditions I Free will idea that agents can and will make choices 0 Continuig vs Discontinuim I Are developmental changes gradual or dramatic I Qualitative change a change in kind I Quantitative change a change in degree 0 Universality versus context specific I Are changes in development universal or vary by culture I Psychoanalytic Theog Theories that hold that human development is shaped by unconscious forces and drives that motivate human behavior I Unconscious motivation thoughts feelings and emotions that in uence a person s thinking and behavior even thought they cannot be recalled I Development colored by emotion I Behavior holds symbolic meaning Freud focused largely on con icts in the personality and framed these con icts in terms of psychosexual development I Pleasure seeking human behavior driven by biological urges that must be satis ed I BUT we live in a world with certain parameters I The Self I Id impulsive irrational pleasure seeking I Egg rational component of the personality develops around 1 yr of age negotiates con ict between id and superego I Superego consists of our internalized moral standards develops around 36 years old I Psychosexual development I Con icts occur in five stages as center ofpleasure shifts in body I Development can stop at any stage I Regressionreverting to an earlier stage of development I Repression removing unacceptable thoughts from consciousness I Oedipal and Electra Complex I Freud thought during the phallic stage children are attracted to opposite sex parent I This is overcome or repressed in the latency stage I Psychosocial Theog 0 000000 0 Erikson believed that development involved con icts that must be resolved Resolution occurred in stages Each stage builds on one before and is a response to demands or society or parents Introduced idea of identity crises Emotional and personality development Descriptive not explanatory Erikson I In uences by Freud I Less focus on sexual more on society in uence I Interested in adaptation to environments I Believed development did not end in childhood or adolescence Trust vs Mistrust I 01 year old infants depend on caregivers for everything and needs may or may not be met in a reliable fashion hope Autonomy vs ShameDoubt I 13 years old kids start doing things on their own and asserting their independence will Initiative vs Guilt I 36 years old children are presented with new challenges and responsibilities require purposeful action purpose Industg vs Inferiori I 6 years old 7 puberty kids must master skills or feel incompetent and unworthy skills Identig vs Identity confusion I Adolescence and young adulthood individuals must decide who they want to be and the path they want to take delity o Intimacy vs Isolation I Early adulthood person seeks to make commitments to others Love 0 Generativi vs Isolation I Middle adulthood contribute to next generation or feel unfulfilled care 0 Integrig vs Despair I Late adulthood as you look back either accept it or have despair and regrets wisdom I Learning Theories 0 Focus on observable behavior rather than internal crises or motivations 0 Makes testable predictions 0 Learning change in behavior based on experience I Associative learning process in which a mental link is formed between 2 events 2 kinds classical conditioning a process to which a response is evoked after repeated association with a stimulus that normally elicits the response 0 Pavlov s Dog 0 Watson and Raynor apply to human infants and fear responses 0 Mineka and Cooke Monkeys learned to fear toy crocs and snakes but not toy owers Operant conditioning learning based on an association of a behavior with its consequences Reinforcement increases strength of a behavior Punishment decreases strength of behavior Positive punishmen consequence is an unpleasant event Negative punishmen removal of a pleasant stimulus Positive reinforcement consequence is a pleasant event OOOOO Negative reinforcemen consequence is removal of an unpleasant stimulus I Social Cognitive Theom people observe and imitate models learners must pay attention use mental representations and retrieve them to guide their behavior BEHAVIOR COGNITION ENVIRONMENT Stresses idea of human agency What is does that Associative Learning DOES NOT 0 Vicarious reinforcement the effect of watching someone else get reinforced O Latent leaming learning that occurs but is not evident in behavior o Chunking behavior recombining chunks learned from different sources to create something new Lecture 4 Theories cont Cognitive Theories of Development 0 Piag t I Pioneered child development research I Both naturenurture I Qualitative change I Children active in own learning Cognition process by which knowledge is acquired through perception intuition O O and reasoning Piaget I Constructivism humans actively create their own understanding of the world from experience I not programmed by our biology or environments I between understanding and reality Biological maturation of the brain 0 I Child s brain not same as adults Piaget focuses on conflicts between child s understanding and reality in their environment I Learning happens because I 1 Children intrinsically motivated to learn I 2 lnbom ability to adapt to our environments I We organize our experience and adapt to our environments Schemes mental categories we create patterns of thoughts and behavior in certain situations Organize and adapt has 3 steps I Assimilation trying to fit new information into existing cognitive structures Accommodation adjusting cognitive structures to fit new information Eguilibration tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements 0 Piaget s Stages ofDevelopment I We take in the world in different ways at different times Diseguilibrium distinct developmental stages occur here when stable balance is not being sought for Sensorimotor Stage I Birth to 2 years I Coordinate sensory experience with motor actions Start with re exes goes through intentional action and ability to combine actions in new ways to produce both familiar and new outcomes I Object permanence the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view I Preoperational Stage I 27 years I representations to understand world I symbolic representation use of one object to stand for another I increase in role playing and pretend play I challenges conservation idea that altering object s surface properties does change basic properties egocentrism inability to view world from other s perspective I Concrete Stage I 71 1 years I use logicreasoning in problem solving I eliminate egocentricity I classify objects into coherent categories I understand one event in uenced by many things I difficulty with hypothetical and systematic thinking I Formal Operational Stage I Extends into adulthood I Perform think abstractly deductive reasoning o Vygotsg I Sociocultural Theom I People learn through social interaction I Emphasis on constructs language tools I 3 types of learning imitative instructed selfregulated I zone of proximal development difference between what child can do alone and what they can do with help scaffolding temporary support to help child master a task 0 Information processing I Must observe and analyze mental processes involved in perceivinghandling info 0 Systems Theories of Development I Developing organism is part of a larger system I Change over life is relationship between person and environment 0 Ecological I Individual inseparable from social context I Beyond social constructs and learning I Broffenbrenner Ecology of development I microsystem immediate environment I mesosystem interrelationship between microsystems I exosystem environments person doesn t experience directly I macrosystem larger culture in which all this is embedded I chronosystem changes or constancy in person or environment over time I Sociobiological theories I Evolutionarybiological bases of behavior I Evolved mechanisms behaviors that develop to solve problems in adapting to an earlier environment Natural selection certain traits become more or less common in population based on biological past I E39 of 39 4 4 EEA quot 39 of physical and social condition in which a trait was naturally selected 0 Ethology evolution biology I Ethology study of distinctive adaptive behaviors of animal species Bowlby adapted ethology to think about human behavior I Evolutionag psychology apply Darwinism to human behavior I Altruism taking a cost to yourself to give a benefit to someone else 0 Example theories debated today 0 Core Knowledge I 4 systems objects actions number and space possible 5 social partners I objects spacio temporal understanding of objects cohesion continuity context 0 Human Pedagogy I Triadic communication infants seek out and adults provide newrelevant information about the world I Generalizable fast learned Lecture 5 Gene Environment Interactions 0 nature at level of the gene 0 species heredi py genetic endowment that members of a species have in common 0 Natural Selection Darwin 0 Genetic variation in populations 0 Some genes were adaptive than others 0 Genes heritable Adaptive genes passed on more than nonadaptive O o Kettlewell s Moth experiment Genes and Environment pressure of other species also evolving 0 Red Queen Hypothesis evolutionary arms race across species Species heredi genetic endowment of a species have in common 0 Includes genes of maturation and aging process 0 Humans 0 Have an extended childhood that allows for large brains to develop and leam the complexities of human society 0 Tend to live past reproductive prime 0 Baltes said selection typically happens in lSt half of life Genetic Material 0 O O O O Mchemical that carries inherited instructions for the development of all cellular life forms Chromosome coils ofDNA consisting ofgenes I Humans have 23 pairs 46 chromosomes Genes small segments of DNA located in de nite positions on particular chromosomes I Human Genome Project I 13 years 2000025000 genes and 3 billion chemical base pairs I 99 of base chemicals identical in humans 0 01 is significant I Genetic Variation I Sexual reproduction is source of genetic variation I Gametes sex cells have 23 chromosomes I Meiosis pair of parental chromosomes seperates Conception I Fertilization process by which sperm and ovum combine into single cell zygote I 12 genetic material from mother 12 from father mitosis cell divides to produce two identical cells containing 46 chromosomes I Chromosomes I 2 types autostomes 22 pairs og chromosomes not related to sexual expression I sex chromosomes pair of chromosomes that determines sex 0 Females XX 0 m XY 0 Father determines sex of child TwinsMultiple Births I Monoggotic identical one fertilized egg divides to form two or more genetically identical individuals 1125 births I ygotic fratemal two ova fertilized by 2 sperm I no more genetically related than other siblings I 1125 births I runs in families ofinheritance Gene 39 1 I Allele 2 or more alternative forms ofgenes that occupy some position on paired chromosomes and affect same trait I Homoggous possessing 2 identical alleles for a trait I Heteroygouspossessing 2 different alleles for a trait I Geno pegenetic makeup of a person expressedunexpressed characteristics I Phenogpeobservable characteristics of a person Geno pe cannot egual Phenotype I Single genotype may lead to more than one phenotype Person predisposed to body type Gene expression activation of particular genes in particular cells of body at particular times I Tumed onoff by regulatory DNA environment Epigenisis mechanisms that tum genes on or off and determine functions of body cells I From zygote and one 0 Gene expression in Identical Twins Fraga and colleagues conducted DNA and RNA analysis of twins id I Similarity in GE was dependent on age I For young children GE nearly identical 0 Mechanisms of Inheritance o Mutation and C 3 kinds single genepair inheritance trait is in uenced by one pair of genes dominant gene expressed over weaker recessive gene incomplete dominance partial a dominant gene completely dominates a recessive gene yielding a blended trait simple dominance some diseases or disorders result of dominant genes I huntingtons dwarfism sexlinked inheritance inheritance of characteristics in uenced by single genes located on sex chromosomes I males are likely to get x linked conditions that are normally recessive polygenetic inheritance inheritance of traits in uenced by many pairs of genes rather than single pair I most human traits Abnormalitie Mutation change in structure of arrangement of one or more genes that produces a new phenotype I Can be from environmental hazards I Beneficial or detrimental Gene that affects receptor required by some strands of HIV Mutation32 base pair deletion in gene 0 Ifhomozygous for mutation resistance to HIV 0 Heterozygous delayed onset of A1135 Sickle Cell I Affects shape of red blood cells I One recessive sickle cell protects from Malaria I Became prevalent in tropical areas Chromosomal Abnormatlities I Child receives too many or too few chromosomes at conception I Down syndrome instead of2 21St chromosomes child gets 3 I Errors in Meiosis I Increased likelihood of errors with age 0 Ovasperm degrade 0 Exposed to hazards or toxins 0 Older females less likely to miscarry I Sex Chromosomal Abnormatlities I Individual must have at least one X chromosome to be viable I XO Females missing X chromosome have Turner syndrome I XXY Males with extra X chromosome have Klinefelter s syndrome I Fragile X syndrome cognitive impairment X seems like it could break I Genetic DiagnosisCounseling I Provide info on nature likelihood effects and treatment of genetically based diseases and disorders Lecture 6 GenesI Environment and Experimental Design 0 Behavioral genetics scientific study of extent to which genetic and environmental difference are responsible for individual differences 0 Heritabili proportion of all variability in a trait within a large sample ofpeople that can be linked to genetic differences among those individuals 0 Experimental Breeding 0 Selective Breeding attempting to breed animals for a certain trait for the purpose of determining whether or not that trait is heritable I Experiments have indicated that activity level emotionality aggressiveness and sex drive in rats are heritable I Can show if traits cluster with or come along for free with trait of interest I Can only be done with animals 0 Broad and specific questions of breeding o Tgon 1940 I Divided mice into categories based on performance I Bred mice within categories I Performace gap between two groups increased with subsequent generations 0 Russian Fox Experiments I Foxes tested for a reaction to an experimenter I 20 in terms of sociability to humans were bred in each generation I resulted in future generations being friendly to humans 0 Twin adoption and Family Studies 0 Coefficient of Relatedness comparing individuals with different degrees of relatedness we can examine the effects of heredity on any given trait 0 Twin studies examine whether identical twins are more similar on a given trait than samesex fraternal twins I Can examine comparison of identical and fraternal twins raised together vsraised apart I Concordance the ofpairs of people studies in which if one member of the pair demonstrates a trait the other does the same 0 Bailey et al 1995 I Looked at whether monozygotic twins were more likely to be concordant for autism than dizygotic twins I 60 concordance rate among monozygotic twins I 0 concordance rate among dizygotic twins 0 shared environment in uences experiences that are common across siblings such as parenting style attendance at the same time schools culture and so on o nonshared environmental in uences experiences that are not shared by other individuals in the home environment 0 Adoption Studies studies which compare adopted children to their adoptive parents and biological parents I Resemblance to biological is taken as in uence ofgenes I Criticism Prenatal environment may be a factor I Agenices place kids in homes similar to biological homes I Generally above average environments 0 Family Studies complex studies that measure both environmental similarity and different degrees of relatedness within a family unit and examine their effect on traits 0 Molecular Genetics analysis of particular genes and their effects 0 Compare those with certain alleles and without them 0 Most traits determined by polygenetic inheritance 0 One gene s contribution is usually 1 0 Genes of Autism I Genes involved in hormone oxytocin I Genes with rigid behaviors I Genes with GABA neurotransmitter I Genes with neural growth and migration 0 Many different genotypes may lead to a single phenotype 0 Genes may predispose a individual toward a condition 0 Alzheimer s I Twin studies suggest heritability I Many genes involved 0 Heritabili of Various Traits o More related two people are more related their IQ is I This demonstrates effect of shared environment 0 Genetic in uence over intellectual abilities becomes more apparent with age 0 Environment can help or hinder reaching genetic potential 0 For any trait 0 Reactions range potential variability depending on environmental conditions in the expression of a hereditary trait I Canalization refers to extremely narrow range o Personali temperaments characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to others I Building blocks of personality 0 Longevi hereditary basis for susceptibility to diseases I Genes count for 13 of variation in longevity across individuals 0 Psychological disorders some may exist along a spectrum 0 Tnte 39 39 of Genes and o Geneenvironment interactions a process wherein the effects of genes depend on kind of environment we experience and how we respond to that environment depends on our genes 0 our genes and environment may be systematically related in three ways I passive correlation occurs because the majority of children are raised by one or more of their biological parents I evocative gene environment correlations occur when a child s genotype evokes reactions in other people which may lead to development I active correlation occurs when an individual s genotype in uences the environments they actively seek out for themselves Lecture 7 Prenatal Development 0 fastest most important and monumental developments of human lifespan o can have longlasting effects on personality intelligence and health 0 stages of prenatal development 0 Germinal period first two weeks after conception 250 cells 0 Embgonic period three to eight weeks I Crucial time characterized by cell growth and differentiation I Cell differentiation exterior layer of blastocyst forms structures that will sustain development I Interior gives way to structures that become baby I Ectoderm central nervous system and spinal cord I MesodermMuscle tissue cartilage bone heart kidneys gonads I Endoderm gastrointestinal tract lungs and bladder I Organogenesis development ofmajor organs I Neural tube closes in typical development 0 Spina bif1da occurs when bottom of tube fails to close 0 Anencephaly a letal condition that can occur when top of tube fails to close I Testes develop if Y chromosome 0 Fetal period week nine to birth I Neuronal growth and neuronal migration I Continui pv this stagecharacterized by continuity with postnatal behavior I an active fetus more likely to be active baby 0 prenatal environment teratogens o anything that does affect the baby 0 prenatal events have lifelong effects o teratogen any disease drug or environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus I 5 of newborns affected by teratogens I 4 factors why some affected some not I Drugs prenatal development exposure dosage and duration of exposure genetic makeup prenatal and postnatal environment 50 of women take medicine during pregnancy Thalidomide 0 drug prescribed to treat morning sickness resulted in organs and limbs missing in baby because it was done in first trimaster Tobacco 0 Smoking restricts blood ow oxygen nutrients growth to fetus Alcohol 0 When alcohol crosses placenta disrupts process of neural migration 0 FAS Fetal Alcohol syndrome many birth defects Disease as a Teratogen o Prenatal exposure to certain us may be a risk factor of schizophrenia o Rubella german measles associated with blindness deafness heart defects mental retardation Diabetes 0 Gestational diabetes common complication of pregnancy HIV and A1135 0 3 ways to pass from mother to child I virus passes through placenta I blood is exchanged during birth I via breastfeeding Radition 0 Within half a mile of Hiroshima not a single live birth among women at time of bombing o 75 stillbirth of death within 15 miles Pollutants 0 911 caused infants who were both lighter and shorter than those who lived far away Chemicals 0 Prenatal exposure to lead associated with smaller birth weight preterm impaired intelligence 0 Exposure to mercury delayed development and memory attention and language problems 0 Motherls State I Teenagers and older women at greater risk than women in midlife I Infertilig couple may have trouble conceiving for a variety of reasons I Emotional condition maternal depression and maternal stress can have physical effect on mother s body I Chemical physiological and behavioral I Maternal stress I Chronic ongoing stressors more likely to effect fetus I Acute individual tramatic events I Cortisol stress hormone that when high has negative effects I Maternal depression I Affects neurotransmitter levels I Can affect infant temperament and motor responses 0 Prenatal environment I Environment surrounding a child s birth I Birth Stages I Contractions delivery once cervix is dilated to ten centimeters delivery of the placenta I Risks Anoxia oxygen shortage commone with breech birth can lead to poor re exes and more I Csection surgical procedure n which incisions are made through woman s abdomen and uterus I 13 ofbirths in US I Postpartum depression depression that lasts months after birth I amplS of women experience it I can affect attachment


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